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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 16, Issue 10 (May-2 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Global Health Perspectives on Cigarette Butts and the Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101858 (registering DOI)
Received: 4 May 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 May 2019 / Published: 26 May 2019
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Abstract
Cigarette butts, whuch are also known as tobacco product waste (TPW), are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This study used an online survey tool (Qualtrics) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding this issue among individuals representing the [...] Read more.
Cigarette butts, whuch are also known as tobacco product waste (TPW), are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This study used an online survey tool (Qualtrics) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding this issue among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA). The FCA has about 680 members on its listserv, including non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support the implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Respondents (n = 65) represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (82%) had heard the term TPW, and they all considered TPW as an environmental harm at some level. Additionally, 29% of respondents failed to identify that “cigarette filters make smoking easier”. Most (73%) correctly identified TPW components; however, fewer (60%) correctly identified the composition of cigarette butts. The majority (57%) were unfamiliar with Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Product Stewardship (PS) as possible environmental intervention strategies. Respondents expressing opinions concurred that adding a litter fee to fund TPW programs will aid in reducing tobacco use and reduce the environmental impacts of TPW (100%); that prevention, reduction, and mitigation of TPW could be an important part of international tobacco control programs (98%); and, that banning smoking in outdoor venues could reduce TPW (95%). Only 16% reported effective prevention or clean-up efforts in their countries. Weighted rankings revealed that respondents’ saw the national government, the tobacco industry, and state governments as the most important in addressing TPW. The results of this research will inform continuing international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Metamodeling Framework for Quantifying Health Damages of Power Grid Expansion Plans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101857 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 26 May 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we present an analytical framework to establish a closed-form relationship between electricity generation expansion planning decisions and the resulting negative health externalities. Typical electricity generation expansion planning models determine the optimal technology–capacity–investment strategy that minimizes total investment costs as well [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present an analytical framework to establish a closed-form relationship between electricity generation expansion planning decisions and the resulting negative health externalities. Typical electricity generation expansion planning models determine the optimal technology–capacity–investment strategy that minimizes total investment costs as well as fixed and variable operation and maintenance costs. However, the relationship between these long-term planning decisions and the associated health externalities is highly stochastic and nonlinear, and it is computationally expensive to evaluate. Thus, we developed a closed-form metamodel by executing computer-based experiments of a generation expansion planning model, and we analyzed the resulting model outputs in a United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) screening tool that approximates the associated human health externalities. Procedural guidance to verify the accuracy and to select key metamodel parameters to enhance its prediction capability is presented. Specifically, the metamodel presented in this paper can predict the resulting health damages of long-term power grid expansion decisions, thus, enabling researchers and policy makers to quickly assess the health implications of power grid expansion decisions with a high degree of certainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Health Predictions)
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Open AccessArticle
The Implication of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change for the Declining Soil Erosion Risk in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101856 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 26 May 2019
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Abstract
The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) in China is an ecologically and politically important region experiencing rapid land use/cover changes and prone to many environment hazards related to soil erosion. In the present study, we: (1) estimated recent changes in the risk pattern [...] Read more.
The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) in China is an ecologically and politically important region experiencing rapid land use/cover changes and prone to many environment hazards related to soil erosion. In the present study, we: (1) estimated recent changes in the risk pattern of soil erosion in the TGRR, (2) analysed how the changes in soil erosion risks could be associated with land use and land cover change, and (3) examined whether the interactions between urbanisation and natural resource management practices may exert impacts on the risks. Our results indicated a declining trend of soil erosion risk from 14.7 × 106 t in 2000 to 1.10 × 106 t in 2015, with the most risky areas being in the central and north TGRR. Increase in the water surface of the Yangtze River (by 61.8%, as a consequence of water level rise following the construction of the Three Gorges Dam), was found to be negatively associated with soil erosion risk. Afforestation (with measured increase in forest extent by 690 km2 and improvement of NDVI by 8.2%) in the TGRR was associated with positive soil erosion risk mitigation. An interaction between urbanisation (urban extant increased by 300 km2) and vegetation diversification (decreased by 0.01) was identified, through which the effect of vegetation diversification on soil erosion risk was negative in areas having lower urbanisation rates only. Our results highlight the importance of prioritising cross-sectoral policies on soil conservation to balance the trade-offs between urbanisation and natural resource management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mental Health among Left-Behind Children in Rural China in Relation to Parent-Child Communication
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101855 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 18 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 26 May 2019
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Abstract
In China, there are an estimated 41 million left-behind children (LBC). The objective of this study was to examine the mental health of current-left-behind children (current-LBC) and previous-left-behind children (previous-LBC) as compared to never-left-behind children (never-LBC), while considering factors like parent-child communication. Children [...] Read more.
In China, there are an estimated 41 million left-behind children (LBC). The objective of this study was to examine the mental health of current-left-behind children (current-LBC) and previous-left-behind children (previous-LBC) as compared to never-left-behind children (never-LBC), while considering factors like parent-child communication. Children were recruited from schools in rural areas of Anhui province in eastern China. Participants completed a questionnaire focusing on migration status, mental health, and parent-child communication, measured with the validated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Parent–Adolescent Communication Scale (PACS). Full data were available for 1251 current-, 473 previous-, and 268 never-LBC in Anhui province. After adjusting for all confounding variables, the results showed that both current and previous parental migration was associated with significantly higher mental health difficulties, including aspects of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and total difficulties. Additionally, we found that difficulties communicating with parents were strongly associated with the presence of greater total difficulties in children. Parental migration has an independent, long-lasting negative effect on children. Poor parent-child communication is strongly associated with children’s mental health. These results indicate that parent–child communication is important for the development of children, and interventions are needed to improve migrant parents’ understanding and communication skills with their children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School Health and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Has China’s Pilot Emissions Trading Scheme Influenced the Carbon Intensity of Output?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101854 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
China launched the pilot construction of the carbon emission trading scheme (ETS) in 2011. The pilots have been running for many years. Does ETS significantly restrain the increase of carbon emission intensity? Based on China’s panel data for provinces and industries, this paper [...] Read more.
China launched the pilot construction of the carbon emission trading scheme (ETS) in 2011. The pilots have been running for many years. Does ETS significantly restrain the increase of carbon emission intensity? Based on China’s panel data for provinces and industries, this paper uses the policy assessment method to evaluate the inhibition by ETS of carbon emission intensity. The assessment scope includes six provincial pilots and pilot industries covered by ETS. The results show that ETS has significant suppression of carbon emission intensity only in Beijing and Guangdong. There is no significant impact on the carbon emission intensity of Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing, and Hubei. Through the carbon emission intensity inhibition analysis of the industries covered by ETS from Beijing and Chongqing, the results of the production and supply of electric power, steam and hot water, petroleum processing and coking in Beijing have a significant impact on the ETS. Only the smelting and pressing of ferrous metals in Chongqing has a significant impact on the ETS. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Association between Breakfast Frequency and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Cross-Sectional Study of KNHANES Data, 2014–2016
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101853 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing worldwide and one related lifestyle choice is breakfast consumption. This study examined the association between breakfast frequency and the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). The 10-year risk of ASCVD was defined as the risk [...] Read more.
The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing worldwide and one related lifestyle choice is breakfast consumption. This study examined the association between breakfast frequency and the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). The 10-year risk of ASCVD was defined as the risk of the first event of nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, and nonfatal or fatal stroke within 10 years. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2014–2016 were analyzed, and 7212 participants aged 40–79 years with no history of CVD were included. ASCVD risk was calculated according to the pooled cohort ASCVD equation, and participants with a score >7.5% were considered at high risk of ASCVD. The association between breakfast frequency and high ASCVD risk was confirmed by logistic regression analysis. Participants who never ate breakfast were more likely to be in the high-risk group compared to participants who ate breakfast >5 times per week (OR (adjusted odds ratio) = 1.46; 95% CI (confidence interval) = 1.12–1.89), and the risk was especially higher in female participants and those with a family history of CVD. Our study confirms that breakfast consumption even once per week may prevent CVD. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Malaria and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Gold Mining in the Amazon Region, Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101852 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
People living in mining regions are exposed to numerous biological agents by several specific types of transmission mechanisms. This study is designed to describe fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases confirmed by serology and molecular analysis, where a seroprevalence survey was conducted in [...] Read more.
People living in mining regions are exposed to numerous biological agents by several specific types of transmission mechanisms. This study is designed to describe fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases confirmed by serology and molecular analysis, where a seroprevalence survey was conducted in the gold mining regions of the state of Mato Grosso, in the official Amazon region, Brazil. Two fatal cases of HPS were confirmed in a mining area in the Legal Amazon, where malaria is one of the most important public health problems. A molecular analysis detected the presence of the genome of the Castelo dos Sonhos virus. Out of the 112 blood samples analyzed, five were positive for Plasmodium infection (four P. falciparum and one P. vivax), and four were seropositive for hantavirus, showing a seroprevalence of 3.57%. One of the four miners who was seroreactive for hantavirus concomitantly had P. falciparum infection, which was confirmed by thick blood smear. This manuscript highlights the importance of considering hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a diagnostic possibility in febrile infection associated with pulmonary manifestations in mining areas where malaria cases are often identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessCommunication
Global Analysis of Transcriptional Expression in Mice Exposed to Intermediate Frequency Magnetic Fields Utilized for Wireless Power Transfer Systems
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101851 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (IF-MFs) at around 85 kHz are a component of wireless power transfer systems used for charging electrical vehicles. However, limited data exist on the potential health effects of IF-MFs. We performed a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional expression in [...] Read more.
Background: Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (IF-MFs) at around 85 kHz are a component of wireless power transfer systems used for charging electrical vehicles. However, limited data exist on the potential health effects of IF-MFs. We performed a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional expression in mice after IF-MF exposure. Materials and Methods: We developed an IF-MF exposure system to generate a high magnetic flux density (25.3 mT). The system can expose the IF-MF for a mouse whole-body without considering thermal effects. After 10 days (1 h/day) of exposure, a comprehensive expression analysis was performed using microarray data from both the brain and liver. Results: No significant differences in transcriptional expression were detected in the 35,240 probe-sets when controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) under a fold change cutoff >1.5. However, several differential expressions were detected without FDR-adjustment, but these were not confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study to evaluate the biological effects of IF-MF exposure with an intense magnetic flux density 253 times higher than the occupational restriction level defined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines. However, our findings indicate that transcriptional responses in the living body are not affected under these conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Ballistic Exercise as Pre-Activation for 100 m Sprints
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101850 (registering DOI)
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
The benefits of warm-up in sports performance has received a special interest in the current literature. However, there is a large gap of knowledge about the tasks to be performed, specifically in the real competitive environment. The purpose of the study was to [...] Read more.
The benefits of warm-up in sports performance has received a special interest in the current literature. However, there is a large gap of knowledge about the tasks to be performed, specifically in the real competitive environment. The purpose of the study was to verify the acute effects of a warm-up including ballistic exercises in 100 m running performance. In addition, a second 100 m trial was assessed to better understand the warm-up effects in training and competition. Eleven men (25.4 ± 6.2 years of age, 1.76 ± 0.08 m of height, 78.2 ± 8.6 kg of body mass) were submitted to three different protocols, in a randomized order: no warm-up (NWU), typical warm-up (WU) and WU complemented with ballistic exercises (PAP). Biomechanical, physiological and psychophysiological variables were assessed. Differences were found between the three conditions assessed in the first 100 m sprint with 7.4% and 7.6% faster performances after the WU and PAP, compared to NWU. Stride length was higher in the second part of the 100 m after PAP compared with WU. These results highlight the positive effects of warm-up for sprinting performance. The inclusion of ballistic exercises, besides being used to improve sprint performance, can increase stride length in the final of the 100 m race. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Exercise and Sports Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Vegetation Response to Groundwater Variation in Arid Environments: Visualization of Research Evolution, Synthesis of Response Types, and Estimation of Groundwater Threshold
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101849 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 18 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Groundwater depth is an important environmental factor affecting vegetation growth and landscape dynamics in arid environments. This study applied a science mapping approach to visualize the development of groundwater-vegetation-related research, synthesized the vegetation response to changes in groundwater depth, and analyzed the change [...] Read more.
Groundwater depth is an important environmental factor affecting vegetation growth and landscape dynamics in arid environments. This study applied a science mapping approach to visualize the development of groundwater-vegetation-related research, synthesized the vegetation response to changes in groundwater depth, and analyzed the change rate of the response curve to identify the groundwater threshold that is essential to conserve the groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystems. These ecosystems emerged as a research hotspot due to climate change, groundwater overexploitation, and the recognition of these ecosystems’ importance for sustainable development. There are two main types of response functions of vegetation to changes in groundwater depth—monotone and bell-shaped functions—among which the monotone function includes linear, curvilinear, and stepwise response. The shape of a response curve is mainly determined by the combined effects of oxygen stress, salinization, and water stress; oxygen stress and salinization dominate in shallow groundwater depth, while water stress dominates in deep groundwater depth. On a non-linear vegetation metric—groundwater depth response curve, the change rate analysis method is effective to identify the breakpoint that can be taken as a candidate threshold of groundwater depth. The results will add insight into the intellectual structure of the groundwater-vegetation interactions and provide practical reference for groundwater resource management, ecological conservation, and sustainable development in arid environments. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Analysis of the Financing of Russian Health Care over the Past 100 Years
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101848 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
The evolution of epidemiological burden in Imperial Russia and, consecutively, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), took place mostly over the duration of the past century [...] Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Qualitative Job Insecurity and Informal Learning: A Longitudinal Test of Occupational Self-Efficacy and Psychological Contract Breach as Mediators
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101847 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Current work life has become increasingly turbulent, which has sparked employees’ concern about the loss of valued job features, coined as qualitative job insecurity. No prior research has investigated the relationship between this type of job insecurity and informal learning. However, informal learning [...] Read more.
Current work life has become increasingly turbulent, which has sparked employees’ concern about the loss of valued job features, coined as qualitative job insecurity. No prior research has investigated the relationship between this type of job insecurity and informal learning. However, informal learning might be particularly relevant for qualitatively job-insecure employees, as it might aid them to deal with the incessant changes in their work environment. This study examined whether qualitative job insecurity is associated with lower levels of three types of informal learning activities: information-seeking, feedback-seeking, and help-seeking behavior, and whether these relationships are mediated by a decline in occupational self-efficacy and an increase in psychological contract breach. We employed a three-wave panel design to survey 1433 Belgian employees. Results, by means of cross-lagged structural equation modelling, demonstrated that occupational self-efficacy mediates the relationship between qualitative job insecurity and information-seeking, feedback-seeking from colleagues, and feedback-seeking from one’s supervisor, while psychological contract breach only mediated the relationship between qualitative job insecurity and feedback-seeking from one’s supervisor. Both mediators were not significantly related to help-seeking behavior. This study demonstrates that qualitatively job-insecure employees are less likely to engage in informal learning via a decrease in occupational self-efficacy and an increase in psychological contract breach, thereby becoming even more vulnerable in an increasingly volatile work environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Job Insecurity on Non-Traditional Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Associations of Street Network Design, Streetscape Attributes and Land-Use Characteristics on Pedestrian Flows in Peripheral Neighbourhoods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101846 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Research has sufficiently documented the built environment correlates of walking. However, evidence is limited in investigating the comparative associations of micro- (streetscape features) and macro-level (street network design and land-use) environmental measures with pedestrian movement. This study explores the relative association of street-level [...] Read more.
Research has sufficiently documented the built environment correlates of walking. However, evidence is limited in investigating the comparative associations of micro- (streetscape features) and macro-level (street network design and land-use) environmental measures with pedestrian movement. This study explores the relative association of street-level design-local qualities of street environment-, street network configuration –spatial structure of the urban grid- and land-use patterns with the distribution of pedestrian flows in peripheral neighbourhoods. Street design attributes and ground-floor land-uses are obtained through field surveys while street network configuration is evaluated through space syntax measures. The statistical models indicate that the overall spatial configuration of street network proves to be a stronger correlate of walking than local street-level attributes while only average sidewalk width appears to be a significant correlate of walking among the streetscape measures. However, the most significant and consistent correlate of the distribution of flows is the number of recreational uses at the segment-level. This study contributes to the literature by offering insights into the comparative roles of urban design qualities of the street environment and street network layout on pedestrian movement. The findings also offer evidence-based strategies to inform specific urban design and urban master planning decisions (i.e., the provision of more generous sidewalks on streets with relatively higher directional accessibility) in creating lively, walkable environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Audio-Visual Interactions on Psychological Responses of Young People in Urban Green Areas: A Case Study in Two Parks in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101845 (registering DOI)
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Audio-visual interactions in green spaces are important for mental health and wellbeing. However, the influence of audio-visual interactions on psychological responses is still less clear. This study introduced a new method, namely the audio-visual walk (AV-walk), to obtain data on the audio-visual context, [...] Read more.
Audio-visual interactions in green spaces are important for mental health and wellbeing. However, the influence of audio-visual interactions on psychological responses is still less clear. This study introduced a new method, namely the audio-visual walk (AV-walk), to obtain data on the audio-visual context, audio-visual experiences, and psychological responses in two typical parks, namely Cloves Park and Music Park in Harbin, China. Some interesting results are as follows: First, based on Pearson’s correlation analysis, sound pressure level and roughness were significantly correlated with psychological responses in Cloves Park (p < 0.05). Second, the results of stepwise regression models showed the impact intensity of acoustic comfort was 1.64–1.68 times higher than that of visual comfort on psychological responses of emotion dimension, while visual comfort was 1.35–1.37 times higher than acoustic comfort on psychological responses of cognition dimension in Music Park. In addition, an orthogonal analysis diagram explained the influence of audio-visual interactions on psychological responses of young people. The audio-visual context located beside the waterscape with a relatively higher level of acoustic and visual comfort was the most cheerful (2.60), relaxed (2.45), and energetic (2.05), while the audio-visual context close to an urban built environment tended to be both acoustically and visually uncomfortable, and the psychological state was decreased to the most depressed (−0.25), anxious (−0.75), fatigued (−1.13) and distracted (−1.13). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Different Predictor Variables for Women and Men in Ultra-Marathon Running—The Wellington Urban Ultramarathon 2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101844 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Ultra-marathon races are increasing in popularity. Women are now 20% of all finishers, and this number is growing. Predictors of performance have been examined rarely for women in ultra-marathon running. This study aimed to examine the predictors of performance for women and men [...] Read more.
Ultra-marathon races are increasing in popularity. Women are now 20% of all finishers, and this number is growing. Predictors of performance have been examined rarely for women in ultra-marathon running. This study aimed to examine the predictors of performance for women and men in the 62 km Wellington Urban Ultramarathon 2018 (WUU2K) and create an equation to predict ultra-marathon race time. For women, volume of running during training per week (km) and personal best time (PBT) in 5 km, 10 km, and half-marathon (min) were all associated with race time. For men, age, body mass index (BMI), years running, running speed during training (min/km), marathon PBT, and 5 km PBT (min) were all associated with race time. For men, ultra-marathon race time might be predicted by the following equation: (r² = 0.44, adjusted r² = 0.35, SE = 78.15, degrees of freedom (df) = 18) ultra-marathon race time (min) = −30.85 ± 0.2352 × marathon PBT + 25.37 × 5 km PBT + 17.20 × running speed of training (min/km). For women, ultra-marathon race time might be predicted by the following equation: (r² = 0.83, adjusted r2 = 0.75, SE = 42.53, df = 6) ultra-marathon race time (min) = −148.83 + 3.824 × (half-marathon PBT) + 9.76 × (10 km PBT) − 6.899 × (5 km PBT). This study should help women in their preparation for performance in ultra-marathon and adds to the bulk of knowledge for ultra-marathon preparation available to men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Exercise and Sports Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Heavy Metals in Suspended Particulate Matter of the Zhujiang River, Southwest China: Contents, Sources, and Health Risks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101843 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
To investigate the abundance, water/particle interaction behavior, sources, and potential risk of heavy metals in suspended particulate matter (SPM), a total of 22 SPM samples were collected from the Zhujiang River, Southwest China, in July 2014 (wet season). Nine heavy metal(loid)s (V, Cr, [...] Read more.
To investigate the abundance, water/particle interaction behavior, sources, and potential risk of heavy metals in suspended particulate matter (SPM), a total of 22 SPM samples were collected from the Zhujiang River, Southwest China, in July 2014 (wet season). Nine heavy metal(loid)s (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) in SPM were detected. The results show that the selected heavy metal(loid)s in SPM appear in the following order: Mn (982.4 mg kg−1) > Zn (186.8 mg kg−1) > V (143.6 mg kg−1) > Cr (129.1 mg kg−1) > As (116.8 mg kg−1) > Cu (44.1 mg kg−1) > Ni (39.9 mg kg−1) > Pb (38.1 mg kg−1) > Cd (3.8 mg kg−1). Furthermore, both the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) indicate that SPM is extremely enriched in metal(loid)s of Cd and As, while SPM is slightly enriched, or not enriched, in other heavy metals. According to the toxic risk index (TRI) and hazard index (HI), arsenic accounts for the majority of the SPM toxicity (TRI = 8, 48.3 ± 10.4%) and causes the primary health risk (HI > 1), and the potential risks of V and Cr are also not negligible. By applying a correlation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA), three principal components (PC) were identified and accounted for 79.19% of the total variance. PC 1 (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Pb) is controlled by natural origins. PC 2 (As and Cd) is mainly contributed by anthropogenic origins in the basin. PC 3 (Zn) can be attributed to mixed sources of natural and anthropogenic origins. Moreover, all the partition coefficients (lgKd) exceeded 2.9 (arithmetical mean value order: Mn > Pb > Cd > V ≈ Cu > Cr ≈ Ni), indicating the powerful adsorptive ability of SPM for these heavy metal(loid)s during water/particle interaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Feeling Weary? Feeling Insecure? Are All Workplace Changes Bad News?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101842
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Prior research indicates that workplace changes can have both positive and negative consequences for employees. To explore the mechanisms that trigger these different outcomes, we propose and test a mediation model, which builds on the premises of the challenge–hindrance model of work stress. [...] Read more.
Prior research indicates that workplace changes can have both positive and negative consequences for employees. To explore the mechanisms that trigger these different outcomes, we propose and test a mediation model, which builds on the premises of the challenge–hindrance model of work stress. Specifically, we suggest that whereas workplace changes can engender positive outcomes (e.g., learning outcomes) through an increase in learning demands, they can also enhance negative outcomes (e.g., emotional exhaustion) through increased perceptions of qualitative job insecurity. While we made these specific assumptions, we also analyzed the reversed causation relationships. Two-wave data obtained from 1366 Dutch employees were used to test the study hypotheses. The results showed that the reciprocal causation model had the best fit for the data. However, whereas emotional exhaustion was only mediated by qualitative job insecurity, no mediation was found by learning demands. In addition to the hypothesized effects, several reversed causation effects emerged from the analyses, indicating that the relationships between workplace changes and employee learning and strain are not unidirectional. This underscores the need for a broader view on the causes and effects of workplace changes, as the traditional causation relationships (i.e., perceptions of workplace changes impacting employee learning and strain experiences) are insufficient to explain the complex dynamics between the studied phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Job Insecurity on Non-Traditional Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Locus of Control, Agents of Socialization and Sport Socialization Situations on the Sports Participation of Women in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101841
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Compared to men, the sports participation of women is lower, especially in the East. Not many studies have compared the impacts of locus of control, agents of socialization, and sport socialization situations on the sports participation of women. Hence, the purpose of this [...] Read more.
Compared to men, the sports participation of women is lower, especially in the East. Not many studies have compared the impacts of locus of control, agents of socialization, and sport socialization situations on the sports participation of women. Hence, the purpose of this study is to explore the contributing factors which may promote the sports participation of women in Taiwan. To do this, 450 structured questionnaires were distributed to women in Chiayi, Taiwan, with an 89.3% return rate. The study found that internal locus of control, agents of socialization, and sport socialization situation had positive impacts on the sports participation of women. In line with these results, the study suggests the strengthening of the internal locus of control of women, making the best use of socialization agents, and improvement of sport socialization situations, in order to promote sports participation in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Exercise and Sports Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Effectiveness of Physical Activity Interventions on Pregnancy-Related Outcomes among Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101840
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Regular physical activity has been demonstrated to contribute to physical and psychological health. Nevertheless, pregnant women generally exhibit low levels of physical activity. Implementation of interventions that enhance the self-efficacy of pregnant women on increasing physical activity is required. This paper provides an [...] Read more.
Regular physical activity has been demonstrated to contribute to physical and psychological health. Nevertheless, pregnant women generally exhibit low levels of physical activity. Implementation of interventions that enhance the self-efficacy of pregnant women on increasing physical activity is required. This paper provides an in-depth review of studies reporting the effect of various physical activity interventions dedicated for pregnant women on pregnancy-related issues, including gestational weight gain, pain and depression, physical activity level, and quality of life among these individuals. Five databases were used in searching the literature. Findings of the included studies were presented narratively, and appraisal of their methodological quality was conducted using the quality assessment tool developed by Effective Public Health Practice Project. Review findings demonstrated that physical activity interventions are effective in enhancing physical activity levels of pregnant women. Further, they are potentially useful in alleviating pregnancy-related pain and psychological symptoms, reducing gestational weight gain, and increasing self-efficacy in enhancing physical activity levels among these individuals. Nevertheless, inconsistencies in findings between studies hamper the drawing of firm conclusions on these latter outcomes. Overall, studies demonstrated a positive effect of physical activity interventions on the well-being and physical and psychological health of pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
Open AccessReview
Active Commuting to and from School, Cognitive Performance, and Academic Achievement in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1839; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101839
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: Physical activity has a beneficial effect on the brain’s development process and cognitive function. However, no review to date has evaluated the effects of active commuting to and from school (ACS) on cognitive performance and academic achievement. The aim of this systematic [...] Read more.
Background: Physical activity has a beneficial effect on the brain’s development process and cognitive function. However, no review to date has evaluated the effects of active commuting to and from school (ACS) on cognitive performance and academic achievement. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the link between ACS and cognitive performance and academic achievement in children and adolescents. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases for all observational studies published until May 2019 that examined the association between ACS and cognitive performance or academic achievement. Studies were classified into two groups according to their measured outcomes: cognitive performance (nonexecutive cognitive functions, core executive functions, and metacognition) and academic achievement (marks of different areas). A pooled effect size (ES) was estimated using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects method for cognitive performance and each area of academic achievement. Results: Twelve studies that evaluated the relationship between ACS and cognitive performance or academic achievement were included in the systematic review: four studies analyzed both cognitive performance and academic achievement, one study provided data regarding cognitive performance and seven provided data on academic achievement. Finally, nine of 12 studies provided enough data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Our findings suggest that ACS was not significantly associated with cognitive performance (ES= −0.02; 95% CI: −0.06 to 0.03) or academic achievement (ES= −0.33; 95% CI: −0.83 to 0.17 for mathematics-related skills; ES= −0.37; 95% CI: −0.88 to 0.15 for language-related skills). Conclusions: There was insufficient evidence regarding the relationship between ACS and cognitive performance and academic achievement. Future studies should include potential confounders in their analyses and consider the use of standardized self-reports or objective measures of ACS. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Stakeholder Attitudes towards Donating and Utilizing Donated Human Breastmilk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1838; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101838
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
The promotion and support of human milk banks (HMBs) can enhance exclusive breastfeeding rates. The success and sustainability of HMBs depend on the support from relevant healthcare workers and related communities. This study aimed to determine attitudes of key stakeholders, including mothers, healthcare [...] Read more.
The promotion and support of human milk banks (HMBs) can enhance exclusive breastfeeding rates. The success and sustainability of HMBs depend on the support from relevant healthcare workers and related communities. This study aimed to determine attitudes of key stakeholders, including mothers, healthcare workers and grandmothers, regarding the donation and receipt of human breastmilk. This study was conducted at a public hospital and clinics in the North West Province, South Africa. Eight focus group discussions explored the attitudes regarding donating and receiving human breastmilk: three groups with mothers of infants (n = 13), three with grandmothers (>60 years old) (n = 17) and two with healthcare professionals working with infants (n = 11). Four main themes emerged: perception regarding breast and formula feeding; exposure to the concept of “wet nursing”; breastmilk donation; and utilization and opinions of community members and traditional healers. Specific barriers identified included the processes for donating and receiving milk, safety, human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) screening and cultural beliefs. Mothers’ fears included having insufficient milk for their own infants, changes in the quality of donated milk during pasteurization and transportation and HIV transmission. Despite barriers towards donations to and the use of HMBs, sufficient information could enhance donations by mothers and breastmilk utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant and Young Child Feeding)
Open AccessComment
Comment on Chen, J.; Su, Y.; Si, H.; Chen, J. Managerial Areas of Construction and Demolition Waste: A Scientometric Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2350
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101837
Received: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
“Managerial areas of construction and demolition waste: A scientometric review” by Chen et al [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Overexpression of LGR-5 as a Predictor of Poor Outcome in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101836
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Hepatocarcinogenesis and distant metastasis pose major challenges for physicians. They are regulated by several genes, such as AKT, JUK, Wnt, and P53, and their expression activates several important processes such as cell proliferation, migration, motility, and interaction in the [...] Read more.
Hepatocarcinogenesis and distant metastasis pose major challenges for physicians. They are regulated by several genes, such as AKT, JUK, Wnt, and P53, and their expression activates several important processes such as cell proliferation, migration, motility, and interaction in the microenvironment. The leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR-5) is a novel biomarker, particularly in stem cells, and is involved in embryogenesis, tumor development, and tumor cell signal transduction. Here, we investigated LGR-5 expression using immunohistochemistry and analyzed the correlation between clinical features and prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that LGR-5 expression was higher in tumor tissues than in normal liver tissues, and that high LGR-5 expression possibly favored poor outcomes in HCC, especially in well/moderate differentiation grade, hepatitis C virus (HCV)-negative, and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive groups. Thus, the LGR-5 marker is suggested to be a routine biomarker for poor prognosis, thereby providing a platform for anti-LGR-5-targeted therapy in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Older Adults Cope with Cognitive Complexity and Environmental Constraints during Dual-Task Walking: The Role of Executive Function Involvement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101835
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
This cross-sectional study investigated the interactive dual-task (DT) effects of executive function demands and environmental constraints on older adults’ walking and the moderating role of habitual physical activity (PA). Locomotor performance under different environmental constraints (flat versus obstructed walking) and cognitive performance with [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study investigated the interactive dual-task (DT) effects of executive function demands and environmental constraints on older adults’ walking and the moderating role of habitual physical activity (PA). Locomotor performance under different environmental constraints (flat versus obstructed walking) and cognitive performance with different executive function involvement (backward counting versus random number generation) were assessed under single-task (ST) and DT conditions in 135 participants (mean age 68.1 ± 8.4). The weekly number of daily steps was measured. Reciprocal DT effects of walking on cognitive performance and of the cognitive task on gait performance were computed and submitted to analyses of covariance with age, PA level, and cognitive functioning as covariates, followed by linear regressions with PA level as predictor. Cognitive task demands and environmental constraints individually and jointly affected gait variability (p = 0.033, ηp2 = 0.08) and executive function performance (p = 0.009, ηp2 = 0.09). Physical activity level predicted a low but significant percentage of variance of DT effects on gait only in flat walking (R2 = 0.04, p = 0.027). Results suggest that older individuals may adopt variable task prioritization in dual tasking depending on the type of executive function involvement and the environmental constraints on walking. Their DT ability was slightly affected by habitual PA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Rated Health and Social Exclusion: Does Gardening Moderate This Relation? Evidence from the German Ageing Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101834
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine whether the association between self-rated health and social exclusion can be moderated by the frequency of gardening in the total sample and stratified by sex. Cross-sectional data employed in this study came from the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to examine whether the association between self-rated health and social exclusion can be moderated by the frequency of gardening in the total sample and stratified by sex. Cross-sectional data employed in this study came from the fifth wave of the German Ageing Survey (n = 5048), a nationally representative sample comprising non-institutionalized individuals aged 40 and above. A single-item measure was used to quantify self-rated health (ranging from 1 = very good to 5 = very bad). An established scale developed by Bude and Lantermann was used to assess social exclusion. Moreover, individuals reported the frequency of work in the garden (daily; several times a week; once a week; 1-3 times a month; less often; never). Poorer self-rated health was associated with feelings of social exclusion. The frequency of gardening significantly moderated the association between these factors in women. This cross-sectional study emphasizes the moderating role of gardening in the relation between self-rated health and social exclusion in women. Longitudinal studies are required to validate the present findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Aging and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle
Inequality and Influencing Factors of Spatial Accessibility of Medical Facilities in Rural Areas of China: A Case Study of Henan Province
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101833
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
The equalization of medical services has received increasing attention, and improving the accessibility of medical facilities in rural areas is key for the realization of fairness with regard to medical services. This study studies the rural areas of Henan Province, China, and uses [...] Read more.
The equalization of medical services has received increasing attention, and improving the accessibility of medical facilities in rural areas is key for the realization of fairness with regard to medical services. This study studies the rural areas of Henan Province, China, and uses unincorporated villages as the basic unit. The spatial pattern of accessibility in rural areas was comprehensively analyzed via geographic information system spatial analysis and coefficient of variation. The spatial heterogeneity of relevant influencing factors was assessed by using the geographically weighted regression model. The results show that: (1) The distance cost of medical treatment in rural areas is normally distributed, and most areas are within a range of 2–6 km. (2) The accessibility in rural areas has clear spatial differences, is significantly affected by terrain, and shows characteristics of significant spatial agglomeration. The eastern and central regions have good spatial accessibility, while the western regions have poor spatial accessibility. Furthermore, regions with poor accessibility are mainly located in mountainous areas. (3) The spatial equilibrium of accessibility follows a pattern of gradual deterioration from east to west. The better accessibility-unbalanced type is mostly located in the center of Henan Province, while the poor accessibility-unbalanced type is concentrated in mountainous areas. (4) The area, elevation, residential density, and per capita industrial output are positively correlated with spatial accessibility, while road network density and population density are negatively correlated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
What Motivates Participants to Adhere to Green Exercise?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101832
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
There is a lack of research into green exercise which investigates and compares motivational drivers between the different types of outdoor activities. The current paper addressed this gap by classifying and comparing three types of green exercise: (i) Recreational physical activity, (ii) competitive [...] Read more.
There is a lack of research into green exercise which investigates and compares motivational drivers between the different types of outdoor activities. The current paper addressed this gap by classifying and comparing three types of green exercise: (i) Recreational physical activity, (ii) competitive sport, and (iii) outdoor adventure sport. Using a mixed methodological approach, the present study investigated the motivations for adhering to green exercise and directly compared the differences between these three forms of green exercise. Online questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were used to collect data. The results demonstrated that within all types of green exercise, enjoyment was the greatest motivator. Based on analysis of the qualitative materials, extrinsic motivators such as the environment, family, and friends were highlighted as key factors in beginning and continuing their activity. However, intrinsic motivators were also emphasised as more important in adherence to green exercise. Furthermore, as seen in other research, numerous psychological benefits were reported over time. The results of the study may act as a starting point in understanding how we may increase public engagement in green exercise by prompting participants to select a form of green exercise that best suits them based on their motivational profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Exercise and Sports Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Geographical Patterns in Drug-Related Mortality and Suicide: Investigating Commonalities in English Small Areas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101831
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
There are increasing concerns regarding upward trends in drug-related deaths in a number of developed societies. In some countries, these have been paralleled by upward trends in suicide. Of frequent concern to public health policy are local variations in these outcomes, and the [...] Read more.
There are increasing concerns regarding upward trends in drug-related deaths in a number of developed societies. In some countries, these have been paralleled by upward trends in suicide. Of frequent concern to public health policy are local variations in these outcomes, and the factors underlying them. In this paper, we consider the geographic pattern of drug-related deaths and suicide for 2012–2016 across 6791 small areas in England. The aim is to establish the extent of commonalities in area risk factors between the two outcomes, with a particular focus on impacts of deprivation, fragmentation and rurality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Variants Associated with FDNY WTC-Related Sarcoidosis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101830
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 19 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It may develop in response to an exposure or inflammatory trigger in the background of a genetically primed abnormal immune response. Thus, genetic studies are potentially important to our understanding of the pathogenesis of [...] Read more.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It may develop in response to an exposure or inflammatory trigger in the background of a genetically primed abnormal immune response. Thus, genetic studies are potentially important to our understanding of the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. We developed a case-control study which explored the genetic variations between firefighters in the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) with World Trade Center (WTC)-related sarcoidosis and those with WTC exposure, but without sarcoidosis. The loci of fifty-one candidate genes related to granuloma formation, inflammation, immune response, and/or sarcoidosis were sequenced at high density in enhancer/promoter, exonic, and 5’ untranslated regions. Seventeen allele variants of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes were found to be associated with sarcoidosis, and all were within chromosomes 1 and 6. Our results also suggest an association between extrathoracic involvement and allele variants of HLA and non-HLA genes found not only on chromosomes 1 and 6, but also on chromosomes 16 and 17. We found similarities between genetic variants with WTC-related sarcoidosis and those reported previously in sporadic sarcoidosis cases within the general population. In addition, we identified several allele variants never previously reported in association with sarcoidosis. If confirmed in larger studies with known environmental exposures, these novel findings may provide insight into the gene-environment interactions key to the development of sarcoidosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term Health Effects of the 9/11 Disaster)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Prolonged Visual Display Terminal Use and Exercise on Physical and Mental Conditions of Internet Staff in Hangzhou, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1829; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101829
Received: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Abstract
To examine the effects of prolonged visual display terminal (VDT) working hours and exercise frequency on VDT-related symptoms, we recruited 944 Chinese internet staff for the study. A self-administered questionnaire survey was used to obtain the hours of daily VDT work, exercise frequency, [...] Read more.
To examine the effects of prolonged visual display terminal (VDT) working hours and exercise frequency on VDT-related symptoms, we recruited 944 Chinese internet staff for the study. A self-administered questionnaire survey was used to obtain the hours of daily VDT work, exercise frequency, and the physical and mental health of the participants. The daily VDT working time of participants was 8.7 hours. Musculoskeletal pain and eye complaints were prevalent, and the participants had poor mental health status. When daily VDT operation time was more than 11 hours, VDT-related symptoms, including backache (odds ratios (OR) = 3.59), wrist pain (OR = 1.88), hip pain (OR = 2.42), dry eyes (OR = 2.22), and ocular soreness (OR = 2.16) were more likely to occur, and an increased risk of serious occupational stress (OR = 6.75) and job burnout (OR = 2.66) was found in internet workers. Compared with those who never exercised, appropriate exercise frequency (three times per week) was helpful to relieve pain in the shoulders (OR = 0.28), neck (OR = 0.45), back (OR = 0.30), lower back (OR = 0.25), and wrists (OR = 0.38), as well as to prevent vision loss (OR = 0.33) and job burnout (OR = 0.42). Therefore, avoiding excessive VDT exposure and performing moderate exercise could protect the physical and mental health of internet staff from the adverse effects of VDT. Full article
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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