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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 16, Issue 10 (May-2 2019) – 206 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Experiences of racial discrimination are commonly measured at the individual level by self-report. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Malignancy Risk and Hormonal Activity of Adrenal Incidentalomas in a Large Cohort of Patients from a Single Tertiary Reference Center
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101872 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
Background: A rise in adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) detection has been observed recently. Even though AIs are detected in asymptomatic patients, thorough assessment may reveal hormonal and metabolic abnormalities or malignant character. Methods: Medical records of 2005 patients (1301 women, 704 men) with 2498 [...] Read more.
Background: A rise in adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) detection has been observed recently. Even though AIs are detected in asymptomatic patients, thorough assessment may reveal hormonal and metabolic abnormalities or malignant character. Methods: Medical records of 2005 patients (1301 women, 704 men) with 2498 tumors aged 61 ± 11.3 (18–93) years, who had been hospitalized due to AI diagnosis, were reviewed. Patients underwent clinical examination, adrenal CT and hormonal assessment. In patients subjected to adrenalectomy, histopathological character of AI was confirmed. Results: AIs most frequently occurred in patients in their 7th decade of life. Hypertension was present in 76.6%, glucose metabolism disorders in 41.3%, and hypercholesterolemia in 60.1% of patients. Lipid-rich adenomas (83.2%) and hormonally inactive tumors (83.1%) predominated. Autonomous cortisol secretion was present or suspected in 6.6%, pheochromocytoma in 4.7%, hyperandrogenism in 3.1%, and primary hyperaldosteronism in 2.4% of patients. The risk of malignancy increased in patients with tumors >6 cm was 37.7%. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of hormonal activity of AIs was lipid-poor picture on CT scan (OR 7.072; CI 5.118–9.771), while the most important factor increasing the risk of malignancy was lipid-poor adenoma or non-adenoma on CT scan (OR 4.843; CI 1.697–13.819). Final histopathology was available for 214 tumors; 106 adrenocortical adenomas, 46 pheochromocytomas, and 18 adrenocortical carcinomas were diagnosed. Conclusion: Most AIs are hormonally inactive adenomas. The most frequent hormonal manifestation of AI is subclinical hypercortisolemia. Presence of AI is often accompanied by features of metabolic syndrome. The tumor density on CT scan picture may be predictive of both hormonal activity and the risk of malignancy. Tumors of all sizes may exhibit hormonal activity, while the risk of malignancy significantly increases with the size above 6 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Importance of Sock Type in the Development of Foot Lesions on Low-Difficulty, Short Hikes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101871 - 27 May 2019
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Background and objectives: Foot lesions can be developed during hiking because of external factors. This makes it important to study the effect of hiking equipment on lesion development. Materials and Methods: Technical and non-technical socks were given to 109 hikers to wear during [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Foot lesions can be developed during hiking because of external factors. This makes it important to study the effect of hiking equipment on lesion development. Materials and Methods: Technical and non-technical socks were given to 109 hikers to wear during a short hike. Participants were examined at three stages of the hike to determine the development of dermal, muscle and nail lesions, temperature and perimeter in various areas of each foot. Results: The percentage of hikers without injuries was significantly higher among those wearing technical socks (p-value < 0.001). Differences were also observed in mean foot temperature, which was higher in participants wearing technical socks (p-value < 0.001). Conclusion: The results indicate that even on a low-difficulty, short-term sport activity, it is advisable to wear technical socks to prevent lesion development and keep the foot temperature more stable. Sock type was identified as an external conditioning factor in lesion development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Intense Physical Activity on Stress in Adolescents: Findings from Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (2015–2017)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101870 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between intense physical activity and stress in Korean adolescents. The study used data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBWS), 2015–2017, that included 170,359 responses from Korean adolescents. Intense activity and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between intense physical activity and stress in Korean adolescents. The study used data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBWS), 2015–2017, that included 170,359 responses from Korean adolescents. Intense activity and stress were measured by self-diagnosis. Additionally, the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. It was revealed that 78.9% of Korean adolescents were exposed to stress. Students who engaged in physical activity more than five times per week were less likely to be stressed than those who did not (boys odds ratio (OR): 0.79, confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.80, p for trend: <0.0001; girls OR: 0.77, CI: 0.75–0.79, p for trend: <0.0001). The results indicated the same tendency among both boys and girls. The results of subgroup analysis revealed that students living with relatives or in childcare facilities were more likely to experience stress if they had insufficient exercise. In addition, the results confirmed that the probability of suicidal ideation increased as the frequency of exercise decreased. This study suggests that intense physical activity in Korean adolescents has a positive effect on stress management in both boys and girls. Hence, physical activity should be encouraged and implemented for managing stress. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Decomposing Income-Related Inequalities in Self-Reported Depression and Self-Rated Health Among Married Immigrants in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101869 - 27 May 2019
Viewed by 840
Abstract
Health inequalities among immigrant minorities have been under-researched in South Korea. This study, therefore, measured the extent of income-related inequalities in self-reported depression and self-rated health (SRH) among married immigrants in South Korea and decomposed them into sociodemographic determinants using data from the [...] Read more.
Health inequalities among immigrant minorities have been under-researched in South Korea. This study, therefore, measured the extent of income-related inequalities in self-reported depression and self-rated health (SRH) among married immigrants in South Korea and decomposed them into sociodemographic determinants using data from the 2015 National Survey of Multicultural Families (n = 15,231). The mean age of this sample was 37.8 years (SD = 10.8) and the mean duration of residence was 10.1 years (SD = 7.4). Eighty-five percent were female, and of these, 86.5% were from low/middle-income countries. Of these married immigrants, 34.6% reported experiences of depressive symptoms in the past year, and 9.5% reported their current health to be poor or very poor (weighted). The results also indicated substantial pro-rich health inequalities with the Erreygers concentration index of −0.1298 for self-reported depression and that of −0.1231 for poor SRH. Socioeconomic positions, reflected in income, subjective social status, and employment status, alongside satisfaction with a spouse, appeared to have much greater contributions to the overall inequality than demographics and type of migration. These findings suggest that social welfare policies and programmes can play important roles in reducing health inequalities that are ‘avoidable and unnecessary’ among married immigrants in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minority Health Issues and Health Disparities)
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Open AccessArticle
Do Temporary Workers More Often Decide to Work While Sick? Evidence for the Link between Employment Contract and Presenteeism in Europe
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101868 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
European employees are increasingly likely to work in cases of illness (sickness presenteeism, SP). Past studies found inconsistent evidence for the assumption that temporary workers decide to avoid taking sick leave due to job insecurity. A new measure to identify decision-based determinants of [...] Read more.
European employees are increasingly likely to work in cases of illness (sickness presenteeism, SP). Past studies found inconsistent evidence for the assumption that temporary workers decide to avoid taking sick leave due to job insecurity. A new measure to identify decision-based determinants of SP is presenteeism propensity (PP), which is the number of days worked while ill in relation to the sum of days worked while ill and days taken sickness absence. We investigated the link between employment contract and PP using cross-sectional data from 20,240 employees participating in the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey. Workers were grouped by type and duration of employment contract. The link between contract and PP was estimated using a multilevel Poisson model adjusted for socio-demographical, occupational and health-related covariates. We found that European employees worked 39% of the days they were ill. In contrast to previous studies, temporary workers were significantly more likely to decide for presenteeism than permanent workers were, especially when the contract was limited to less than 1 year. Controlling for perceived job insecurity did just marginally attenuate this association. Presenteeism was also more common among young and middle-aged workers; however, we did not find a significant interaction between contract and age affecting presenteeism. In conclusion, the employment contract is an important determinant of presenteeism. Our results give reason to believe that temporary workers show increased attendance behavior independent of job insecurity, because they are less likely to have access to social protection in case of illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Job Insecurity on Non-Traditional Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Silica Dust Exposure and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1867; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101867 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
Background: Occupational crystalline silica dust exposure is associated with an elevated risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, there is less evidence for an association with environmental silica dust exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 310 participants was conducted in an exposed community living [...] Read more.
Background: Occupational crystalline silica dust exposure is associated with an elevated risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, there is less evidence for an association with environmental silica dust exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 310 participants was conducted in an exposed community living within 2 km of gold mine tailings and an unexposed population residing more than 10 km from the nearest gold mine tailing. Chest radiographs (n = 178) were read for PTB, past or current, by three readers. Results: Past or current PTB was radiologically identified in 14.4% (95%CI 9.2–21.8) in the exposed and 7.5% (95%CI 2.8–18.7) in the unexposed groups. Multivariate logistic regression models suggested that PTB prevalence was independently associated with exposure to second-hand smoke (OR = 8.13, 95%CI 1.16–57.22), a lower body mass index (OR = 0.88, 95%CI 0.80–0.98), previous diagnosis and treatment of PTB (OR = 8.98, 95%CI 1.98–40.34), and exposure to dust in the workplace from sand, construction, and/or mining industries (OR = 10.2, 95%CI 2.10–50.11). Conclusion: We found no association between PTB and environmental exposure to gold mine tailing dust. However, workplace silica dust exposure is a significant risk factor for PTB in South Africa, and PTB patients of working age should be screened for silica exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Perspectives in Respiratory Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Interactions between Ambient Air Particles and Greenness on Cause-specific Mortality in Seven Korean Metropolitan Cities, 2008–2016
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101866 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the association of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM10) and greenness with cause-specific mortality and their interactions in seven Korean metropolitan cities. We obtained the annual standardized cause-specific mortality rates, annual [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the association of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM10) and greenness with cause-specific mortality and their interactions in seven Korean metropolitan cities. We obtained the annual standardized cause-specific mortality rates, annual mean concentration of PM10, and annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for 73 districts for the period 2008–2016. We used negative binomial regression with city-specific random effects to estimate the association of PM10 and greenness with mortality. The models were adjusted for potential confounders and spatial autocorrelation. We also conducted stratified analyses to investigate whether the association between PM10 and mortality differs by the level of greenness. Our findings suggest an increased risk of all causes examined, except respiratory disease mortality, with high levels of PM10 and decreased risk of cardiovascular-related mortality with a high level of greenness. In the stratified analyses, we found interactions between PM10 and greenness, but these interactions in the opposite direction depend on the cause of death. The effects of PM10 on cardiovascular-related mortality were attenuated in greener areas, whereas the effects of PM10 on non-accidental mortality were attenuated in less green areas. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Soundtracking the Public Space: Outcomes of the Musikiosk Soundscape Intervention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101865 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
Decades of research support the idea that striving for lower sound levels is the cornerstone of protecting urban public health. Growing insight on urban soundscapes, however, highlights a more complex role of sound in public spaces, mediated by context, and the potential of [...] Read more.
Decades of research support the idea that striving for lower sound levels is the cornerstone of protecting urban public health. Growing insight on urban soundscapes, however, highlights a more complex role of sound in public spaces, mediated by context, and the potential of soundscape interventions to contribute to the urban experience. We discuss Musikiosk, an unsupervised installation allowing users to play audio content from their own devices over publicly provided speakers. Deployed in the gazebo of a pocket park in Montreal (Parc du Portugal), in the summer of 2015, its effects over the quality of the public urban experience of park users were researched using a mixed methods approach, combining questionnaires, interviews, behavioral observations, and acoustic monitoring, as well as public outreach activities. An integrated analysis of results revealed positive outcomes both at the individual level (in terms of soundscape evaluations and mood benefits) and at the social level (in terms of increased interaction and lingering behaviors). The park was perceived as more pleasant and convivial for both users and non-users, and the perceived soundscape calmness and appropriateness were not affected. Musikiosk animated an underused section of the park without displacing existing users while promoting increased interaction and sharing, particularly of music. It also led to a strategy for interacting with both residents and city decision-makers on matters related to urban sound. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Chronic Diseases and Employment: Which Interventions Support the Maintenance of Work and Return to Work among Workers with Chronic Illnesses? A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1864; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101864 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
The increase of chronic diseases worldwide impact quality of life, cause economic and medical costs, and make it necessary to look for strategies and solutions that allow people with chronic diseases (PwCDs) to lead an active working life. As part of the CHRODIS [...] Read more.
The increase of chronic diseases worldwide impact quality of life, cause economic and medical costs, and make it necessary to look for strategies and solutions that allow people with chronic diseases (PwCDs) to lead an active working life. As part of the CHRODIS Plus Joint European Action project, a systematic review was conducted to identify studies of interventions that support the maintenance of work and return to work (RTW) among workers with chronic illnesses. These interventions should target employees with the following conditions: diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic vascular syndrome, respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, mental disorders, and neurological disorders. An extensive search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for English language studies. Included in this review were 15 randomized controlled trials (RCT) for adult employees (aged 18+). We found that workplace-oriented and multidisciplinary programs are the most supportive to RTW and reducing the absence due to illness. In addition, cognitive behavioral therapies achieve positive results on RTW and sick leave. Finally, coaching is effective for the self-management of chronic disease and significantly improved perceptions of working capacity and fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social, Economic, and Environmental Determinants of Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Hot and Cold Spot Areas of Household Tuberculosis Transmission in Southern China: Effects of Socio-Economic Status and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1863; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101863 - 27 May 2019
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
The aims of the study were: (1) compare sociodemographic characteristics among active tuberculosis (TB) cases and their household contacts in cold and hot spot transmission areas, and (2) quantify the influence of locality, genotype and potential determinants on the rates of latent tuberculosis [...] Read more.
The aims of the study were: (1) compare sociodemographic characteristics among active tuberculosis (TB) cases and their household contacts in cold and hot spot transmission areas, and (2) quantify the influence of locality, genotype and potential determinants on the rates of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among household contacts of index TB cases. Parallel case-contact studies were conducted in two geographic areas classified as “cold” and “hot” spots based on TB notification and spatial clustering between January and June 2018 in Guangxi, China, using data from field contact investigations, whole genome sequencing, tuberculin skin tests (TSTs), and chest radiographs. Beijing family strains accounted for 64.6% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains transmitted in hot spots, and 50.7% in cold spots (p-value = 0.02). The positive TST rate in hot spot areas was significantly higher than that observed in cold spot areas (p-value < 0.01). Living in hot spots (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.75, 95%, confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.50), Beijing family genotype (aOR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.81), living in the same room with an index case (aOR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.49), travelling time from home to a medical facility (aOR = 4.78, 95% CI: 2.96, 7.72), history of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.13 3.62), and delay in diagnosis (aOR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.13, 5.80) were significantly associated with positive TST results among household contacts of TB cases. The findings of this study confirmed the strong transmissibility of the Beijing genotype family strains and this genotype’s important role in household transmission. We found that an extended traveling time from home to the medical facility was an important socioeconomic factor for Mtb transmission in the family. It is still necessary to improve the medical facility infrastructure and management, especially in areas with a high TB prevalence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Dental Students’ Awareness, Preparedness and Barriers towards Managing Tobacco-Using Patients—A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1862; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101862 - 27 May 2019
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Aims: To evaluate Hong Kong dental students’ perceived awareness, preparedness and barriers towards managing tobacco-using patients. Methods: A validated questionnaire was administered to dental students who were in their clinical years (the third, fourth, fifth and sixth year of study) in [...] Read more.
Aims: To evaluate Hong Kong dental students’ perceived awareness, preparedness and barriers towards managing tobacco-using patients. Methods: A validated questionnaire was administered to dental students who were in their clinical years (the third, fourth, fifth and sixth year of study) in 2017 at the University of Hong Kong. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: (1) awareness towards practicing tobacco cessation counselling (TCC), (2) preparedness in terms of confidence, knowledge and clinical practices when managing tobacco-using patients, and (3) perceived barriers to counselling. Results: All 206 invited students had participated this study. Most (93%) agreed that dentists should deliver TCC. However, only around a quarter (26%) of students were well-prepared to help patients in tobacco cessation. While 60% of students agreed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was helpful for patients to quit tobacco use, only 28% understood its mechanism of action, and merely 16% were knowledgeable enough to introduce NRT to their patients. Two-thirds (62%) of students felt they did not have sufficient skills at this stage of their training. Conclusions: Most Hong Kong dental students had good awareness that dental professionals had an important role to promote tobacco cessation in their patient pools. However, not many of them were well-prepared to manage tobacco-using patients. Common barriers were found to be patients’ apathy and students’ inadequate familiarity with NRT. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Prevalence, Patterns and Self-Perceived Effects of Pornography Consumption in Polish University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1861; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101861 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4285
Abstract
This cross-sectional online survey of Polish students (n = 6463) assessed the frequency and patterns of pornography consumption, its self-perceived effects, the prevalence of self-perceived pornography addiction, and opinions on the potential effects of pornography and its legal status. Nearly 80% of [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional online survey of Polish students (n = 6463) assessed the frequency and patterns of pornography consumption, its self-perceived effects, the prevalence of self-perceived pornography addiction, and opinions on the potential effects of pornography and its legal status. Nearly 80% of students have been exposed to pornography (median age of first exposure: 14 years). Streaming videos were decidedly the most frequent form of use. In the subset of current users (n = 4260), daily use and self-perceived addiction was reported by 10.7% and 15.5%, respectively. The majority of those surveyed did not report any negative effects of pornography use on their sexual function, sexual, and relationship satisfaction. Instead, over one-quarter of students in relationships reported beneficial effects on its quality. The most common self-perceived adverse effects of pornography use included: the need for longer stimulation (12.0%) and more sexual stimuli (17.6%) to reach orgasm, and a decrease in sexual satisfaction (24.5%). Females and males with a Body Mass Index >25 kg/m2 more often reported a self-perceived decrease in relationship quality associated with pornography use. Age of first exposure was significantly associated with reported need for longer stimulation and more sexual stimuli to reach orgasm when using pornography, decrease in sexual satisfaction, and quality of romantic relationship, neglect of basic needs and duties due to pornography use, and self-perceived addiction in both females and males. The highest odds ratios were always observed for age <12 years in reference to exposure at >16 years. In the opinion of most of the surveyed students, pornography may have adverse effects on human health, although access restrictions should not be implemented. The study gives a broad insight into the pornography consumption in young Polish adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Certainty Level of Water Delivery of the Required Quality by Water Supply Networks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101860 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
The security of water delivery of the required quality by water supply networks is identified with the concept of reliability. Therefore, a method of reliability evaluation of water distribution of the required quality was developed. The method is based on the probabilistic character [...] Read more.
The security of water delivery of the required quality by water supply networks is identified with the concept of reliability. Therefore, a method of reliability evaluation of water distribution of the required quality was developed. The method is based on the probabilistic character of secondary water contamination in the water supply network. Data for the method are taken from monitoring of the water distribution system. The method takes into consideration the number and locations of individual measurement points and the results of the tests of water quality indicators at these points. The sets of measurement points and water quality indicators constitute a matrix research (observation) field in the model. The proposed method was implemented to assess the reliability of a water distribution process with respect to water with the required microbiological quality indicators in a real distribution system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Research on the Driving Mechanism of Waste Separation Behavior: Based on Qualitative Analysis of Chinese Urban Residents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101859 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
Waste source separation is the fundamental premise to ensure effective waste recycling. Whether the entire waste recycling and reduction process can be effectively carried out depends on the waste source separation. Clarifying the driving mechanism of waste separation behavior plays an important role [...] Read more.
Waste source separation is the fundamental premise to ensure effective waste recycling. Whether the entire waste recycling and reduction process can be effectively carried out depends on the waste source separation. Clarifying the driving mechanism of waste separation behavior plays an important role in effectively guiding the urban residents’ waste separation behavior and achieving waste recycling. In this study, qualitative analysis was used to explore the driving mechanism of waste separation behavior. Through the open coding, axial coding and selective coding of the in-depth interview data collected from 323 Chinese urban residents, the study has proposed and verified the four-dimensional structure of waste separation behavior, namely, waste separation behavior of habit, decision, relationship, and citizen. The main driving factors of urban residents’ waste separation behavior have been clarified. On this basis, a theoretical model for the driving mechanism of waste separation behavior was constructed in this study. Ten main categories of factors have been presented, namely, value orientation, cognition of separation, regulatory focus, preferences for comfort, perception of separation empowerment, policy and standards, products and facilities, group norms, links trustworthiness, and social demography variables. Moreover, four typical relationship structures were proposed. Finally, the intervention policy suggestions were made to effectively guide the urban residents’ waste separation behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Global Health Perspectives on Cigarette Butts and the Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101858 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Cigarette butts, which are also known as tobacco product waste (TPW), are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This study used an online survey tool (Qualtrics) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding this issue among individuals representing the [...] Read more.
Cigarette butts, which are also known as tobacco product waste (TPW), are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This study used an online survey tool (Qualtrics) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding this issue among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA). The FCA has about 680 members on its listserv, including non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support the implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Respondents (n = 65) represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (82%) had heard the term TPW, and they all considered TPW as an environmental harm at some level. Additionally, 29% of respondents failed to identify that “cigarette filters make smoking easier”. Most (73%) correctly identified TPW components; however, fewer (60%) correctly identified the composition of cigarette butts. The majority (57%) were unfamiliar with Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Product Stewardship (PS) as possible environmental intervention strategies. Respondents expressing opinions concurred that adding a litter fee to fund TPW programs will aid in reducing tobacco use and reduce the environmental impacts of TPW (100%); that prevention, reduction, and mitigation of TPW could be an important part of international tobacco control programs (98%); and, that banning smoking in outdoor venues could reduce TPW (95%). Only 16% reported effective prevention or clean-up efforts in their countries. Weighted rankings revealed that respondents’ saw the national government, the tobacco industry, and state governments as the most important in addressing TPW. The results of this research will inform continuing international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Metamodeling Framework for Quantifying Health Damages of Power Grid Expansion Plans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101857 - 26 May 2019
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
In this paper, we present an analytical framework to establish a closed-form relationship between electricity generation expansion planning decisions and the resulting negative health externalities. Typical electricity generation expansion planning models determine the optimal technology–capacity–investment strategy that minimizes total investment costs as well [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present an analytical framework to establish a closed-form relationship between electricity generation expansion planning decisions and the resulting negative health externalities. Typical electricity generation expansion planning models determine the optimal technology–capacity–investment strategy that minimizes total investment costs as well as fixed and variable operation and maintenance costs. However, the relationship between these long-term planning decisions and the associated health externalities is highly stochastic and nonlinear, and it is computationally expensive to evaluate. Thus, we developed a closed-form metamodel by executing computer-based experiments of a generation expansion planning model, and we analyzed the resulting model outputs in a United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) screening tool that approximates the associated human health externalities. Procedural guidance to verify the accuracy and to select key metamodel parameters to enhance its prediction capability is presented. Specifically, the metamodel presented in this paper can predict the resulting health damages of long-term power grid expansion decisions, thus, enabling researchers and policy makers to quickly assess the health implications of power grid expansion decisions with a high degree of certainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Health Predictions)
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Open AccessArticle
The Implication of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change for the Declining Soil Erosion Risk in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101856 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) in China is an ecologically and politically important region experiencing rapid land use/cover changes and prone to many environment hazards related to soil erosion. In the present study, we: (1) estimated recent changes in the risk pattern [...] Read more.
The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) in China is an ecologically and politically important region experiencing rapid land use/cover changes and prone to many environment hazards related to soil erosion. In the present study, we: (1) estimated recent changes in the risk pattern of soil erosion in the TGRR, (2) analysed how the changes in soil erosion risks could be associated with land use and land cover change, and (3) examined whether the interactions between urbanisation and natural resource management practices may exert impacts on the risks. Our results indicated a declining trend of soil erosion risk from 14.7 × 106 t in 2000 to 1.10 × 106 t in 2015, with the most risky areas being in the central and north TGRR. Increase in the water surface of the Yangtze River (by 61.8%, as a consequence of water level rise following the construction of the Three Gorges Dam), was found to be negatively associated with soil erosion risk. Afforestation (with measured increase in forest extent by 690 km2 and improvement of NDVI by 8.2%) in the TGRR was associated with positive soil erosion risk mitigation. An interaction between urbanisation (urban extant increased by 300 km2) and vegetation diversification (decreased by 0.01) was identified, through which the effect of vegetation diversification on soil erosion risk was negative in areas having lower urbanisation rates only. Our results highlight the importance of prioritising cross-sectoral policies on soil conservation to balance the trade-offs between urbanisation and natural resource management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mental Health among Left-Behind Children in Rural China in Relation to Parent-Child Communication
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101855 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
In China, there are an estimated 41 million left-behind children (LBC). The objective of this study was to examine the mental health of current-left-behind children (current-LBC) and previous-left-behind children (previous-LBC) as compared to never-left-behind children (never-LBC), while considering factors like parent-child communication. Children [...] Read more.
In China, there are an estimated 41 million left-behind children (LBC). The objective of this study was to examine the mental health of current-left-behind children (current-LBC) and previous-left-behind children (previous-LBC) as compared to never-left-behind children (never-LBC), while considering factors like parent-child communication. Children were recruited from schools in rural areas of Anhui province in eastern China. Participants completed a questionnaire focusing on migration status, mental health, and parent-child communication, measured with the validated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Parent–Adolescent Communication Scale (PACS). Full data were available for 1251 current-, 473 previous-, and 268 never-LBC in Anhui province. After adjusting for all confounding variables, the results showed that both current and previous parental migration was associated with significantly higher mental health difficulties, including aspects of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and total difficulties. Additionally, we found that difficulties communicating with parents were strongly associated with the presence of greater total difficulties in children. Parental migration has an independent, long-lasting negative effect on children. Poor parent-child communication is strongly associated with children’s mental health. These results indicate that parent–child communication is important for the development of children, and interventions are needed to improve migrant parents’ understanding and communication skills with their children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School Health and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Has China’s Pilot Emissions Trading Scheme Influenced the Carbon Intensity of Output?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101854 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
China launched the pilot construction of the carbon emission trading scheme (ETS) in 2011. The pilots have been running for many years. Does ETS significantly restrain the increase of carbon emission intensity? Based on China’s panel data for provinces and industries, this paper [...] Read more.
China launched the pilot construction of the carbon emission trading scheme (ETS) in 2011. The pilots have been running for many years. Does ETS significantly restrain the increase of carbon emission intensity? Based on China’s panel data for provinces and industries, this paper uses the policy assessment method to evaluate the inhibition by ETS of carbon emission intensity. The assessment scope includes six provincial pilots and pilot industries covered by ETS. The results show that ETS has significant suppression of carbon emission intensity only in Beijing and Guangdong. There is no significant impact on the carbon emission intensity of Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing, and Hubei. Through the carbon emission intensity inhibition analysis of the industries covered by ETS from Beijing and Chongqing, the results of the production and supply of electric power, steam and hot water, petroleum processing and coking in Beijing have a significant impact on the ETS. Only the smelting and pressing of ferrous metals in Chongqing has a significant impact on the ETS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Breakfast Frequency and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Cross-Sectional Study of KNHANES Data, 2014–2016
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101853 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing worldwide and one related lifestyle choice is breakfast consumption. This study examined the association between breakfast frequency and the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). The 10-year risk of ASCVD was defined as the risk [...] Read more.
The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing worldwide and one related lifestyle choice is breakfast consumption. This study examined the association between breakfast frequency and the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD). The 10-year risk of ASCVD was defined as the risk of the first event of nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, and nonfatal or fatal stroke within 10 years. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2014–2016 were analyzed, and 7212 participants aged 40–79 years with no history of CVD were included. ASCVD risk was calculated according to the pooled cohort ASCVD equation, and participants with a score >7.5% were considered at high risk of ASCVD. The association between breakfast frequency and high ASCVD risk was confirmed by logistic regression analysis. Participants who never ate breakfast were more likely to be in the high-risk group compared to participants who ate breakfast >5 times per week (OR (adjusted odds ratio) = 1.46; 95% CI (confidence interval) = 1.12–1.89), and the risk was especially higher in female participants and those with a family history of CVD. Our study confirms that breakfast consumption even once per week may prevent CVD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Malaria and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Gold Mining in the Amazon Region, Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101852 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
People living in mining regions are exposed to numerous biological agents by several specific types of transmission mechanisms. This study is designed to describe fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases confirmed by serology and molecular analysis, where a seroprevalence survey was conducted in [...] Read more.
People living in mining regions are exposed to numerous biological agents by several specific types of transmission mechanisms. This study is designed to describe fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases confirmed by serology and molecular analysis, where a seroprevalence survey was conducted in the gold mining regions of the state of Mato Grosso, in the official Amazon region, Brazil. Two fatal cases of HPS were confirmed in a mining area in the Legal Amazon, where malaria is one of the most important public health problems. A molecular analysis detected the presence of the genome of the Castelo dos Sonhos virus. Out of the 112 blood samples analyzed, five were positive for Plasmodium infection (four P. falciparum and one P. vivax), and four were seropositive for hantavirus, showing a seroprevalence of 3.57%. One of the four miners who was seroreactive for hantavirus concomitantly had P. falciparum infection, which was confirmed by thick blood smear. This manuscript highlights the importance of considering hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a diagnostic possibility in febrile infection associated with pulmonary manifestations in mining areas where malaria cases are often identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessCommunication
Global Analysis of Transcriptional Expression in Mice Exposed to Intermediate Frequency Magnetic Fields Utilized for Wireless Power Transfer Systems
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101851 - 25 May 2019
Viewed by 736
Abstract
Background: Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (IF-MFs) at around 85 kHz are a component of wireless power transfer systems used for charging electrical vehicles. However, limited data exist on the potential health effects of IF-MFs. We performed a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional expression in [...] Read more.
Background: Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (IF-MFs) at around 85 kHz are a component of wireless power transfer systems used for charging electrical vehicles. However, limited data exist on the potential health effects of IF-MFs. We performed a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional expression in mice after IF-MF exposure. Materials and Methods: We developed an IF-MF exposure system to generate a high magnetic flux density (25.3 mT). The system can expose the IF-MF for a mouse whole-body without considering thermal effects. After 10 days (1 h/day) of exposure, a comprehensive expression analysis was performed using microarray data from both the brain and liver. Results: No significant differences in transcriptional expression were detected in the 35,240 probe-sets when controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) under a fold change cutoff >1.5. However, several differential expressions were detected without FDR-adjustment, but these were not confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study to evaluate the biological effects of IF-MF exposure with an intense magnetic flux density 253 times higher than the occupational restriction level defined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines. However, our findings indicate that transcriptional responses in the living body are not affected under these conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Ballistic Exercise as Pre-Activation for 100 m Sprints
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101850 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
The benefits of warm-up in sports performance has received a special interest in the current literature. However, there is a large gap of knowledge about the tasks to be performed, specifically in the real competitive environment. The purpose of the study was to [...] Read more.
The benefits of warm-up in sports performance has received a special interest in the current literature. However, there is a large gap of knowledge about the tasks to be performed, specifically in the real competitive environment. The purpose of the study was to verify the acute effects of a warm-up including ballistic exercises in 100 m running performance. In addition, a second 100 m trial was assessed to better understand the warm-up effects in training and competition. Eleven men (25.4 ± 6.2 years of age, 1.76 ± 0.08 m of height, 78.2 ± 8.6 kg of body mass) were submitted to three different protocols, in a randomized order: no warm-up (NWU), typical warm-up (WU) and WU complemented with ballistic exercises (PAP). Biomechanical, physiological and psychophysiological variables were assessed. Differences were found between the three conditions assessed in the first 100 m sprint with 7.4% and 7.6% faster performances after the WU and PAP, compared to NWU. Stride length was higher in the second part of the 100 m after PAP compared with WU. These results highlight the positive effects of warm-up for sprinting performance. The inclusion of ballistic exercises, besides being used to improve sprint performance, can increase stride length in the final of the 100 m race. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Exercise and Sports Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Vegetation Response to Groundwater Variation in Arid Environments: Visualization of Research Evolution, Synthesis of Response Types, and Estimation of Groundwater Threshold
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101849 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
Groundwater depth is an important environmental factor affecting vegetation growth and landscape dynamics in arid environments. This study applied a science mapping approach to visualize the development of groundwater-vegetation-related research, synthesized the vegetation response to changes in groundwater depth, and analyzed the change [...] Read more.
Groundwater depth is an important environmental factor affecting vegetation growth and landscape dynamics in arid environments. This study applied a science mapping approach to visualize the development of groundwater-vegetation-related research, synthesized the vegetation response to changes in groundwater depth, and analyzed the change rate of the response curve to identify the groundwater threshold that is essential to conserve the groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystems. These ecosystems emerged as a research hotspot due to climate change, groundwater overexploitation, and the recognition of these ecosystems’ importance for sustainable development. There are two main types of response functions of vegetation to changes in groundwater depth—monotone and bell-shaped functions—among which the monotone function includes linear, curvilinear, and stepwise response. The shape of a response curve is mainly determined by the combined effects of oxygen stress, salinization, and water stress; oxygen stress and salinization dominate in shallow groundwater depth, while water stress dominates in deep groundwater depth. On a non-linear vegetation metric—groundwater depth response curve, the change rate analysis method is effective to identify the breakpoint that can be taken as a candidate threshold of groundwater depth. The results will add insight into the intellectual structure of the groundwater-vegetation interactions and provide practical reference for groundwater resource management, ecological conservation, and sustainable development in arid environments. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Analysis of the Financing of Russian Health Care over the Past 100 Years
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101848 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 963
Abstract
The evolution of epidemiological burden in Imperial Russia and, consecutively, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), took place mostly over the duration of the past century [...] Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Qualitative Job Insecurity and Informal Learning: A Longitudinal Test of Occupational Self-Efficacy and Psychological Contract Breach as Mediators
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101847 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
Current work life has become increasingly turbulent, which has sparked employees’ concern about the loss of valued job features, coined as qualitative job insecurity. No prior research has investigated the relationship between this type of job insecurity and informal learning. However, informal learning [...] Read more.
Current work life has become increasingly turbulent, which has sparked employees’ concern about the loss of valued job features, coined as qualitative job insecurity. No prior research has investigated the relationship between this type of job insecurity and informal learning. However, informal learning might be particularly relevant for qualitatively job-insecure employees, as it might aid them to deal with the incessant changes in their work environment. This study examined whether qualitative job insecurity is associated with lower levels of three types of informal learning activities: information-seeking, feedback-seeking, and help-seeking behavior, and whether these relationships are mediated by a decline in occupational self-efficacy and an increase in psychological contract breach. We employed a three-wave panel design to survey 1433 Belgian employees. Results, by means of cross-lagged structural equation modelling, demonstrated that occupational self-efficacy mediates the relationship between qualitative job insecurity and information-seeking, feedback-seeking from colleagues, and feedback-seeking from one’s supervisor, while psychological contract breach only mediated the relationship between qualitative job insecurity and feedback-seeking from one’s supervisor. Both mediators were not significantly related to help-seeking behavior. This study demonstrates that qualitatively job-insecure employees are less likely to engage in informal learning via a decrease in occupational self-efficacy and an increase in psychological contract breach, thereby becoming even more vulnerable in an increasingly volatile work environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Job Insecurity on Non-Traditional Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Associations of Street Network Design, Streetscape Attributes and Land-Use Characteristics on Pedestrian Flows in Peripheral Neighbourhoods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101846 - 24 May 2019
Viewed by 984
Abstract
Research has sufficiently documented the built environment correlates of walking. However, evidence is limited in investigating the comparative associations of micro- (streetscape features) and macro-level (street network design and land-use) environmental measures with pedestrian movement. This study explores the relative association of street-level [...] Read more.
Research has sufficiently documented the built environment correlates of walking. However, evidence is limited in investigating the comparative associations of micro- (streetscape features) and macro-level (street network design and land-use) environmental measures with pedestrian movement. This study explores the relative association of street-level design-local qualities of street environment-, street network configuration –spatial structure of the urban grid- and land-use patterns with the distribution of pedestrian flows in peripheral neighbourhoods. Street design attributes and ground-floor land-uses are obtained through field surveys while street network configuration is evaluated through space syntax measures. The statistical models indicate that the overall spatial configuration of street network proves to be a stronger correlate of walking than local street-level attributes while only average sidewalk width appears to be a significant correlate of walking among the streetscape measures. However, the most significant and consistent correlate of the distribution of flows is the number of recreational uses at the segment-level. This study contributes to the literature by offering insights into the comparative roles of urban design qualities of the street environment and street network layout on pedestrian movement. The findings also offer evidence-based strategies to inform specific urban design and urban master planning decisions (i.e., the provision of more generous sidewalks on streets with relatively higher directional accessibility) in creating lively, walkable environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Audio-Visual Interactions on Psychological Responses of Young People in Urban Green Areas: A Case Study in Two Parks in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101845 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 967
Abstract
Audio-visual interactions in green spaces are important for mental health and wellbeing. However, the influence of audio-visual interactions on psychological responses is still less clear. This study introduced a new method, namely the audio-visual walk (AV-walk), to obtain data on the audio-visual context, [...] Read more.
Audio-visual interactions in green spaces are important for mental health and wellbeing. However, the influence of audio-visual interactions on psychological responses is still less clear. This study introduced a new method, namely the audio-visual walk (AV-walk), to obtain data on the audio-visual context, audio-visual experiences, and psychological responses in two typical parks, namely Cloves Park and Music Park in Harbin, China. Some interesting results are as follows: First, based on Pearson’s correlation analysis, sound pressure level and roughness were significantly correlated with psychological responses in Cloves Park (p < 0.05). Second, the results of stepwise regression models showed the impact intensity of acoustic comfort was 1.64–1.68 times higher than that of visual comfort on psychological responses of emotion dimension, while visual comfort was 1.35–1.37 times higher than acoustic comfort on psychological responses of cognition dimension in Music Park. In addition, an orthogonal analysis diagram explained the influence of audio-visual interactions on psychological responses of young people. The audio-visual context located beside the waterscape with a relatively higher level of acoustic and visual comfort was the most cheerful (2.60), relaxed (2.45), and energetic (2.05), while the audio-visual context close to an urban built environment tended to be both acoustically and visually uncomfortable, and the psychological state was decreased to the most depressed (−0.25), anxious (−0.75), fatigued (−1.13) and distracted (−1.13). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Different Predictor Variables for Women and Men in Ultra-Marathon Running—The Wellington Urban Ultramarathon 2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101844 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Ultra-marathon races are increasing in popularity. Women are now 20% of all finishers, and this number is growing. Predictors of performance have been examined rarely for women in ultra-marathon running. This study aimed to examine the predictors of performance for women and men [...] Read more.
Ultra-marathon races are increasing in popularity. Women are now 20% of all finishers, and this number is growing. Predictors of performance have been examined rarely for women in ultra-marathon running. This study aimed to examine the predictors of performance for women and men in the 62 km Wellington Urban Ultramarathon 2018 (WUU2K) and create an equation to predict ultra-marathon race time. For women, volume of running during training per week (km) and personal best time (PBT) in 5 km, 10 km, and half-marathon (min) were all associated with race time. For men, age, body mass index (BMI), years running, running speed during training (min/km), marathon PBT, and 5 km PBT (min) were all associated with race time. For men, ultra-marathon race time might be predicted by the following equation: (r² = 0.44, adjusted r² = 0.35, SE = 78.15, degrees of freedom (df) = 18) ultra-marathon race time (min) = −30.85 ± 0.2352 × marathon PBT + 25.37 × 5 km PBT + 17.20 × running speed of training (min/km). For women, ultra-marathon race time might be predicted by the following equation: (r² = 0.83, adjusted r2 = 0.75, SE = 42.53, df = 6) ultra-marathon race time (min) = −148.83 + 3.824 × (half-marathon PBT) + 9.76 × (10 km PBT) − 6.899 × (5 km PBT). This study should help women in their preparation for performance in ultra-marathon and adds to the bulk of knowledge for ultra-marathon preparation available to men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Exercise and Sports Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Heavy Metals in Suspended Particulate Matter of the Zhujiang River, Southwest China: Contents, Sources, and Health Risks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101843 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
To investigate the abundance, water/particle interaction behavior, sources, and potential risk of heavy metals in suspended particulate matter (SPM), a total of 22 SPM samples were collected from the Zhujiang River, Southwest China, in July 2014 (wet season). Nine heavy metal(loid)s (V, Cr, [...] Read more.
To investigate the abundance, water/particle interaction behavior, sources, and potential risk of heavy metals in suspended particulate matter (SPM), a total of 22 SPM samples were collected from the Zhujiang River, Southwest China, in July 2014 (wet season). Nine heavy metal(loid)s (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) in SPM were detected. The results show that the selected heavy metal(loid)s in SPM appear in the following order: Mn (982.4 mg kg−1) > Zn (186.8 mg kg−1) > V (143.6 mg kg−1) > Cr (129.1 mg kg−1) > As (116.8 mg kg−1) > Cu (44.1 mg kg−1) > Ni (39.9 mg kg−1) > Pb (38.1 mg kg−1) > Cd (3.8 mg kg−1). Furthermore, both the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) indicate that SPM is extremely enriched in metal(loid)s of Cd and As, while SPM is slightly enriched, or not enriched, in other heavy metals. According to the toxic risk index (TRI) and hazard index (HI), arsenic accounts for the majority of the SPM toxicity (TRI = 8, 48.3 ± 10.4%) and causes the primary health risk (HI > 1), and the potential risks of V and Cr are also not negligible. By applying a correlation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA), three principal components (PC) were identified and accounted for 79.19% of the total variance. PC 1 (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Pb) is controlled by natural origins. PC 2 (As and Cd) is mainly contributed by anthropogenic origins in the basin. PC 3 (Zn) can be attributed to mixed sources of natural and anthropogenic origins. Moreover, all the partition coefficients (lgKd) exceeded 2.9 (arithmetical mean value order: Mn > Pb > Cd > V ≈ Cu > Cr ≈ Ni), indicating the powerful adsorptive ability of SPM for these heavy metal(loid)s during water/particle interaction. Full article
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