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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 19, Issue 5 (May 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Marine species are a vast potential source of bioactive compounds that are not yet fully utilized. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Alterations in Cellular Iron Metabolism Provide More Therapeutic Opportunities for Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051545
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron is an essential element for the growth and proliferation of cells. Cellular iron uptake, storage, utilization and export are tightly regulated to maintain iron homeostasis. However, cellular iron metabolism pathways are disturbed in most cancer cells. To maintain rapid growth and proliferation,
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Iron is an essential element for the growth and proliferation of cells. Cellular iron uptake, storage, utilization and export are tightly regulated to maintain iron homeostasis. However, cellular iron metabolism pathways are disturbed in most cancer cells. To maintain rapid growth and proliferation, cancer cells acquire large amounts of iron by altering expression of iron metabolism- related proteins. In this paper, normal cellular iron metabolism and the alterations of iron metabolic pathways in cancer cells were summarized. Therapeutic strategies based on targeting the altered iron metabolism were also discussed and disrupting redox homeostasis by intracellular high levels of iron provides new insight for cancer therapy. Altered iron metabolism constitutes a promising therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessReview Role of mTOR Complexes in Neurogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051544
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Dysregulation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates the intracellular signals to control cell growth, nutrient metabolism, and protein translation. mTOR regulates many functions in the
[...] Read more.
Dysregulation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates the intracellular signals to control cell growth, nutrient metabolism, and protein translation. mTOR regulates many functions in the development of the brain, such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and dendrite formation. In addition, mTOR is important in synaptic formation and plasticity. Abnormalities in mTOR activity is linked with severe deficits in nervous system development, including tumors, autism, and seizures. Dissecting the wide-ranging roles of mTOR activity during critical periods in development will greatly expand our understanding of neurogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Growth Regulation)
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Open AccessReview Frizzled Receptors as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Human Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051543
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 19 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Frizzled receptors (FZDs) are a family of seven-span transmembrane receptors with hallmarks of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that serve as receptors for secreted Wingless-type (WNT) ligands in the WNT signaling pathway. Functionally, FZDs play crucial roles in regulating cell polarity, embryonic development, cell
[...] Read more.
Frizzled receptors (FZDs) are a family of seven-span transmembrane receptors with hallmarks of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that serve as receptors for secreted Wingless-type (WNT) ligands in the WNT signaling pathway. Functionally, FZDs play crucial roles in regulating cell polarity, embryonic development, cell proliferation, formation of neural synapses, and many other processes in developing and adult organisms. In this review, we will introduce the basic structural features and review the biological function and mechanism of FZDs in the progression of human cancers, followed by an analysis of clinical relevance and therapeutic potential of FZDs. We will focus on the development of antibody-based and small molecule inhibitor-based therapeutic strategies by targeting FZDs for human cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer-Driver G Protein-Coupled Receptors as Therapeutic Targets)
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Open AccessArticle Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibition and Glucose Uptake Potentials of Mulberrofuran G, Albanol B, and Kuwanon G from Root Bark of Morus alba L. in Insulin-Resistant HepG2 Cells: An In Vitro and In Silico Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051542
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 19 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes and has become a major health problem across the world. The root bark of Morus alba L. is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment and management of diabetes. The
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Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes and has become a major health problem across the world. The root bark of Morus alba L. is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment and management of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the enzyme inhibitory potentials of three principle components, mulberrofuran G (1), albanol B (2), and kuwanon G (3) in M. alba root bark against diabetes, establish their enzyme kinetics, carry out a molecular docking simulation, and demonstrate the glucose uptake activity in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. Compounds 13 showed potent mixed-type enzyme inhibition against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase. In particular, molecular docking simulations of 13 demonstrated negative binding energies in both enzymes. Moreover, 13 were non-toxic up to 5 µM concentration in HepG2 cells and enhanced glucose uptake significantly and decreased PTP1B expression in a dose-dependent manner in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. Our overall results depict 13 from M. alba root bark as dual inhibitors of PTP1B and α-glucosidase enzymes, as well as insulin sensitizers. These active constituents in M. alba may potentially be utilized as an effective treatment for T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle SCF/c-KIT Signaling Increased Mucin2 Production by Maintaining Atoh1 Expression in Mucinous Colorectal Adenocarcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051541
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma (MCA) patients often a show high risk of malignant potential and a poorer survival rate. Given that the pathological feature and oncobiological characteristics of MCA are correlated with its abundant extracellular mucin2 (MUC2), we paid interest toward investigating the key
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Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma (MCA) patients often a show high risk of malignant potential and a poorer survival rate. Given that the pathological feature and oncobiological characteristics of MCA are correlated with its abundant extracellular mucin2 (MUC2), we paid interest toward investigating the key factor that promotes MUC2 production exposure to highly-activated stem cell factor (SCF)/c-KIT signaling, which we believed to contribute to MCA formation. Long-term azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate treatment successfully induced MCA only in wild-type (WT) mice at week 37 and 43, while all c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (Wadsm/m) developed non-MCA. Significantly, MUC2 and its key transcriptional factor Atonal homologue 1 (Atoh1) were remarkably expressed in MCA mice compared with non-MCA mice. Atoh1 was significantly elevated in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells stimulated by exogenous SCF or overexpressing c-KIT in vitro, while decreased by the blockage of SCF/c-KIT signaling with Imatinib. Furthermore, the maintained Atoh1 protein level was due to the inactive glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β) by virtue of the activated SCF/c-KIT-Protein Kinase B (AKT) signaling. Similar results were obtained from the ONCOMINE database and CRC patients. In conclusion, we suggested that SCF/c-KIT signaling promoted MUC2 production and MCA tumorigenesis by maintaining Atoh1 expression. Therefore, targeting the related key molecules might be beneficial for treating MCA patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Dopamine Receptor Subtypes Differentially Regulate Autophagy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051540
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Some dopamine receptor subtypes were reported to participate in autophagy regulation, but their exact functions and mechanisms are still unclear. Here we found that dopamine receptors D2 and D3 (D2-like family) are positive regulators of autophagy, while dopamine receptors D1 and D5 (D1-like
[...] Read more.
Some dopamine receptor subtypes were reported to participate in autophagy regulation, but their exact functions and mechanisms are still unclear. Here we found that dopamine receptors D2 and D3 (D2-like family) are positive regulators of autophagy, while dopamine receptors D1 and D5 (D1-like family) are negative regulators. Furthermore, dopamine and ammonia, the two reported endogenous ligands of dopamine receptors, both can induce dopamine receptor internalization and degradation. In addition, we found that AKT (protein kinase B)-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) and AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) pathways are involved in DRD3 (dopamine receptor D3) regulated autophagy. Moreover, autophagy machinery perturbation inhibited DRD3 degradation and increased DRD3 oligomer. Therefore, our study investigated the functions and mechanisms of dopamine receptors in autophagy regulation, which not only provides insights into better understanding of some dopamine receptor-related neurodegeneration diseases, but also sheds light on their potential treatment in combination with autophagy or mTOR pathway modulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue mTOR in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Melatonin as a Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Published Evidence
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051539
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Melatonin (MEL) is a hormone that is produced in the brain and is known to bind to MEL-specific receptors on neuronal membranes in several brain regions. MEL’s documented neuroprotective properties, low toxicity, and ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier have led to its evaluation
[...] Read more.
Melatonin (MEL) is a hormone that is produced in the brain and is known to bind to MEL-specific receptors on neuronal membranes in several brain regions. MEL’s documented neuroprotective properties, low toxicity, and ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier have led to its evaluation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), a condition for which there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize the evidence surrounding the use of melatonin after TBI, as well as identify existing gaps and future directions. To address this aim, a search of the literature was conducted using Pubmed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Database. In total, 239 unique articles were screened, and the 22 preclinical studies that met the a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria were summarized, including the study aims, sample (size, groups, species, strain, sex, age/weight), TBI model, therapeutic details (preparation, dose, route, duration), key findings, and conclusions. The evidence from these 22 studies was analyzed to draw comparisons across studies, identify remaining gaps, and suggest future directions. Taken together, the published evidence suggests that MEL has neuroprotective properties via a number of mechanisms with few toxic effects reported. Notably, available evidence is largely based on data from adult male rats and, to a lesser extent, mice. Few studies collected data beyond a few days of the initial injury, necessitating additional longer-term studies. Other future directions include diversification of samples to include female animals, pediatric and geriatric animals, and transgenic strains. Full article
Open AccessReview Temperature Effects on Force and Actin–Myosin Interaction in Muscle: A Look Back on Some Experimental Findings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051538
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Observations made in temperature studies on mammalian muscle during force development, shortening, and lengthening, are re-examined. The isometric force in active muscle goes up substantially on warming from less than 10 °C to temperatures closer to physiological (>30 °C), and the sigmoidal temperature
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Observations made in temperature studies on mammalian muscle during force development, shortening, and lengthening, are re-examined. The isometric force in active muscle goes up substantially on warming from less than 10 °C to temperatures closer to physiological (>30 °C), and the sigmoidal temperature dependence of this force has a half-maximum at ~10 °C. During steady shortening, when force is decreased to a steady level, the sigmoidal curve is more pronounced and shifted to higher temperatures, whereas, in lengthening muscle, the curve is shifted to lower temperatures, and there is a less marked increase with temperature. Even with a small rapid temperature-jump (T-jump), force in active muscle rises in a definitive way. The rate of tension rise is slower with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and faster with increased phosphate. Analysis showed that a T-jump enhances an early, pre-phosphate release step in the acto-myosin (crossbridge) ATPase cycle, thus inducing a force-rise. The sigmoidal dependence of steady force on temperature is due to this endothermic nature of crossbridge force generation. During shortening, the force-generating step and the ATPase cycle are accelerated, whereas during lengthening, they are inhibited. The endothermic force generation is seen in different muscle types (fast, slow, and cardiac). The underlying mechanism may involve a structural change in attached myosin heads and/or their attachments on heat absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Actin-Myosin Interaction in Muscle)
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Open AccessArticle Role for Cystathionine γ Lyase (CSE) in an Ethanol (E)-Induced Lesion in Fetal Brain GSH Homeostasis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051537
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 19 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Earlier, we reported that gestational ethanol (E) can dysregulate neuron glutathione (GSH) homeostasis partially via impairing the EAAC1-mediated inward transport of Cysteine (Cys) and this can affect fetal brain development. In this study, we investigated if there is a role for the transulfuration
[...] Read more.
Earlier, we reported that gestational ethanol (E) can dysregulate neuron glutathione (GSH) homeostasis partially via impairing the EAAC1-mediated inward transport of Cysteine (Cys) and this can affect fetal brain development. In this study, we investigated if there is a role for the transulfuration pathway (TSP), a critical bio-synthetic point to supply Cys in E-induced dysregulation of GSH homeostasis. These studies utilized an in utero E binge model where the pregnant Sprague–Dawley (SD) rat dams received five doses of E at 3.5 g/kg by gastric intubation beginning embryonic day (ED) 17 until ED19 separated by 12 h. The postnatal day 7 (PN7) alcohol model employed an oral dosing of 4 g/kg body weight split into 2 feedings at 2 h interval and an iso-caloric and iso-volumic equivalent maltose-dextrin milk solution served as controls. The in vitro model consisted of cerebral cortical neuron cultures from embryonic day (ED) 16–17 fetus from SD rats and differentiated neurons from ED18 rat cerebral cortical neuroblasts. E concentrations were 4 mg/mL. E induced an accumulation of cystathionine in primary cortical neurons (PCNs), 2nd trimester equivalent in utero binge, and 3rd trimester equivalent PN7 model suggesting that breakdown of cystathionine, a required process for Cys supply is impaired. This was associated with a significant reduction in cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) protein expression in PCN (p < 0.05) and in fetal cerebral cortex in utero (53%, p < 0.05) without a change in the expression of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS). Concomitantly, E decreased Cse mRNA expression in PCNs (by 32% within 6 h of exposure, p < 0.05) and in fetal brain (33%, p < 0.05). In parallel, knock down of CSE in differentiated rat cortical neuroblasts exaggerated the E-induced ROS, GSH loss with a pronounced caspase-3 activation and cell death. These studies illustrate the importance of TSP in CSE-related maintenance of GSH and the downstream events via Cys synthesis in neurons and fetal brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Kudzu Leaf Extract Suppresses the Production of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, Cyclooxygenase-2, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, and Interleukin-6 via Inhibition of JNK, TBK1 and STAT1 in Inflammatory Macrophages
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051536
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep) is a perennial leguminous vine, and its root and flower have been used for herbal medicine in Asia for a long time. Most dietary flavonoids are reported to be concentrated in its root,
[...] Read more.
Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep) is a perennial leguminous vine, and its root and flower have been used for herbal medicine in Asia for a long time. Most dietary flavonoids are reported to be concentrated in its root, not in its aerial parts including leaves. In this study, we investigated whether kudzu leaf and its major constituent, robinin (kaempferol-3-O-robinoside-7-O-rhanmoside) possessed anti-inflammatory activity. To test this hypothesis, we used peritoneal macrophages isolated from BALB/c mice and stimulated the cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS plus interferon (IFN)-γ. Compared with kudzu root extract, its leaf extract was more potent in inhibiting the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Kudzu leaf extract decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and TANK-binding kinase 1(TBK1) with no effects on nuclear factor-κB and activator protein 1 transcriptional activity. Also, kudzu leaf extract inhibited LPS/IFN-γ-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation partly via an altered level of STAT1 expression. Robinin, being present in 0.46% of dry weight of leaf extract, but almost undetected in the root, decreased iNOS protein involving modulation of JNK and STAT1 activation. However, robinin showed no impact on other inflammatory markers. Our data provide evidence that kudzu leaf is an excellent food source of as yet unknown anti-inflammatory constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic Reprogramming by 3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM): A New Perspective to Reverse Obesity through Co-Regulation of Sirtuin 4 and 6 Expression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051535
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Obesity is a complex disease associated with environmental and genetic factors. 3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) has revealed great potential as an effective weight loss drug. We used metabolomics and associated transcriptional gene and protein expression analysis to investigate the tissue specific metabolic reprogramming effects of
[...] Read more.
Obesity is a complex disease associated with environmental and genetic factors. 3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) has revealed great potential as an effective weight loss drug. We used metabolomics and associated transcriptional gene and protein expression analysis to investigate the tissue specific metabolic reprogramming effects of subchronic T1AM treatment at two pharmacological daily doses (10 and 25 mg/kg) on targeted metabolic pathways. Multi-analytical results indicated that T1AM at 25 mg/kg can act as a novel master regulator of both glucose and lipid metabolism in mice through sirtuin-mediated pathways. In liver, we observed an increased gene and protein expression of Sirt6 (a master gene regulator of glucose) and Gck (glucose kinase) and a decreased expression of Sirt4 (a negative regulator of fatty acids oxidation (FAO)), whereas in white adipose tissue only Sirt6 was increased. Metabolomics analysis supported physiological changes at both doses with most increases in FAO, glycolysis indicators and the mitochondrial substrate, at the highest dose of T1AM. Together our results suggest that T1AM acts through sirtuin-mediated pathways to metabolically reprogram fatty acid and glucose metabolism possibly through small molecules signaling. Our novel mechanistic findings indicate that T1AM has a great potential as a drug for the treatment of obesity and possibly diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessReview Skeletal Muscle MicroRNAs as Key Players in the Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051534
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, for which, to date, no effective treatment to ameliorate the clinical manifestations is available. The long-standing view of ALS as affecting only motor neurons has been challenged by the finding that the skeletal muscle
[...] Read more.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, for which, to date, no effective treatment to ameliorate the clinical manifestations is available. The long-standing view of ALS as affecting only motor neurons has been challenged by the finding that the skeletal muscle plays an active role in the disease pathogenesis and can be a valuable target for therapeutic strategies. In recent years, non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, have emerged as important molecules that play key roles in several cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying various human conditions. In this review, we summarize how the expression of some microRNAs is dysregulated in the skeletal muscle of ALS mouse models and patients. Shedding light on the mechanisms underlying microRNAs dysregulation in the skeletal muscle could clarify some of the processes involved in the pathogenesis of ALS and especially identify new promising therapeutic targets in patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of MicroRNAs in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Impact of Bone Fracture on Ischemic Stroke Recovery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051533
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Stroke is one of the most devastating complications of bone fracture, occurring in up to 4% of patients after surgical repair for hip fracture. Bone fracture and ischemic stroke have many common risk factors. The impact of bone fracture on stroke recovery has
[...] Read more.
Stroke is one of the most devastating complications of bone fracture, occurring in up to 4% of patients after surgical repair for hip fracture. Bone fracture and ischemic stroke have many common risk factors. The impact of bone fracture on stroke recovery has not drawn much attention in the research field. Bone fracture could occur in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, which steepens the trajectory of cognitive decline, greatly affects the quality of life, and causes a heavy burden on healthcare resources. In this paper, we reviewed the growing information on the pathophysiological mechanisms by which bone fracture may affect ischemic stroke recovery process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Fibroblasts in the Tumor Microenvironment: Shield or Spear?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051532
Received: 15 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tumorigenesis is a complex process involving dynamic interactions between malignant cells and their surrounding stroma, including both the cellular and acellular components. Within the stroma, fibroblasts represent not only a predominant cell type, but also a major source of the acellular tissue microenvironment
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Tumorigenesis is a complex process involving dynamic interactions between malignant cells and their surrounding stroma, including both the cellular and acellular components. Within the stroma, fibroblasts represent not only a predominant cell type, but also a major source of the acellular tissue microenvironment comprising the extracellular matrix (ECM) and soluble factors. Normal fibroblasts can exert diverse suppressive functions against cancer initiating and metastatic cells via direct cell-cell contact, paracrine signaling by soluble factors, and ECM integrity. The loss of such suppressive functions is an inherent step in tumor progression. A tumor cell-induced switch of normal fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), in turn, triggers a range of pro-tumorigenic signals accompanied by distraction of the normal tissue architecture, thus creating an optimal niche for cancer cells to grow extensively. To further support tumor progression and metastasis, CAFs secrete factors such as ECM remodeling enzymes that further modify the tumor microenvironment in combination with the altered adhesive forces and cell-cell interactions. These paradoxical tumor suppressive and promoting actions of fibroblasts are the focus of this review, highlighting the heterogenic molecular properties of both normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts, as well as their main mechanisms of action, including the emerging impact on immunomodulation and different therapy responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment)
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Open AccessArticle A Functional Mutation in KIAA1462 Promoter Decreases Glucocorticoid Receptor Affinity and Affects Egg-Laying Performance in Yangzhou Geese
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051531
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The identification of genetic markers is valuable for improving the egg-laying performance in goose production. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1714766362 in an intron of the goose KIAA1462 gene was found to be relevant to laying performance in our previous study. However, its function
[...] Read more.
The identification of genetic markers is valuable for improving the egg-laying performance in goose production. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1714766362 in an intron of the goose KIAA1462 gene was found to be relevant to laying performance in our previous study. However, its function remains unclear. In this study, the full-length coding sequence of KIAA1462 gene was firstly characterized in Yangzhou geese. Q-PCR (Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction) results showed that KIAA1462 was highly expressed in the liver, ovary, and mature F1 follicles. For SNP rs1714766362, geese with the AA genotype showed better laying performance than the TT ones and exhibited a higher KIAA1462 expression level in the ovary. Gain- and loss-of function experiments in granulosa cells revealed that KIAA1462 affected the expression of the apoptosis marker gene caspase-3. Considering that rs1714766362 locates in an intron area, we compared the KIAA1462 promoter regions of AA and TT individuals and identified the SNP c.-413C>G (Genbank ss2137504176), which was completely linked to SNP rs1714766362. According to the transcription factor prediction results, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) would bind to the SNP site containing the C but not the G allele. In this study, we proved this hypothesis by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). In summary, we identified a novel mutation in the promoter of KIAA1462 gene which can modulate GR binding affinity and affect the laying performance of geese. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of 2-Amino-5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3-thiazine and Its Derivative against Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic and Intestinal Injury in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051530
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Ionizing radiation (IR) acts as an external stimulating factor, when it acts on the body, it will activate NF- κ B and cause the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and induce a large amount of nitric oxide (NO) production. NO and
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Ionizing radiation (IR) acts as an external stimulating factor, when it acts on the body, it will activate NF- κ B and cause the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and induce a large amount of nitric oxide (NO) production. NO and other reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNS and ROS) can cause damage to biological molecules and affect their physiological functions. Our study investigated the protective role of 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3-thiazine hydrobromide (2-ADT) and 2-acetylamino-5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3-thiazine hydrobromide (2-AADT), two nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, against radiation-induced hematopoietic and intestinal injury in mice. Pretreatment with 2-ADT and 2-AADT improved the survival of mice exposed to a lethal dose of radiation, especially, the survival rate of the 2-ADT 20 mg/kg group was significantly higher than that of the vehicle group (p < 0.001). Our findings indicated that the radioprotective actions of 2-ADT and 2-AADT are achieved via accelerating hematopoietic system recovery, decreasing oxidative and nitrosative stress by enhancing the antioxidant defense system and reducing NO as well as peroxynitrite (ONOO ) content, and mitigating the radiation-induced DNA damage evaluated by comet assay. These results suggest that 2-ADT and 2-AADT may have great application potential in ameliorating the damages of radiotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessReview The CD36-PPARγ Pathway in Metabolic Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051529
Received: 8 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Uncovering the biological role of nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has greatly advanced our knowledge of the transcriptional control of glucose and energy metabolism. As such, pharmacological activation of PPARγ has emerged as an efficient approach for treating metabolic disorders with the
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Uncovering the biological role of nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has greatly advanced our knowledge of the transcriptional control of glucose and energy metabolism. As such, pharmacological activation of PPARγ has emerged as an efficient approach for treating metabolic disorders with the current use of thiazolidinediones to improve insulin resistance in diabetic patients. The recent identification of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) as potent inducers of PPARγ through activation of the scavenger receptor CD36 has defined a novel alternative to regulate essential aspects of lipid and energy metabolism. Recent advances on the emerging role of CD36 and GHRP hexarelin in regulating PPARγ downstream actions with benefits on atherosclerosis, hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis and fat mitochondrial biogenesis are summarized here. The response of PPARγ coactivator PGC-1 is also discussed in these effects. The identification of the GHRP-CD36-PPARγ pathway in controlling various tissue metabolic functions provides an interesting option for metabolic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PPARs in Cellular and Whole Body Energy Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview Melatonin: A Multifunctional Factor in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051528
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine) is a universal molecule that is present in animals and plants. It has been detected in different kinds of plants and organs in different levels. Melatonin in plants shares the same initial biosynthesis compound with auxin, and therefore functions
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Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine) is a universal molecule that is present in animals and plants. It has been detected in different kinds of plants and organs in different levels. Melatonin in plants shares the same initial biosynthesis compound with auxin, and therefore functions as indole-3-acetic acid like hormones. Moreover, melatonin is involved in regulating plant growth and development, protecting plants against biotic and abiotic stresses, such as salt, drought, cold, heat and heavy metal stresses. Melatonin improves the stress tolerance of plants via a direct pathway, which scavenges reactive oxygen species directly, and indirect pathways, such as increasing antioxidate enzymes activity, photosynthetic efficiency and metabolites content. In addition, melatonin plays a role in regulating gene expression, and hence affects performance of plants. In this review, the biosynthesis pathway, growth and development regulation, and the environment stress response of melatonin in plants are summarized and future research directions and priorities of melatonin in plants are speculated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacological Basis for the Use of Evodiamine in Alzheimer’s Disease: Antioxidation and Antiapoptosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051527
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Evodiamine (Evo), a major alkaloid compound isolated from the dry unripened fruit of Evodia fructus, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The present study sought to explore the neuroprotective effects of Evo in l-glutamate (l-Glu)-induced apoptosis of HT22 cells,
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Evodiamine (Evo), a major alkaloid compound isolated from the dry unripened fruit of Evodia fructus, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The present study sought to explore the neuroprotective effects of Evo in l-glutamate (l-Glu)-induced apoptosis of HT22 cells, and in a d-galactose and aluminum trichloride-developed Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model. Evo significantly enhanced cell viability, inhibited the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, ameliorated mitochondrial function, increased the B-cell lymphoma-2 protein content, and inhibited the high expression levels of Bax, Bad, and cleaved-caspase-3 and -8 in l-Glu-induced HT22 cells. Evo also enhanced the phosphorylation activities of protein kinase B and the mammalian target of rapamycin in the l-Glu-induced HT22 cells. In the AD mouse model, Evo reduced the aimless and chaotic movements, reduced the time spent in the central area in the open field test, and decreased the escape latency time in the Morris water maze test. Evo reduced the deposition of amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) in the brain, and increased the serum level of Aβ42, but showed no significant effects on Aβ40. In addition, six weeks of Evo administration significantly suppressed oxidative stress by modulating the related enzyme levels. In the central cholinergic system of AD mice, Evo significantly increased the serum levels of acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase and decreased the level of acetylcholinesterase in the serum, hypothalamus, and brain. Our results provide experimental evidence that Evo can serve as a neuroprotective candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuron Cell Death)
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Open AccessReview Genomics of Fibromuscular Dysplasia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051526
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) is “an idiopathic, segmental, non-atherosclerotic and non-inflammatory disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to stenosis of small and medium-sized arteries” (Persu, et al; 2014). FMD can lead to hypertension, arterial dissections, subarachnoid haemorrhage, stroke or mesenteric ischemia. The
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Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) is “an idiopathic, segmental, non-atherosclerotic and non-inflammatory disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to stenosis of small and medium-sized arteries” (Persu, et al; 2014). FMD can lead to hypertension, arterial dissections, subarachnoid haemorrhage, stroke or mesenteric ischemia. The pathophysiology of the disease remains elusive. While familial cases are rare (<5%) in contemporary FMD registries, there is evidence in favour of the existence of multiple genetic factors involved in this vascular disease. Recent collaborative efforts allowed the identification of a first genetic locus associated with FMD. This intronic variant located in the phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene (PHACTR1) may influence the transcription activity of the endothelin-1 gene (EDN1) located nearby on chromosome 6. Interestingly, the PHACTR1 locus has also been involved in vascular hypertrophy in normal subjects, carotid dissection, migraine and coronary artery disease. National and international registries of FMD patients, with deep and harmonised phenotypic and genetic characterisation, are expected to be instrumental to improve our understanding of the genetic basis and pathophysiology of this intriguing vascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Genomics in the Management of Hypertension)
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Open AccessArticle Hyperoxia Disrupts Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1/2-Induced Angiogenesis in the Developing Lungs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051525
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 20 May 2018
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Abstract
Hyperoxia contributes to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of infants that is characterized by interrupted alveologenesis. Disrupted angiogenesis inhibits alveologenesis, but the mechanisms of disrupted angiogenesis in the developing lungs are poorly understood. In pre-clinical BPD models, hyperoxia
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Hyperoxia contributes to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of infants that is characterized by interrupted alveologenesis. Disrupted angiogenesis inhibits alveologenesis, but the mechanisms of disrupted angiogenesis in the developing lungs are poorly understood. In pre-clinical BPD models, hyperoxia increases the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2; however, its effects on the lung endothelial ERK1/2 signaling are unclear. Further, whether ERK1/2 activation promotes lung angiogenesis in infants is unknown. Hence, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) hyperoxia exposure will increase lung endothelial ERK1/2 signaling in neonatal C57BL/6J (WT) mice and in fetal human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs); (2) ERK1/2 inhibition will disrupt angiogenesis in vitro by repressing cell cycle progression. In mice, hyperoxia exposure transiently increased lung endothelial ERK1/2 activation at one week of life, before inhibiting it at two weeks of life. Interestingly, hyperoxia-mediated decrease in ERK1/2 activation in mice was associated with decreased angiogenesis and increased endothelial cell apoptosis. Hyperoxia also transiently activated ERK1/2 in HPAECs. ERK1/2 inhibition disrupted angiogenesis in vitro, and these effects were associated with altered levels of proteins that modulate cell cycle progression. Collectively, these findings support our hypotheses, emphasizing that the ERK1/2 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for BPD infants with decreased lung vascularization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preferential Inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling by Novel Benzimidazole Compounds in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051524
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 20 May 2018
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Abstract
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is upregulated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to other breast cancer subtypes and normal tissues. Current Wnt/β-catenin inhibitors, such as niclosamide, target the pathway nonspecifically and exhibit poor pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in vivo. Niclosamide targets other pathways, including mTOR, STAT3 and Notch.
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Wnt/β-catenin signaling is upregulated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to other breast cancer subtypes and normal tissues. Current Wnt/β-catenin inhibitors, such as niclosamide, target the pathway nonspecifically and exhibit poor pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in vivo. Niclosamide targets other pathways, including mTOR, STAT3 and Notch. Novel benzimidazoles have been developed to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling with greater specificity. The compounds SRI33576 and SRI35889 were discovered to produce more cytotoxicity in TNBC cell lines than in noncancerous cells. The agents also downregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling mediators LRP6, cyclin D1, survivin and nuclear active β-catenin. In addition, SRI33576 did not affect mTOR, STAT3 and Notch signaling in TNBC and noncancerous cells. SRI35889 inhibited mTOR signaling less in noncancerous than in cancerous cells, while not affecting STAT3 and Notch pathways. Compounds SRI32529, SRI35357 and SRI35361 were not selectively cytotoxic against TNBC cell lines compared to MCF10A cells. While SRI32529 inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling, the compound also mitigated mTOR, STAT3 and Notch signaling. SRI33576 and SRI35889 were identified as cytotoxic and selective inhibitors of Wnt/β-catenin signaling with therapeutic potential to treat TNBC in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Receptor-Targeted Cancer Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Neuronal Dysfunction Associated with Cholesterol Deregulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051523
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
Cholesterol metabolism is crucial for cells and, in particular, its biosynthesis in the central nervous system occurs in situ, and its deregulation involves morphological changes that cause functional variations and trigger programmed cell death. The pathogenesis of rare diseases, such as Mevalonate Kinase
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Cholesterol metabolism is crucial for cells and, in particular, its biosynthesis in the central nervous system occurs in situ, and its deregulation involves morphological changes that cause functional variations and trigger programmed cell death. The pathogenesis of rare diseases, such as Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency or Smith–Lemli–Opitz Syndrome, arises due to enzymatic defects in the cholesterol metabolic pathways, resulting in a shortage of downstream products. The most severe clinical manifestations of these diseases appear as neurological defects. Expanding the knowledge of this biological mechanism will be useful for identifying potential targets and preventing neuronal damage. Several studies have demonstrated that deregulation of the cholesterol pathway induces mitochondrial dysfunction as the result of respiratory chain damage. We set out to determine whether mitochondrial damage may be prevented by using protective mitochondria-targeted compounds, such as MitoQ, in a neuronal cell line treated with a statin to induce a biochemical block of the cholesterol pathway. Evidence from the literature suggests that mitochondria play a crucial role in the apoptotic mechanism secondary to blocking the cholesterol pathway. Our study shows that MitoQ, administered as a preventive agent, could counteract the cell damage induced by statins in the early stages, but its protective role fades over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuron Cell Death)
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Open AccessArticle Interplay between ER Ca2+ Binding Proteins, STIM1 and STIM2, Is Required for Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051522
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), a fundamentally important homeostatic and Ca2+ signaling pathway in many types of cells, is activated by the direct interaction of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-binding protein, with Ca2+-selective Orai1
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Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), a fundamentally important homeostatic and Ca2+ signaling pathway in many types of cells, is activated by the direct interaction of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-binding protein, with Ca2+-selective Orai1 channels localized in the plasma membrane. While much is known about the regulation of SOCE by STIM1, the role of stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM2) in SOCE remains incompletely understood. Here, using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats -CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) genomic editing and molecular imaging, we investigated the function of STIM2 in NIH 3T3 fibroblast and αT3 cell SOCE. We found that deletion of Stim2 expression reduced SOCE by more than 90% in NIH 3T3 cells. STIM1 expression levels were unaffected in the Stim2 null cells. However, quantitative confocal fluorescence imaging demonstrated that in the absence of Stim2 expression, STIM1 did not translocate or form punctae in plasma membrane-associated ER membrane (PAM) junctions following ER Ca2+ store depletion. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging of intact, living cells revealed that the formation of STIM1 and Orai1 complexes in PAM nanodomains was significantly reduced in the Stim2 knockout cells. Our findings indicate that STIM2 plays an essential role in regulating SOCE in NIH 3T3 and αT3 cells and suggests that dynamic interplay between STIM1 and STIM2 induced by ER Ca2+ store discharge is necessary for STIM1 translocation, its interaction with Orai1, and activation of SOCE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Binding Proteins)
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Open AccessArticle Cell Propagation of Cholera Toxin CTA ADP-Ribosylating Factor by Exosome Mediated Transfer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051521
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we report how the cholera toxin (CT) A subunit (CTA), the enzyme moiety responsible for signaling alteration in host cells, enters the exosomal pathway, secretes extracellularly, transmits itself to a cell population. The first evidence for long-term transmission of CT’s
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In this study, we report how the cholera toxin (CT) A subunit (CTA), the enzyme moiety responsible for signaling alteration in host cells, enters the exosomal pathway, secretes extracellularly, transmits itself to a cell population. The first evidence for long-term transmission of CT’s toxic effect via extracellular vesicles was obtained in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. To follow the CT intracellular route towards exosome secretion, we used a novel strategy for generating metabolically-labeled fluorescent exosomes that can be counted by flow cytometry assay (FACS) and characterized. Our results clearly show the association of CT with exosomes, together with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) molecules, proteins required for translocation of CTA across the ER membrane into the cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed direct internalization of CT containing fluorescent exo into CHO cells coupled with morphological changes in the recipient cells that are characteristic of CT action. Moreover, Me665 cells treated with CT-containing exosomes showed an increase in Adenosine 3’,5’-Cyclic Monophosphate (cAMP) level, reaching levels comparable to those seen in cells exposed directly to CT. Our results prompt the idea that CT can exploit an exosome-mediated cell communication pathway to extend its pathophysiological action beyond an initial host cell, into a multitude of cells. This finding could have implications for cholera disease pathogenesis and epidemiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Protein Toxins: Enemies within or Unexpected Friends)
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Open AccessArticle Serine Protease Inhibitor SERPINE2 Reversibly Modulates Murine Sperm Capacitation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051520
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
SERPINE2 (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2), predominantly expressed in the seminal vesicle, can inhibit murine sperm capacitation, suggesting its role as a sperm decapacitation factor (DF). A characteristic of DF is its ability to reverse the capacitation process. Here, we investigated
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SERPINE2 (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2), predominantly expressed in the seminal vesicle, can inhibit murine sperm capacitation, suggesting its role as a sperm decapacitation factor (DF). A characteristic of DF is its ability to reverse the capacitation process. Here, we investigated whether SERPINE2 can reversibly modulate sperm capacitation. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that SERPINE2 was bound onto both capacitated and uncapacitated sperm. It reversed the increase in BSA-induced sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation levels. The effective dose and incubation time were found to be >0.1 mg/mL and >60 min, respectively. Calcium ion levels in the capacitated sperm were reduced to a level similar to that in uncapacitated sperm after 90 min of incubation with SERPINE2. In addition, the acrosome reaction of capacitated sperm was inhibited after 90 min of incubation with SERPINE2. Oviductal sperm was readily induced to undergo the acrosome reaction using the A23187 ionophore; however, the acrosome reaction was significantly reduced after incubation with SERPINE2 for 60 and 120 min. These findings suggested that SERPINE2 prevented as well as reversed sperm capacitation in vitro. It also prevented the acrosome reaction in in vivo-capacitated sperm isolated from the oviduct. Thus, SERPINE2 could reversibly modulate murine sperm capacitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Hyaluronic Acid Influence on Normal and Osteoarthritic Tissue-Engineered Cartilage
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051519
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to identify gene expression profiles associated with hyaluronic acid (HA) treatment of normal and osteoarthritis (OA)-like tissue-engineered cartilage. 3D cartilage micromasses were treated with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (OA-inducer) and/or HA for 7 days. Viability was examined
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The aim of this study is to identify gene expression profiles associated with hyaluronic acid (HA) treatment of normal and osteoarthritis (OA)-like tissue-engineered cartilage. 3D cartilage micromasses were treated with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (OA-inducer) and/or HA for 7 days. Viability was examined by PI/FDA staining. To document extracellular matrix (ECM) formation, glycosaminoglycans (GAG) were stained with Safranin-O and cartilage-specific type II collagen was detected immunohistochemically. Genome-wide gene expression was determined using microarray analysis. Normal and OA-like micromasses remained vital and showed a spherical morphology and homogenous cell distribution regardless of the treatment. There was no distinct difference in immunolabeling for type II collagen. Safranin-O staining demonstrated a typical depletion of GAG in TNF-α-treated micromasses (−73%), although the extent was limited in the presence of HA (−39%). The microarray data showed that HA can influence the cartilage metabolism via upregulation of TIMP3 in OA-like condition. The upregulation of VEGFA and ANKRD37 genes implies a supportive role of HA in cartilage maturation and survival. The results of this study validate the feasibility of the in vitro OA model for the investigation of HA. On the cellular level, no inhibiting or activating effect of HA was shown. Microarray data demonstrated a minor impact of HA on gene expression level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Basis of Musculoskeletal Regeneration)
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Open AccessArticle Chlorogenic Acid Improves the Regorafenib Effects in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051518
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
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Abstract
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a polyphenol present in many human dietary foods. Several studies indicated a beneficial role of CGA in the prevention of cancer and an enhancement of chemotherapy when combined with CGA in the treatment of human hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Drug toxicity,
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Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a polyphenol present in many human dietary foods. Several studies indicated a beneficial role of CGA in the prevention of cancer and an enhancement of chemotherapy when combined with CGA in the treatment of human hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Drug toxicity, resistance and subsequent disease progression represent a problem in HCC management, although treatment with the multikinase inhibitor Regorafenib improved overall survival. This study focused on the evaluation of the effects of combined treatment using both low Regorafenib concentrations and CGA as natural compound in HCC cells. The analysis of cell proliferation by Ki67 staining and cell cycle progression showed that CGA enhanced Regorafenib-mediated cell growth inhibition. Moreover, CGA potentiated the apoptotic effect of Regorafenib by the activation of the pro-apoptotic Annexin V, Bax and Caspase 3/7 and the inhibition of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 and Bcl-xL. Combined treatments were also effective in inhibiting cell motility. The mechanisms underlying the positive effects of combining CGA and Regorafenib were also addressed and an increased inhibition of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)and PI3K/Akt/mTORC (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling was observed. Overall, these data demonstrated that co-treatment with Regorafenib and CGA enhanced Regorafenib action, reducing its cytotoxicity in HCC cells. In conclusion, this drug combination could be considered as a safe and more effective approach in HCC therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Deleterious Effect of Advanced CKD on Glyoxalase System Activity not Limited to Diabetes Aetiology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051517
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Methylglyoxal production is increased in diabetes. Methylglyoxal is efficiently detoxified by enzyme glyoxalase 1 (GLO1). The aim was to study the effect of diabetic and CKD milieu on (a) GLO1 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells; (b) GLO1 protein levels in whole
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Methylglyoxal production is increased in diabetes. Methylglyoxal is efficiently detoxified by enzyme glyoxalase 1 (GLO1). The aim was to study the effect of diabetic and CKD milieu on (a) GLO1 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells; (b) GLO1 protein levels in whole blood; and (c) GLO1 activity in RBCs in vivo in diabetic vs. non-diabetic subjects with normal or slightly reduced vs. considerably reduced renal function (CKD1-2 vs. CKD3-4). A total of 83 subjects were included in the study. Gene expression was measured using real-time PCR, and protein levels were quantified using Western blotting. Erythrocyte GLO1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically. GLO1 gene expression was significantly higher in subjects with CKD1-2 compared to CKD3-4. GLO1 protein level was lower in diabetics than in non-diabetics. GLO1 activity in RBCs differed between the four groups being significantly higher in diabetics with CKD1-2 vs. healthy subjects and vs. nondiabeticsfig with CKD3-4. GLO1 activity was significantly higher in diabetics compared to nondiabetics. In conclusion, both diabetes and CKD affects the glyoxalase system. It appears that CKD in advanced stages has prevailing and suppressive effects compared to hyperglycaemia. CKD decreases GLO1 gene expression and protein levels (together with diabetes) without concomitant changes of GLO1 activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glyoxalase System in Health and Disease 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Temperature Changes on Serum Protein Adsorption on Thermoresponsive Cell-Culture Surfaces Monitored by A Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051516
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Abstract
Thermoresponsive cell-culture polystyrene (PS) surfaces that are grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) facilitate the cultivation of cells at 37 °C and the detachment of cultured cells as a sheet with an underlying extracellular matrix (ECM) by reducing the temperature. However, the ECM
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Thermoresponsive cell-culture polystyrene (PS) surfaces that are grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) facilitate the cultivation of cells at 37 °C and the detachment of cultured cells as a sheet with an underlying extracellular matrix (ECM) by reducing the temperature. However, the ECM and cell detachment mechanisms are still unclear because the detachment of cells from thermoresponsive surfaces is governed by complex interactions among the cells/ECM/surface. To explore the dynamic behavior of serum protein adsorption/desorption, thermoresponsive surfaces that correspond to thermoresponsive tissue-culture PS dishes were formed on sensor chips for quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and temperature-dependent frequency and dissipation shifts, Δf and ΔD, using QCM-D revealed that the thermoresponsive polymers were successfully grafted onto oxidized, thin PS films on the surfaces of the sensor chips. Increased amounts of adsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibronectin (FN) were observed on the thermoresponsive polymer-grafted surfaces at 37 °C when compared with those at 20 °C because of enhanced hydrophobic interactions with the hydrophobic, thermoresponsive surface. While the calculated masses of adsorbed BSA and FN using QCM-D were 3–5 times more than those that were obtained from radiolabeling, the values were utilized for relative comparisons among the same substrate. More importantly, the thermoresponsive, dynamic behavior of serum protein adsorption/desorption was monitored using the QCM-D technique. Observations of this dynamic behavior revealed that the BSA and FN that were adsorbed at 37 °C remained on both surfaces after decreasing the temperature to 20 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Polymers for Biomedical Applications)
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