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Special Issue "Melatonin from an Antioxidant to a Classic Hormone or a Tissue Factor: Experimental and Clinical Aspects 2018"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Rosa M. Sainz
Website
Guest Editor
Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
Interests: Redox regulation; antioxidant enzymes; cell signaling; prostate cancer; cell metabolism
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Juan C. Mayo
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Departamento de Morfologia y Biologia Celular, Instituto Universitario Oncologico del Principado de Asturias (IUOPA), Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain
Interests: Redox regulation, antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress, prostate cancer, melatonin
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Melatonin, the primary product of the pineal gland, was discovered in the late 1950s as a hormonal factor that lightens the skin of tadpoles. This effect, the first reported biological function of melatonin, is far from revealing the actual role of the indole. In the mid-1960s, Hoffman and Reiter found that seasonal fluctuations of melatonin synchronize reproductive activities in seasonal breeding animals. Since then, researchers’ knowledge about the indole has changed dramatically. Not only is the essential function of the cell questioned, but also where the indole can be found, and how it is synthesized.

Melatonin is released at night with a duration inverse to that of the photoperiod, participating in the transmission of the circadian and seasonal message to the organism. In humans, the pineal hormone is also used to readjust the circadian phases, after time shifts derived from jet lag or maladapted shift work, in sleep disorders, blind people or in circadian-related mood disorders. Additionally, melatonin was found to be an endogenous potent-free radical scavenger and enhancer of the antioxidant system, thus protecting cells from the harmful effect of pro-oxidants. This protecting effect should be added to the immunomodulatory and anti-proliferative actions widely reported in many cell and animal models. More recently, the physiological interaction between melatonin and glucose metabolism has been the focus of attention of several research groups. Melatonin controls the daily rhythms of glucose levels by altering insulin release, or by inhibiting glucose uptake. Melatonin functions are mediated by membrane receptors MT1 and MT2, intracellular binding sites or as a consequence of receptor-independent actions.

All papers related to any aspect of melatonin physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as clinical reports, will be considered for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Rosa M. Sainz
Prof. Dr. Juan C. Mayo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • animal
  • plant
  • microbiota
  • metabolism
  • glucose
  • cancer
  • diabetes
  • insulin resistance
  • stem cells
  • genomics
  • metabolomics
  • proteomics
  • cell growth
  • cell death
  • differentiation
  • apoptosis
  • oxidative stress
  • redox signalling

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Melatonin Influences Structural Plasticity in the Axons of Granule Cells in the Dentate Gyrus of Balb/C Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010073 - 25 Dec 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Melatonin, the main product synthesized by the pineal gland, acts as a regulator of the generation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG). Newborn neurons buffer the deleterious effects of stress and are involved in learning and memory processes. Furthermore, melatonin, through [...] Read more.
Melatonin, the main product synthesized by the pineal gland, acts as a regulator of the generation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG). Newborn neurons buffer the deleterious effects of stress and are involved in learning and memory processes. Furthermore, melatonin, through the regulation of the cytoskeleton, favors dendrite maturation of newborn neurons. Moreover, newborn neurons send their axons via the mossy fiber tract to Cornu Ammonis 3 (CA3) region to form synapses with pyramidal neurons. Thus, axons of newborn cells contribute to the mossy fiber projection and their plasticity correlates with better performance in several behavioral tasks. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the impact of exogenous melatonin (8 mg/kg) administered daily for one- or six-months on the structural plasticity of infrapyramidal- and suprapyramidal mossy fiber projection of granule cells in the DG in male Balb/C mice. We analyzed the mossy fiber projection through the staining of calbindin, that is a calcium-binding protein localized in dendrites and axons. We first found an increase in the number of calbindin-positive cells in the granular cell layer in the DG (11%, 33%) after treatment. Futhermore, we found an increase in the volume of suprapyramidal (>135%, 59%) and infrapyramidal (>128%, 36%) mossy fiber projection of granule neurons in the DG after treatment. We also found an increase in the volume of CA3 region (>146%, 33%) after treatment, suggesting that melatonin modulates the structural plasticity of the mossy fiber projection to establish functional synapses in the hippocampus. Together, the data suggest that, in addition to the previously reported effects of melatonin on the generation of new neurons and its antidepressant like effects, melatonin also modulates the structural plasticity of axons in granule cells in the DG. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Melatonin and Its Metabolites Ameliorate UVR-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Human MNT-1 Melanoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123786 - 28 Nov 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
Melatonin (Mel) is the major biologically active molecule secreted by the pineal gland. Mel and its metabolites, 6-hydroxymelatonin (6(OH)Mel) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT), possess a variety of functions, including the scavenging of free radicals and the induction of protective or reparative mechanisms in the [...] Read more.
Melatonin (Mel) is the major biologically active molecule secreted by the pineal gland. Mel and its metabolites, 6-hydroxymelatonin (6(OH)Mel) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT), possess a variety of functions, including the scavenging of free radicals and the induction of protective or reparative mechanisms in the cell. Their amphiphilic character allows them to cross cellular membranes and reach subcellular organelles, including the mitochondria. Herein, the action of Mel, 6(OH)Mel, and 5-MT in human MNT-1 melanoma cells against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation was investigated. The dose of 50 mJ/cm2 caused a significant reduction of cell viability up to 48%, while investigated compounds counteracted this deleterious effect. UVB exposure increased catalase activity and led to a simultaneous Ca++ influx (16%), while tested compounds prevented these disturbances. Additional analysis focused on mitochondrial respiration performed in isolated mitochondria from the liver of BALB/cJ mice where Mel, 6(OH)Mel, and 5-MT significantly enhanced the oxidative phosphorylation at the dose of 10−6 M with lower effects seen at 10−9 or 10−4 M. In conclusion, Mel, 6(OH)Mel and 5-MT protect MNT-1 cells, which express melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) against UVB-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, including the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes on the Pineal Gland in the Domestic Pig
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103077 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Several observations from experiments in rodents and human patients suggest that diabetes affects pineal gland function, including melatonin secretion; however, the accumulated data are not consistent. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the pineal [...] Read more.
Several observations from experiments in rodents and human patients suggest that diabetes affects pineal gland function, including melatonin secretion; however, the accumulated data are not consistent. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the pineal gland in the domestic pig, a species widely used as a model in various biomedical studies. The study was performed on 10 juvenile pigs, which were divided into two groups: control and diabetic. Diabetes was evoked by administration of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg of body weight). After six weeks, the animals were euthanized between 12.00 and 14.00, and the pineal glands were removed and divided into two equal parts, which were used for biochemical analyses and for preparation of explants for the superfusion culture. The pineal contents (per 100 μg protein) of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindole acetic acid, 5-methoxytryptophol, and 5-methoxytryptamine were significantly lower in diabetic pigs than in control pigs. In contrast, the level of N-acetylserotonin was significantly higher in diabetic animals. No significant differences were found in the level of melatonin between control and experimental pigs. The amounts of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were significantly lower in the pineal glands of diabetic animals. The level of vanillylmandelic acid was higher in diabetic pigs. No differences were observed in the level of basal and NE-stimulated release of N-acetylserotonin or melatonin between the pineal explants prepared from control and experimental animals. In vitro treatment with insulin was ineffective. In conclusion, streptozotocin-induced diabetes affects both indole metabolism and adrenergic neurotransmission in the pig pineal gland. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Melatonin Can Strengthen the Effect of Retinoic Acid in HL-60 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2873; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102873 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Melatonin is produced by the pineal gland. It can be regarded as an anticancer agent and used for combined therapy, owing to its oncostatic, antioxidant, and immunoregulatory activities. Retinoic acid is widely used for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia; however, it has [...] Read more.
Melatonin is produced by the pineal gland. It can be regarded as an anticancer agent and used for combined therapy, owing to its oncostatic, antioxidant, and immunoregulatory activities. Retinoic acid is widely used for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia; however, it has adverse effects on the human organism. We investigated the effect of melatonin and reduced concentrations of retinoic acid on the activation of proliferation in acute promyelocytic leukemiaon a cell model HL-60. The combined effect of these compounds leads to a reduction in the number of cells by 70% and the index of mitotic activity by 64%. Combined treatment with melatonin and retinoic acid decreased the expression of the Bcl-2. The mitochondrial isoform VDAC1 can be a target in the treatment of different tumors. The combined effect of and retinoic acid at a low concentration (10 nM) decreased VDAC1 expression. Melatonin in combination with retinoic acid produced a similar effect on the expression of the translocator protein. The coprecipitation of VDAC with 2′,3′-cyclonucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase implies a possible role of its in cancer development. The combined effect of retinoic acid and melatonin decreased the activity of the electron transport chain complexes. The changes in the activation of proliferation in HL-60 cells, the mitotic index, and Bcl-2 expression under combined effect of retinoic acid (10 nM) with melatonin (1 mM) are similar to changes that are induced by 1 μM retinoic acid. Our results suggest that MEL is able to improve the action the other chemotherapeutic agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Responses of Transgenic Melatonin-Enriched Goats on LPS Stimulation and the Proteogenomic Profiles of Their PBMCs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082406 - 15 Aug 2018
Abstract
The anti-inflammatory activity of melatonin (MT) has been well documented; however, little is known regarding endogenously occurring MT in this respect, especially for large animals. In the current study, we created a MT-enriched animal model (goats) overexpressing the MT synthetase gene Aanat. [...] Read more.
The anti-inflammatory activity of melatonin (MT) has been well documented; however, little is known regarding endogenously occurring MT in this respect, especially for large animals. In the current study, we created a MT-enriched animal model (goats) overexpressing the MT synthetase gene Aanat. The responses of these animals to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation were systematically studied. It was found that LPS treatment exacerbated the inflammatory response in wild-type (WT) goats and increased their temperature to 40 °C. In addition, their granulocyte counts were also significantly elevated. In contrast, these symptoms were not observed in transgenic goats with LPS treatment. The rescue study with MT injection into WT goats who were treated with LPS confirmed that the protective effects in transgenic goats against LPS were attributed to a high level of endogenously produced MT. The proteomic analysis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from the transgenic animals uncovered several potential mechanisms. MT suppressed the lysosome formation as well as its function by downregulation of the lysosome-associated genes Lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R), and Arylsulfatase B (ARSB). A high level of MT enhanced the antioxidant capacity of these cells to reduce the cell apoptosis induced by the LPS. In addition, the results also uncovered previously unknown information that showed that MT may have protective effects on some human diseases, including tuberculosis, bladder cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis, by downregulation of these disease-associated genes. All these observations warranted further investigations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Timing of Melatonin Administration Is Crucial for Its Antidepressant-Like Effect in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082278 - 03 Aug 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland with a circadian rhythm in synchrony with the environmental light/dark cycle. A gradual increase in circulating levels of melatonin occur after lights off, reaching its maximum around the middle of the dark phase. Agonists of melatonin [...] Read more.
Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland with a circadian rhythm in synchrony with the environmental light/dark cycle. A gradual increase in circulating levels of melatonin occur after lights off, reaching its maximum around the middle of the dark phase. Agonists of melatonin receptors have proved effectiveness as antidepressants in clinical trials. However, there is contradictory evidence about the potential antidepressant effect of melatonin itself. Herein we studied melatonin administration in mice at two zeitgeber times (ZT; ZT = 0 lights on; 12:12 L/D), one hour before the beginning (ZT11) and at the middle (ZT18) of the dark phase after either a single or a three-dose protocol. Behavioral despair was assessed through a forced-swimming test (FST) or a tail suspension test (TST), at ZT18.5. A single dose of 4 mg/kg melatonin at ZT11 was effective to reduce the immobility time in both tests. However, acute administration of melatonin at ZT18 was not effective in mice subjected to FST, and a higher dose (16 mg/kg) was required to reduce immobility time in the TST. A three-dose administration protocol of 16 mg/kg melatonin (ZT18, ZT11, and ZT18) significantly reduced immobility time in FST. Data indicate that the timely administration of melatonin could improve its antidepressant-like effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
β-Adrenoceptors Trigger Melatonin Synthesis in Phagocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082182 - 26 Jul 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
Melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetylserotonin), the pineal hormone, is also synthesized by immune-competent cells. The pineal hormone signals darkness, while melatonin synthesized on demand by activated macrophages at any hour of the day acts locally, favoring regulatory/tolerant phenotypes. Activation of β-adrenoceptors in pinealocytes is [...] Read more.
Melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetylserotonin), the pineal hormone, is also synthesized by immune-competent cells. The pineal hormone signals darkness, while melatonin synthesized on demand by activated macrophages at any hour of the day acts locally, favoring regulatory/tolerant phenotypes. Activation of β-adrenoceptors in pinealocytes is the main route for triggering melatonin synthesis. However, despite the well-known role of β-adrenoceptors in the resolution macrophage phenotype (M2), and the relevance of macrophage synthesized melatonin in facilitating phagocytic activity, there is no information regarding whether activation of β-adrenoceptors would induce melatonin synthesis by monocytes. Here we show that catecholamines stimulate melatonin synthesis in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Activation of β-adrenoceptors promotes the synthesis of melatonin by stimulating cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and by activating the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Considering the great number of macrophages around sympathetic nerve terminals, and the relevance of this system for maintaining macrophages in stages compatible to low-grade inflammation, our data open the possibility that extra-pineal melatonin acts as an autocrine/paracrine signal in macrophages under resolution or tolerant phenotypes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Mechanism of Melatonin and Its Receptor MT2 Involved in the Development of Bovine Granulosa Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072028 - 12 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) are a critical approach to investigate the mechanism of gene regulation during folliculogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of MT2 in bovine GCs, and assess whether MT2 silencing affected GCs response to melatonin. We [...] Read more.
Ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) are a critical approach to investigate the mechanism of gene regulation during folliculogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of MT2 in bovine GCs, and assess whether MT2 silencing affected GCs response to melatonin. We found that MT2 silencing significantly decreased the secretion of progesterone and estradiol, and increased the concentration of inhibin B and activin B. To further reveal the regulatory mechanism of MT2 silencing on steroids synthesis, it was found that the expression of CYP19A1 and CYP11A1 enzymes (steroid hormone synthesis) were down-regulated, while genes related to hormonal synthesis (StAR, RUNX2, INHA and INHBB) were up-regulated without affecting the expression of INHBA, suggesting that MT2 silencing may regulate hormone abundance. Furthermore, MT2 silencing significantly increased the expression of TGFBR3 and BMP6, and decreased the expression of LHR and DNMT1A without significant difference in the expression of FSHR and EGFR. In addition, MT2 silencing didn’t affect the effect of melatonin on increasing the expression of DNMT1A, EGFR, INHBA and LHR, and progesterone level, or decreasing INHA, TGFBR3 and StAR expression, and production of inhibin B. Moreover, MT2 silencing could disrupt the role of melatonin in decreasing the FSHR, INHBB and BMP6 expression, and activin B secretion. In conclusion, these results reveal that melatonin and MT2 are essential regulator of bovine GCs function by modulating reproduction-related genes expression, hormones secretion and other regulators of folliculogenesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Anti-Wrinkle Mechanism of Melatonin in UVB Treated HaCaT Keratinocytes and Hairless Mice via Inhibition of ROS and Sonic Hedgehog Mediated Inflammatory Proteins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1995; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071995 - 08 Jul 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Though melatonin is known to improve ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory conditions via the blockade of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB, interleukin (IL)-6, there is no report on the anti-wrinkle effect of melatonin to date. Hence in the present study, the anti-wrinkle [...] Read more.
Though melatonin is known to improve ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory conditions via the blockade of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB, interleukin (IL)-6, there is no report on the anti-wrinkle effect of melatonin to date. Hence in the present study, the anti-wrinkle mechanism of melatonin was elucidated in UVB treated HaCaT keratinocytes and hairless mice. Herein melatonin protected against a radical initiator tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, matrix metalloprotease 1 (MMP-1), pro-collagen and cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes. Additionally, melatonin suppressed the expression of sonic hedgehog (SHH) and GLI1 for hedgehog signaling and p-NF-κB, cyclooxygenase (COX-2), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (p-ERK) for inflammatory responses in UVB treated HaCaT keratinocytes. Furthermore, melatonin protected skin from wrinkle formation, transdermal water loss in hairless mice irradiated by UVB for 8 weeks. Notably, melatonin prevented against epidermal thickness and dermal collagen degradation in UVB irradiated hairless mice by Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining. Taken together, these findings suggest that melatonin reduces wrinkle formation via inhibition of ROS/SHH and inflammatory proteins such as NF-κB/COX-2/ERK/MMP1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Abnormal Hippocampal Melatoninergic System: A Potential Link between Absence Epilepsy and Depression-Like Behavior in WAG/Rij Rats?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071973 - 06 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Absence epilepsy and depression are comorbid disorders, but the molecular link between the two disorders is unknown. Here, we examined the role of the melatoninergic system in the pathophysiology of spike and wave discharges (SWDs) and depression-like behaviour in the Wistar Albino Glaxo [...] Read more.
Absence epilepsy and depression are comorbid disorders, but the molecular link between the two disorders is unknown. Here, we examined the role of the melatoninergic system in the pathophysiology of spike and wave discharges (SWDs) and depression-like behaviour in the Wistar Albino Glaxo from Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rat model of absence epilepsy. In WAG/Rij rats, SWD incidence was higher during the dark period of the light-dark cycle, in agreement with previous findings. However, neither pinealectomy nor melatonin administration had any effect on SWD incidence, suggesting that the melatoninergic system was not involved in the pathophysiology of absence-like seizures. Endogenous melatonin levels were lower in the hippocampus of WAG/Rij rats as compared to non-epileptic control rats, and this was associated with higher levels of melatonin receptors in the hippocampus, but not in the thalamus. In line with the reduced melatonin levels, cell density was lower in the hippocampus of WAG/Rij rats and was further reduced by pinealectomy. As expected, WAG/Rij rats showed an increased depression-like behaviour in the sucrose preference and forced swim tests, as compared to non-epileptic controls. Pinealectomy abolished the difference between the two strains of rats by enhancing depression-like behaviour in non-epileptic controls. Melatonin replacement displayed a significant antidepressant-like effect in both WAG/Rij and control rats. These findings suggest that a defect of hippocampal melatoninergic system may be one of the mechanisms underlying the depression-like phenotype in WAG/Rij rats and that activation of melatonin receptors might represent a valuable strategy in the treatment of depression associated with absence epilepsy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hamster Melatonin Receptors: Cloning and Binding Characterization of MT1 and Attempt to Clone MT2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071957 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
For many years, it was of interest to identify the sequences encoding the two melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) from various species. After publishing the basic molecular characterization of the human, rat, mouse, sheep, and platypus MT1, MT [...] Read more.
For many years, it was of interest to identify the sequences encoding the two melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) from various species. After publishing the basic molecular characterization of the human, rat, mouse, sheep, and platypus MT1, MT2, or Mel1c receptors, we began cloning the genes from other animals, such as birds, bats, and vipers. The goal was to advance the receptor crystallization, which could greatly contribute the understanding of the sequence/stability relationship. European hamster MT1 receptor was cloned for the first time from this gender, was expressed in stable form in cells, and its binding characterized with a sample of 19 melatonin ligands. Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) expresses a non-functional MT2. We observed that unlike this hamster, the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) does not have a stop codon in the MT2 sequence. Thus, we undertook the tedious task of cloning the MT2 receptor. We partially succeeded, sequencing the complete exon 2 and a fragment of exon 1 (from putative amino acids 12 to 38 and 77 to 323), after several years of efforts. In order to show that the protein parts we cloned were capable to sustain some binding capacities, we designed a chimeric MT2 receptor using a consensus sequence to replace the unknown amino acids, based on other small rodent MT2 sequences. This chimeric construct could bind melatonin in the nanomolar range. This work is meant to be the basis for attempts from other laboratories of the community to determine the complete natural sequence of the European hamster MT2 receptor. The present work is the first to show that, among the hamsters, if the Siberian is a natural knockout for MT2, the European one is not. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Melatonin and Its Underlying Mechanism on Ethanol-Stimulated Senescence and Osteoclastic Differentiation in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells and Cementoblasts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061742 - 12 Jun 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
The present study evaluated the protective effects of melatonin in ethanol (EtOH)-induced senescence and osteoclastic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) and cementoblasts and the underlying mechanism. EtOH increased senescence activity, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of cell [...] Read more.
The present study evaluated the protective effects of melatonin in ethanol (EtOH)-induced senescence and osteoclastic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) and cementoblasts and the underlying mechanism. EtOH increased senescence activity, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of cell cycle regulators (p53, p21 and p16) and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) genes (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) in HPDLCs and cementoblasts. Melatonin inhibited EtOH-induced senescence and the production of ROS as well as the increased expression of cell cycle regulators and SASP genes. However, it recovered EtOH-suppressed osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation, as evidenced by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin staining and mRNA expression levels of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osteoblastic and cementoblastic markers (glucose transporter 1 and cementum-derived protein-32) in HPDLCs and cementoblasts. Moreover, it inhibited EtOH-induced osteoclastic differentiation in mouse bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMMs). Inhibition of protein never in mitosis gene A interacting-1 (PIN1) by juglone or small interfering RNA reversed the effects of melatonin on EtOH-mediated senescence as well as osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation. Melatonin blocked EtOH-induced activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) c-1 pathways, which was reversed by inhibition of PIN1. This is the first study to show the protective effects of melatonin on senescence-like phenotypes and osteoclastic differentiation induced by oxidative stress in HPDLCs and cementoblasts through the PIN1 pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stimulatory Effects of Melatonin on Porcine In Vitro Maturation Are Mediated by MT2 Receptor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061581 - 26 May 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Melatonin is a multifunctional molecule with numerous biological activities. The fact that melatonin modulates the functions of porcine granulosa cells via the MT2 receptor suggests the possibility of MT2 receptor-mediation for melatonin to promote cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Therefore, we [...] Read more.
Melatonin is a multifunctional molecule with numerous biological activities. The fact that melatonin modulates the functions of porcine granulosa cells via the MT2 receptor suggests the possibility of MT2 receptor-mediation for melatonin to promote cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Therefore, we investigated the presence of MT2 in porcine COCs, and the effects of melatonin with or without selective MT2 antagonists (luzindole and 4-P-PDOT) on this process; COCs underwent in vitro maturation culturing with six different conditions (control, melatonin, luzindole, 4-P-PDOT, melatonin + luzindole or melatonin + 4-P-PDOT). Cumulus expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development after parthenogenetic activation (PA) were evaluated. In experiment 1, MT2 was expressed in both oocytes and cumulus cells. In experiment 2, melatonin significantly increased the proportion of complete cumulus expansion (degree 4), which was inhibited by simultaneous addition of either luzindole or 4-P-PDOT. A similar pattern was observed in the expression of genes related to cumulus expansion, apoptosis, and MT2. In experiment 3, no significant difference was observed in immature, degenerate, and MII oocyte rates among the groups. In experiment 4, melatonin significantly increased blastocyst formation rates and total blastocyst cell numbers after PA, but these effects were abolished when either luzindole or 4-P-PDOT was added concomitantly. In conclusion, our results indicate that the MT2 receptor mediated the stimulatory effects of melatonin on porcine cumulus expansion and subsequent embryo development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Melatonin on Rat Heart Mitochondria in Acute Heart Failure in Aged Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061555 - 23 May 2018
Cited by 15
Abstract
Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria and the opening of the nonselective mitochondrial permeability transition pore are important factors that promote cardiac pathologies and dysfunction. The hormone melatonin (MEL) is known to improve the functional state of mitochondria via an [...] Read more.
Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria and the opening of the nonselective mitochondrial permeability transition pore are important factors that promote cardiac pathologies and dysfunction. The hormone melatonin (MEL) is known to improve the functional state of mitochondria via an antioxidant effect. Here, the effect of MEL administration on heart mitochondria from aged rats with acute cardiac failure caused by isoprenaline hydrochloride (ISO) was studied. A histological analysis revealed that chronic intake of MEL diminished the age-dependent changes in the structure of muscle fibers of the left ventricle, muscle fiber swelling, and injury zones characteristic of acute cardiac failure caused by ISO. In acute heart failure, the respiratory control index (RCI) and the Ca2+ retention capacity in isolated rat heart mitochondria (RHM) were reduced by 30% and 40%, respectively, and mitochondrial swelling increased by 34%. MEL administration abolished the effect of ISO. MEL partially prevented ISO-induced changes at the subunit level of respiratory complexes III and V and drastically decreased the expression of complex I subunit NDUFB8 both in control RHM and in RHM treated with ISO, which led to the inhibition of ROS production. MEL prevents the mitochondrial dysfunction associated with heart failure caused by ISO. It was shown that the level of 2′,3′-cyclicnucleotide-3′-phosphodiasterase (CNPase), which is capable of protecting cells in aging, increased in acute heart failure. MEL also retained the CNPase content in RHM both in control experiments and after ISO-induced heart damage. We concluded that an increase in the CNPase level promotes cardioprotection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Melatonin Analogue Antiproliferative and Cytotoxic Effects on Human Prostate Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051505 - 18 May 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Melatonin has been indicated as a possible oncostatic agent in different types of cancer, its antiproliferative role being demonstrated in several in vitro and in vivo experimental models of tumors. Specifically, melatonin was proven to inhibit cell growth of both androgen-dependent and independent [...] Read more.
Melatonin has been indicated as a possible oncostatic agent in different types of cancer, its antiproliferative role being demonstrated in several in vitro and in vivo experimental models of tumors. Specifically, melatonin was proven to inhibit cell growth of both androgen-dependent and independent prostate cancer cells, through various mechanisms. A number of melatonin derivatives have been developed and tested for their role in the prevention and treatment of neoplastic diseases. We recently proved the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of UCM 1037, a newly-synthetized melatonin analogue, on melanoma and breast cancer cells. In this study we evaluated UCM 1037 effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cytotoxicity in LNCaP, PC3, DU145, and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. We demonstrated significant dose- and time-dependent UCM 1037 antiproliferative effects in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. Data from flow cytometric studies suggest that UCM 1037 is highly cytotoxic in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells, although no substantial increase in the apoptotic cell fraction has been observed. UCM 1037 cytotoxic effects were much less evident in androgen-insensitive PC3 and DU145 cells. Experiments performed to gain insights into the possible mechanism of action of the melatonin derivative revealed that UCM 1037 down-regulates androgen receptor levels and Akt activation in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Impact of Melatonin in Solid Organ Transplantation—Is It Time for Clinical Trials? A Comprehensive Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3509; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113509 - 08 Nov 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Solid organ transplantation is the “gold standard” for patients with end-stage organ disease. However, the supply of donor organs is critical, with an increased organ shortage over the last few years resulting in a significant mortality of patients on waiting lists. New strategies [...] Read more.
Solid organ transplantation is the “gold standard” for patients with end-stage organ disease. However, the supply of donor organs is critical, with an increased organ shortage over the last few years resulting in a significant mortality of patients on waiting lists. New strategies to overcome the shortage of organs are urgently needed. Some experimental studies focus on melatonin to improve the donor pool and to protect the graft; however, current research has not reached the clinical level. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the data available, indicating that clinical evaluation is warranted. Full article
Open AccessReview
From Implantation to Birth: Insight into Molecular Melatonin Functions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092802 - 17 Sep 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
Melatonin is a lipophilic hormone synthesized and secreted mainly in the pineal gland, acting as a neuroendocrine transducer of photoperiodic information during the night. In addition to this activity, melatonin has shown an antioxidant function and a key role as regulator of physiological [...] Read more.
Melatonin is a lipophilic hormone synthesized and secreted mainly in the pineal gland, acting as a neuroendocrine transducer of photoperiodic information during the night. In addition to this activity, melatonin has shown an antioxidant function and a key role as regulator of physiological processes related to human reproduction. Melatonin is involved in the normal outcome of pregnancy, beginning with the oocyte quality, continuing with embryo implantation, and finishing with fetal development and parturition. Melatonin has been shown to act directly on several reproductive events, including folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, and corpus luteum (CL) formation. The molecular mechanism of action has been investigated through several studies which provide solid evidence on the connections between maternal melatonin secretion and embryonic and fetal development. Melatonin administration, reducing oxidative stress and directly acting on its membrane receptors, melatonin thyroid hormone receptors (MT1 and MT2), displays effects on the earliest phases of pregnancy and during the whole gestational period. In addition, considering the reported positive effects on the outcomes of compromised pregnancies, melatonin supplementation should be considered as an important tool for supporting fetal development, opening new opportunities for the management of several reproductive and gestational pathologies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Melatonin Mitigates Mitochondrial Meltdown: Interactions with SIRT3
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082439 - 18 Aug 2018
Cited by 24
Abstract
Melatonin exhibits extraordinary diversity in terms of its functions and distribution. When discovered, it was thought to be uniquely of pineal gland origin. Subsequently, melatonin synthesis was identified in a variety of organs and recently it was shown to be produced in the [...] Read more.
Melatonin exhibits extraordinary diversity in terms of its functions and distribution. When discovered, it was thought to be uniquely of pineal gland origin. Subsequently, melatonin synthesis was identified in a variety of organs and recently it was shown to be produced in the mitochondria. Since mitochondria exist in every cell, with a few exceptions, it means that every vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant cell produces melatonin. The mitochondrial synthesis of melatonin is not photoperiod-dependent, but it may be inducible under conditions of stress. Mitochondria-produced melatonin is not released into the systemic circulation, but rather is used primarily in its cell of origin. Melatonin’s functions in the mitochondria are highly diverse, not unlike those of sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). SIRT3 is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase which regulates, among many functions, the redox state of the mitochondria. Recent data proves that melatonin and SIRT3 post-translationally collaborate in regulating free radical generation and removal from mitochondria. Since melatonin and SIRT3 have cohabitated in the mitochondria for many eons, we predict that these molecules interact in many other ways to control mitochondrial physiology. It is predicted that these mutual functions will be intensely investigated in the next decade and importantly, we assume that the findings will have significant applications for preventing/delaying some age-related diseases and aging itself. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mechanisms Underlying Tumor Suppressive Properties of Melatonin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082205 - 27 Jul 2018
Cited by 21
Abstract
There is considerable evidence that melatonin may be of use in the prevention and treatment of cancer. This manuscript will review some of the human, animal and cellular studies that provide evidence that melatonin has oncostatic properties. Confirmation that melatonin mitigates pathogenesis of [...] Read more.
There is considerable evidence that melatonin may be of use in the prevention and treatment of cancer. This manuscript will review some of the human, animal and cellular studies that provide evidence that melatonin has oncostatic properties. Confirmation that melatonin mitigates pathogenesis of cancer will be described from both direct study of its effects on carcinogenesis, and from indirect findings implicating disruption of the circadian cycle. A distinction is made between the role of melatonin in preventing the initiation of the tumorigenic pathway and the ability of melatonin to retard the progression of cancer. Melatonin appears to slow down the rate of advancement of established tumors and there is evidence that it constitutes a valuable complement to standard pharmacological and radiation treatment modalities. There are instances of the beneficial outcomes in cancer treatment which utilize a range of hormones and vitamins, melatonin being among the constituents of the mix. While these complex blends are empirically promising, they are only briefly mentioned here in view of the confounding influence of a multiplicity of agents studied simultaneously. The last section of this review examines the molecular mechanisms that potentially underlie the oncostatic effects of melatonin. Alterations in gene expression following activation of various transcription factors, are likely to be an important mediating event. These changes in gene activity not only relate to cancer but also to the aging process which underlies the onset of most tumors. In addition, epigenetic events such as modulation of histone acetylation and DNA methylation patterns throughout the lifespan of organisms need to be considered. The antioxidant and immunoregulatory roles of melatonin may also contribute to its cancer modulatory properties. Naturally, these mechanisms overlap and interact extensively. Nevertheless, in the interest of clarity and ease of reading, each is discussed as a separate topic section. The report ends with some general conclusions concerning the clinical value of melatonin which has been rather overlooked and understudied. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Involvement of Melatonin in the Regulation of the Circadian System in Crayfish
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072147 - 23 Jul 2018
Abstract
Melatonin (MEL) is an ancient molecule, broadly distributed in nature from unicellular to multicellular species. MEL is an indoleamine that acts on a wide variety of cellular targets regulating different physiological functions. This review is focused on the role played by this molecule [...] Read more.
Melatonin (MEL) is an ancient molecule, broadly distributed in nature from unicellular to multicellular species. MEL is an indoleamine that acts on a wide variety of cellular targets regulating different physiological functions. This review is focused on the role played by this molecule in the regulation of the circadian rhythms in crayfish. In these species, information about internal and external time progression might be transmitted by the periodical release of MEL and other endocrine signals acting through the pacemaker. We describe documented and original evidence in support of this hypothesis that also suggests that the rhythmic release of MEL contributes to the reinforcement of the temporal organization of nocturnal or diurnal circadian oscillators. Finally, we discuss how MEL might coordinate functions that converge in the performance of complex behaviors, such as the agonistic responses to establish social dominance status in Procambarus clarkii and the burrowing behavior in the secondary digging crayfish P. acanthophorus. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Melatonin in Prevention of the Sequence from Reflux Esophagitis to Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: Experimental and Clinical Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072033 - 13 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Melatonin is a tryptophan-derived molecule with pleiotropic activities which is produced in all living organisms. This “sleep” hormone is a free radical scavenger, which activates several anti-oxidative enzymes and mechanisms. Melatonin, a highly lipophilic hormone, can reach body target cells rapidly, acting as [...] Read more.
Melatonin is a tryptophan-derived molecule with pleiotropic activities which is produced in all living organisms. This “sleep” hormone is a free radical scavenger, which activates several anti-oxidative enzymes and mechanisms. Melatonin, a highly lipophilic hormone, can reach body target cells rapidly, acting as the circadian signal to alter numerous physiological functions in the body. This indoleamine can protect the organs against a variety of damaging agents via multiple signaling. This review focused on the role played by melatonin in the mechanism of esophagoprotection, starting with its short-term protection against acute reflux esophagitis and then investigating the long-term prevention of chronic inflammation that leads to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett’s esophagus. Since both of these condition are also identified as major risk factors for esophageal carcinoma, we provide some experimental and clinical evidence that supplementation therapy with melatonin could be useful in esophageal injury by protecting various animal models and patients with GERD from erosions, Barrett’s esophagus and neoplasia. The physiological aspects of the synthesis and release of this indoleamine in the gut, including its release into portal circulation and liver uptake is examined. The beneficial influence of melatonin in preventing esophageal injury from acid-pepsin and acid-pepsin-bile exposure in animals as well as the usefulness of melatonin and its precursor, L-tryptophan in prophylactic and supplementary therapy against esophageal disorders in humans, are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Melatonin as a Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Published Evidence
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051539 - 22 May 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Melatonin (MEL) is a hormone that is produced in the brain and is known to bind to MEL-specific receptors on neuronal membranes in several brain regions. MEL’s documented neuroprotective properties, low toxicity, and ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier have led to its evaluation [...] Read more.
Melatonin (MEL) is a hormone that is produced in the brain and is known to bind to MEL-specific receptors on neuronal membranes in several brain regions. MEL’s documented neuroprotective properties, low toxicity, and ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier have led to its evaluation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), a condition for which there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize the evidence surrounding the use of melatonin after TBI, as well as identify existing gaps and future directions. To address this aim, a search of the literature was conducted using Pubmed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Database. In total, 239 unique articles were screened, and the 22 preclinical studies that met the a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria were summarized, including the study aims, sample (size, groups, species, strain, sex, age/weight), TBI model, therapeutic details (preparation, dose, route, duration), key findings, and conclusions. The evidence from these 22 studies was analyzed to draw comparisons across studies, identify remaining gaps, and suggest future directions. Taken together, the published evidence suggests that MEL has neuroprotective properties via a number of mechanisms with few toxic effects reported. Notably, available evidence is largely based on data from adult male rats and, to a lesser extent, mice. Few studies collected data beyond a few days of the initial injury, necessitating additional longer-term studies. Other future directions include diversification of samples to include female animals, pediatric and geriatric animals, and transgenic strains. Full article
Open AccessReview
Melatonin: A Multifunctional Factor in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051528 - 21 May 2018
Cited by 38
Abstract
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine) is a universal molecule that is present in animals and plants. It has been detected in different kinds of plants and organs in different levels. Melatonin in plants shares the same initial biosynthesis compound with auxin, and therefore functions [...] Read more.
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine) is a universal molecule that is present in animals and plants. It has been detected in different kinds of plants and organs in different levels. Melatonin in plants shares the same initial biosynthesis compound with auxin, and therefore functions as indole-3-acetic acid like hormones. Moreover, melatonin is involved in regulating plant growth and development, protecting plants against biotic and abiotic stresses, such as salt, drought, cold, heat and heavy metal stresses. Melatonin improves the stress tolerance of plants via a direct pathway, which scavenges reactive oxygen species directly, and indirect pathways, such as increasing antioxidate enzymes activity, photosynthetic efficiency and metabolites content. In addition, melatonin plays a role in regulating gene expression, and hence affects performance of plants. In this review, the biosynthesis pathway, growth and development regulation, and the environment stress response of melatonin in plants are summarized and future research directions and priorities of melatonin in plants are speculated. Full article
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