Table of Contents
Entropy, Volume 21, Issue 5 (May 2019)
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Cover Story (view full-size image) Based on five principles adopted from integrated information theory—realization, composition, [...] Read more. Based on five principles adopted from integrated information theory—realization, composition, information, integration, and exclusion—we propose a comprehensive formalism for actual causation that provides a causal account of all causal links within a state transition. Our framework considers all counterfactual states, rather than a single contingency, which makes it possible to quantify the strength of causal links. Moreover, this allows for causal composition, in the sense that high-order occurrences can have their own causes and effects, as long as they are irreducible. The proposed formalism is applicable to a vast range of physical systems, such as (artificial) neural networks, regardless of whether they are deterministic or probabilistic, have binary or multivalued variables, or of feedforward or recurrent architectures. View this paper.