Special Issue "Intermittency and Self-Organisation in Turbulence and Statistical Mechanics"

A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Eun-jin Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, UK
Interests: fluid dynamics; magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); plasma physics; self-organisation; non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; turbulence; solar/stellar physics; magnetic fusion; information theory; homeostasis in biosystems
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is overwhelming evidence, from laboratory experiments, observations, and computational studies, that coherent structures can cause intermittent transport, dramatically enhancing transport. A proper description of this intermittent phenomenon, however, is extremely difficult, requiring a new non-perturbative theory, such as statistical description. Furthermore, multi-scale interactions are responsible for inevitably complex dynamics in strongly non-equilibrium systems, a proper understanding of which remains a main challenge in classical physics. As a remarkable consequence of multi-scale interaction, a quasi-equilibrium state (the so-called self-organisation) can however be maintained.

This Special Issue aims to present different theories of statistical mechanics to understand this challenging multiscale problem in turbulence. Submissions addressing intermittency, coherent structures and self-organisation are especially welcome.

Dr. Eun-jin Kim
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Turbulence
  • Statistical Mechanics
  • Intermittency
  • Coherent Structure
  • Multi-scale Problem
  • Self-Organisation

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Intermittency and Self-Organisation in Turbulence and Statistical Mechanics
Entropy 2019, 21(6), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21060574 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
There is overwhelming evidence, from laboratory experiments, observations, and computational studies, that coherent structures can cause intermittent transport, dramatically enhancing transport [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Statistical Lyapunov Theory Based on Bifurcation Analysis of Energy Cascade in Isotropic Homogeneous Turbulence: A Physical–Mathematical Review
Entropy 2019, 21(5), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21050520 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
This work presents a review of previous articles dealing with an original turbulence theory proposed by the author and provides new theoretical insights into some related issues. The new theoretical procedures and methodological approaches confirm and corroborate the previous results. These articles study [...] Read more.
This work presents a review of previous articles dealing with an original turbulence theory proposed by the author and provides new theoretical insights into some related issues. The new theoretical procedures and methodological approaches confirm and corroborate the previous results. These articles study the regime of homogeneous isotropic turbulence for incompressible fluids and propose theoretical approaches based on a specific Lyapunov theory for determining the closures of the von Kármán–Howarth and Corrsin equations and the statistics of velocity and temperature difference. While numerous works are present in the literature which concern the closures of the autocorrelation equations in the Fourier domain (i.e., Lin equation closure), few articles deal with the closures of the autocorrelation equations in the physical space. These latter, being based on the eddy–viscosity concept, describe diffusive closure models. On the other hand, the proposed Lyapunov theory leads to nondiffusive closures based on the property that, in turbulence, contiguous fluid particles trajectories continuously diverge. Therefore, the main motivation of this review is to present a theoretical formulation which does not adopt the eddy–viscosity paradigm and summarizes the results of the previous works. Next, this analysis assumes that the current fluid placements, together with velocity and temperature fields, are fluid state variables. This leads to the closures of the autocorrelation equations and helps to interpret the mechanism of energy cascade as due to the continuous divergence of the contiguous trajectories. Furthermore, novel theoretical issues are here presented among which we can mention the following ones. The bifurcation rate of the velocity gradient, calculated along fluid particles trajectories, is shown to be much larger than the corresponding maximal Lyapunov exponent. On that basis, an interpretation of the energy cascade phenomenon is given and the statistics of finite time Lyapunov exponent of the velocity gradient is shown to be represented by normal distribution functions. Next, the self–similarity produced by the proposed closures is analyzed and a proper bifurcation analysis of the closed von Kármán–Howarth equation is performed. This latter investigates the route from developed turbulence toward the non–chaotic regimes, leading to an estimate of the critical Taylor scale Reynolds number. A proper statistical decomposition based on extended distribution functions and on the Navier–Stokes equations is presented, which leads to the statistics of velocity and temperature difference. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Internal Intermittency, Large Scale Inhomogeneity, and Impeller Type on Drop Size Distribution in Turbulent Liquid-Liquid Dispersions
Entropy 2019, 21(4), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21040340 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
The influence of the impeller type on drop size distribution (DSD) in turbulent liquid-liquid dispersion is considered in this paper. The effects of the application of two impellers, high power number, high shear impeller (six blade Rushton turbine, RT) and three blade low [...] Read more.
The influence of the impeller type on drop size distribution (DSD) in turbulent liquid-liquid dispersion is considered in this paper. The effects of the application of two impellers, high power number, high shear impeller (six blade Rushton turbine, RT) and three blade low power number, and a high efficiency impeller (HE3) are compared. Large-scale and fine-scale inhomogeneity are taken into account. The flow field and the properties of the turbulence (energy dissipation rate and integral scale of turbulence) in the agitated vessel are determined using the k-ε model. The intermittency of turbulence is taken into account in droplet breakage and coalescence models by using multifractal formalism. The solution of the population balance equation for lean dispersions (when the only breakage takes place) with a dispersed phase of low viscosity (pure system or system containing surfactant), as well as high viscosity, show that at the same power input per unit mass HE3 impeller produces much smaller droplets. In the case of fast coalescence (low dispersed phase viscosity, no surfactant), the model predicts similar droplets generated by both impellers. In the case of a dispersed phase of high viscosity, when the mobility of the drop surface is reduced, HE3 produces slightly smaller droplets. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
About Universality and Thermodynamics of Turbulence
Entropy 2019, 21(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21030326 - 26 Mar 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2017
Abstract
This paper investigates the universality of the Eulerian velocity structure functions using velocity fields obtained from the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) technique in experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations. It shows that the numerical and experimental velocity structure [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the universality of the Eulerian velocity structure functions using velocity fields obtained from the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) technique in experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations. It shows that the numerical and experimental velocity structure functions up to order 9 follow a log-universality (Castaing et al. Phys. D Nonlinear Phenom. 1993); this leads to a collapse on a universal curve, when units including a logarithmic dependence on the Reynolds number are used. This paper then investigates the meaning and consequences of such log-universality, and shows that it is connected with the properties of a “multifractal free energy”, based on an analogy between multifractal and thermodynamics. It shows that in such a framework, the existence of a fluctuating dissipation scale is associated with a phase transition describing the relaminarisation of rough velocity fields with different Hölder exponents. Such a phase transition has been already observed using the Lagrangian velocity structure functions, but was so far believed to be out of reach for the Eulerian data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multifractal and Chaotic Properties of Solar Wind at MHD and Kinetic Domains: An Empirical Mode Decomposition Approach
Entropy 2019, 21(3), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21030320 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1428
Abstract
Turbulence, intermittency, and self-organized structures in space plasmas can be investigated by using a multifractal formalism mostly based on the canonical structure function analysis with fixed constraints about stationarity, linearity, and scales. Here, the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method is firstly used to [...] Read more.
Turbulence, intermittency, and self-organized structures in space plasmas can be investigated by using a multifractal formalism mostly based on the canonical structure function analysis with fixed constraints about stationarity, linearity, and scales. Here, the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method is firstly used to investigate timescale fluctuations of the solar wind magnetic field components; then, by exploiting the local properties of fluctuations, the structure function analysis is used to gain insights into the scaling properties of both inertial and kinetic/dissipative ranges. Results show that while the inertial range dynamics can be described in a multifractal framework, characterizing an unstable fixed point of the system, the kinetic/dissipative range dynamics is well described by using a monofractal approach, because it is a stable fixed point of the system, unless it has a higher degree of complexity and chaos. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coherent Structure of Flow Based on Denoised Signals in T-junction Ducts with Vertical Blades
Entropy 2019, 21(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21020206 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
The skin friction consumes some of the energy when a train is running, and the coherent structure plays an important role in the skin friction. In this paper, we focus on the coherent structure generated near the vent of a train. The intention [...] Read more.
The skin friction consumes some of the energy when a train is running, and the coherent structure plays an important role in the skin friction. In this paper, we focus on the coherent structure generated near the vent of a train. The intention is to investigate the effect of the vent on the generation of coherent structures. The ventilation system of a high-speed train is reasonably simplified as a T-junction duct with vertical blades. The velocity signal of the cross duct was measured in three different sections (upstream, mid-center and downstream), and then the coherent structure of the denoised signals was analyzed by continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The analysis indicates that the coherent structure frequencies become abundant and the energy peak decreases with the increase of the velocity ratio. As a result, we conclude that a higher velocity ratio is preferable to reduce the skin friction of the train. Besides, with the increase of velocity ratio, the dimensionless frequency St of the high-energy coherent structure does not change obviously and St = 3.09 × 10−4–4.51 × 10−4. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
The Radial Propagation of Heat in Strongly Driven Non-Equilibrium Fusion Plasmas
Entropy 2019, 21(2), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21020148 - 05 Feb 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1396
Abstract
Heat transport is studied in strongly heated fusion plasmas, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The radial propagation of perturbations is studied using a technique based on the transfer entropy. Three different magnetic confinement devices are studied, and similar results are obtained. “Minor transport barriers” [...] Read more.
Heat transport is studied in strongly heated fusion plasmas, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The radial propagation of perturbations is studied using a technique based on the transfer entropy. Three different magnetic confinement devices are studied, and similar results are obtained. “Minor transport barriers” are detected that tend to form near rational magnetic surfaces, thought to be associated with zonal flows. Occasionally, heat transport “jumps” over these barriers, and this “jumping” behavior seems to increase in intensity when the heating power is raised, suggesting an explanation for the ubiquitous phenomenon of “power degradation” observed in magnetically confined plasmas. Reinterpreting the analysis results in terms of a continuous time random walk, “fast” and “slow” transport channels can be discerned. The cited results can partially be understood in the framework of a resistive Magneto-HydroDynamic model. The picture that emerges shows that plasma self-organization and competing transport mechanisms are essential ingredients for a fuller understanding of heat transport in fusion plasmas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wall-Normal Variation of Spanwise Streak Spacing in Turbulent Boundary Layer With Low-to-Moderate Reynolds Number
Entropy 2019, 21(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21010024 - 31 Dec 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
Low-speed streaks in wall-bounded turbulence are the dominant structures in the near-wall turbulent self-sustaining cycle. Existing studies have well characterized their spanwise spacing in the buffer layer and below. Recent studies suggested the existence of these small-scale structures in the higher layer where [...] Read more.
Low-speed streaks in wall-bounded turbulence are the dominant structures in the near-wall turbulent self-sustaining cycle. Existing studies have well characterized their spanwise spacing in the buffer layer and below. Recent studies suggested the existence of these small-scale structures in the higher layer where large-scale structures usually receive more attention. The present study is thus devoted to extending the understanding of the streak spacing to the log layer. An analysis is taken on two-dimensional (2D) wall-parallel velocity fields in a smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer with R e τ = 440∼2400, obtained via either 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement taken here or public Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). Morphological-based streak identification analysis yields a R e -independent log-normal distribution of the streak spacing till the upper bound of the log layer, based on which an empirical model is proposed to account for its wall-normal growth. The small-scale part of the spanwise spectra of the streamwise fluctuating velocity below y + = 100 is reasonably restored by a synthetic simulation that distributes elementary streak units based on the proposed empirical streak spacing model, which highlights the physical significance of streaks in shaping the small-scale part of the velocity spectra beyond the buffer layer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alternation of Defects and Phase Turbulence Induces Extreme Events in an Extended Microcavity Laser
Entropy 2018, 20(10), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20100789 - 15 Oct 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Out-of-equilibrium systems exhibit complex spatiotemporal behaviors when they present a secondary bifurcation to an oscillatory instability. Here, we investigate the complex dynamics shown by a pulsing regime in an extended, one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity laser whose cavity is composed by integrated gain and saturable [...] Read more.
Out-of-equilibrium systems exhibit complex spatiotemporal behaviors when they present a secondary bifurcation to an oscillatory instability. Here, we investigate the complex dynamics shown by a pulsing regime in an extended, one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity laser whose cavity is composed by integrated gain and saturable absorber media. This system is known to give rise experimentally and theoretically to extreme events characterized by rare and high amplitude optical pulses following the onset of spatiotemporal chaos. Based on a theoretical model, we reveal a dynamical behavior characterized by the chaotic alternation of phase and amplitude turbulence. The highest amplitude pulses, i.e., the extreme events, are observed in the phase turbulence zones. This chaotic alternation behavior between different turbulent regimes is at contrast to what is usually observed in a generic amplitude equation model such as the Ginzburg–Landau model. Hence, these regimes provide some insight into the poorly known properties of the complex spatiotemporal dynamics exhibited by secondary instabilities of an Andronov–Hopf bifurcation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Near Wall Modeling in the Improved-Delayed-Detached-Eddy-Simulation (IDDES) Methodology
Entropy 2018, 20(10), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20100771 - 08 Oct 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
The present study aims to assess the effects of two different underlying RANS models on overall behavior of the IDDES methodology when applied to different flow configurations ranging from fully attached (plane channel flow) to separated flows (periodic hill flow). This includes investigating [...] Read more.
The present study aims to assess the effects of two different underlying RANS models on overall behavior of the IDDES methodology when applied to different flow configurations ranging from fully attached (plane channel flow) to separated flows (periodic hill flow). This includes investigating prediction accuracy of first and second order statistics, response to grid refinement, grey area dynamics and triggering mechanism. Further, several criteria have been investigated to assess reliability and quality of the methodology when operating in scale resolving mode. It turns out that irrespective of the near wall modeling strategy, the IDDES methodology does not satisfy all criteria required to make this methodology reliable when applied to various flow configurations at different Reynolds numbers with different grid resolutions. Further, it is found that using more advanced underlying RANS model to improve prediction accuracy of the near wall dynamics results in extension of the grey area, which may delay the transition to scale resolving mode. This systematic study for attached and separated flows suggests that the shortcomings of IDDES methodology mostly lie in inaccurate prediction of the dynamics inside the grey area and demands further investigation in this direction to make this methodology capable of dealing with different flow situations reliably. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Linear Langevin and Fractional Fokker–Planck Equations for Anomalous Diffusion by Lévy Stable Processes
Entropy 2018, 20(10), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20100760 - 03 Oct 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
The numerical solutions to a non-linear Fractional Fokker–Planck (FFP) equation are studied estimating the generalized diffusion coefficients. The aim is to model anomalous diffusion using an FFP description with fractional velocity derivatives and Langevin dynamics where Lévy fluctuations are introduced to model the [...] Read more.
The numerical solutions to a non-linear Fractional Fokker–Planck (FFP) equation are studied estimating the generalized diffusion coefficients. The aim is to model anomalous diffusion using an FFP description with fractional velocity derivatives and Langevin dynamics where Lévy fluctuations are introduced to model the effect of non-local transport due to fractional diffusion in velocity space. Distribution functions are found using numerical means for varying degrees of fractionality of the stable Lévy distribution as solutions to the FFP equation. The statistical properties of the distribution functions are assessed by a generalized normalized expectation measure and entropy and modified transport coefficient. The transport coefficient significantly increases with decreasing fractality which is corroborated by analysis of experimental data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trailing-Edge Flap Control for Mitigating Rotor Power Fluctuations of a Large-Scale Offshore Floating Wind Turbine under the Turbulent Wind Condition
Entropy 2018, 20(9), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20090676 - 06 Sep 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
A trailing-edge flap control strategy for mitigating rotor power fluctuations of a 5 MW offshore floating wind turbine is developed under turbulent wind inflow. The wind shear must be considered because of the large rotor diameter. The trailing-edge flap control strategy is based [...] Read more.
A trailing-edge flap control strategy for mitigating rotor power fluctuations of a 5 MW offshore floating wind turbine is developed under turbulent wind inflow. The wind shear must be considered because of the large rotor diameter. The trailing-edge flap control strategy is based on the turbulent wind speed, the blade azimuth angle, and the platform motions. The rotor power is predicted using the free vortex wake method, coupled with the control strategy. The effect of the trailing-edge flap control on the rotor power is determined by a comparison with the rotor power of a turbine without a trailing-edge flap control. The optimal values of the three control factors are obtained. The results show that the trailing-edge flap control strategy is effective for improving the stability of the output rotor power of the floating wind turbine under the turbulent wind condition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Time-Dependent Probability Density Functions and Attractor Structure in Self-Organised Shear Flows
Entropy 2018, 20(8), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20080613 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
We report the time-evolution of Probability Density Functions (PDFs) in a toy model of self-organised shear flows, where the formation of shear flows is induced by a finite memory time of a stochastic forcing, manifested by the emergence of a bimodal PDF with [...] Read more.
We report the time-evolution of Probability Density Functions (PDFs) in a toy model of self-organised shear flows, where the formation of shear flows is induced by a finite memory time of a stochastic forcing, manifested by the emergence of a bimodal PDF with the two peaks representing non-zero mean values of a shear flow. Using theoretical analyses of limiting cases, as well as numerical solutions of the full Fokker–Planck equation, we present a thorough parameter study of PDFs for different values of the correlation time and amplitude of stochastic forcing. From time-dependent PDFs, we calculate the information length ( L ), which is the total number of statistically different states that a system passes through in time and utilise it to understand the information geometry associated with the formation of bimodal or unimodal PDFs. We identify the difference between the relaxation and build-up of the shear gradient in view of information change and discuss the total information length ( L = L ( t ) ) which maps out the underlying attractor structures, highlighting a unique property of L which depends on the trajectory/history of a PDF’s evolution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Turbulence through the Spyglass of Bilocal Kinetics
Entropy 2018, 20(7), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20070539 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1182
Abstract
In two recent papers we introduced a generalization of Boltzmann’s assumption of molecular chaos based on a criterion of maximum entropy, which allowed setting up a bilocal version of Boltzmann’s kinetic equation. The present paper aims to investigate how the essentially non-local character [...] Read more.
In two recent papers we introduced a generalization of Boltzmann’s assumption of molecular chaos based on a criterion of maximum entropy, which allowed setting up a bilocal version of Boltzmann’s kinetic equation. The present paper aims to investigate how the essentially non-local character of turbulent flows can be addressed through this bilocal kinetic description, instead of the more standard approach through the local Euler/Navier–Stokes equation. Balance equations appropriate to this kinetic scheme are derived and closed so as to provide bilocal hydrodynamical equations at the non-viscous order. These equations essentially consist of two copies of the usual local equations, but coupled through a bilocal pressure tensor. Interestingly, our formalism automatically produces a closed transport equation for this coupling term. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Transition of Transient Channel Flow with High Reynolds Number Ratios
Entropy 2018, 20(5), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20050375 - 17 May 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent channel flow subjected to a step-like acceleration have been performed to investigate the effect of high Reynolds number ratios on the transient behaviour of turbulence. It is shown that the response of the flow exhibits the same fundamental characteristics [...] Read more.
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent channel flow subjected to a step-like acceleration have been performed to investigate the effect of high Reynolds number ratios on the transient behaviour of turbulence. It is shown that the response of the flow exhibits the same fundamental characteristics described in He & Seddighi (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 715, 2013, pp. 60–102 and vol. 764, 2015, pp. 395–427)—a three-stage response resembling that of the bypass transition of boundary layer flows. The features of transition are seen to become more striking as the Re-ratio increases—the elongated streaks become stronger and longer, and the initial turbulent spot sites at the onset of transition become increasingly sparse. The critical Reynolds number of transition and the transition period Reynolds number for those cases are shown to deviate from the trends of He & Seddighi (2015). The high Re-ratio cases show double peaks in the transient response of streamwise fluctuation profiles shortly after the onset of transition. Conditionally-averaged turbulent statistics based on a λ_2-criterion are used to show that the two peaks in the fluctuation profiles are due to separate contributions of the active and inactive regions of turbulence generation. The peak closer to the wall is attributed to the generation of “new” turbulence in the active region, whereas the peak farther away from the wall is attributed to the elongated streaks in the inactive region. In the low Re-ratio cases, the peaks of these two regions are close to each other during the entire transient, resulting in a single peak in the domain-averaged profile. Full article
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