Topic Editors

Dr. Roy Rillera Marzo
International Medical School, Management and Science University, Kuala Lumpur 50050, Malaysia
Dr. Yulan Lin
School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China
Dr. Edlaine Faria de Moura Villela
Disease Control Coordination, São Paulo State Health Department, São Paulo 01246-000, Brazil
Dr. Sudip Bhattacharya
Department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun 248001, Uttarakhand, India
Prof. Dr. Kittisak Jermsittiparsert
Faculty of Education, University of City Island, Gazimagusa 99450, Cyprus

Impact of COVID-19 Global Crisis on the Sustainable Development Goals

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 May 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
30 December 2022
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

When world leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in 2015, they committed to a shared vision to set the world on a sustainable path for the people, planet, peace, partnership and prosperity. Almost one third of the way into the journey, at the SDG Summit held in September 2019, Member States recognized that global efforts were coming up short to deliver that transformational shift by 2030 and a renewed international commitment was needed to fulfill this promise to present and future generations. The year 2020 kickstarted the Decade of Action—a reaffirmation of the global commitment through accelerated efforts and sustainable solutions to the world’s biggest challenges, ranging from eradicating poverty and reducing gender inequality to addressing climate change. However, in only a brief period of time, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted efforts to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The global community finds itself in an unprecedented situation where parallel health, economic and social crises left countries struggling to contain the epidemic and provide immediate financial relief for the many people affected by the associated macroeconomic downturns. The pandemic threatens to reverse years of progress on poverty, hunger, health care and education. While the virus has impacted everyone, it is affecting the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people the most. This Special Issue aims to analyze the impacts of the COVID-19 global crisis on the Sustainable Development Goals and highlights the consequences, implications, risks and opportunities of the COVID 19 pandemic for our current world order. The pandemic and its response, in the form of protracted nationwide lockdowns have had several short-term as well as long-term impacts on human health, society, the economy and the environment. This Special Issue welcomes papers that address the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals 2030, from policy-makers, educators, researchers and practitioners in various disciplines in academia and industry. The manuscript should be designed based on quantitative or qualitative data analyzing the situation.

Dr. Roy Rillera Marzo
Dr. Yulan Lin
Dr. Edlaine Faria de Moura Villela
Dr. Sudip Bhattacharya
Prof. Dr. Kittisak Jermsittiparsert
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
  • Sustainable development goals
  • Public health
  • Social science
  • Health-related social media analytics
  • Human behaviors
  • Healthcare technology
  • Social activities
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Machine learning
  • Data-mining and deep-learning techniques applied to behaviors, healthcare, and SNS texts

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
COVID
covid
- - 2021 16.7 Days 1000 CHF Submit
Epidemiologia
epidemiologia
- - 2020 39.8 Days 1000 CHF Submit
Life
life
3.251 1.9 2011 14 Days 1800 CHF Submit
Sustainability
sustainability
3.889 5.0 2009 16.7 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
tropicalmed
3.711 4.8 2016 18.5 Days 1600 CHF Submit

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Article
Does Sustainable Consumption Matter? The Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Medication Use in Brasov, Romania
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8017; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138017 - 30 Jun 2022
Abstract
Sustainable consumption refers to the choice, purchase, use, and disposal of goods so as to enable all people to meet their present and future objective needs. However, panic caused by the gradual onset of the pandemic had a considerable impact on the behavior [...] Read more.
Sustainable consumption refers to the choice, purchase, use, and disposal of goods so as to enable all people to meet their present and future objective needs. However, panic caused by the gradual onset of the pandemic had a considerable impact on the behavior of consumption and purchase of medication, and the question remains whether sustainable consumption still matters during a crisis or not. The present study aims to analyze whether the pandemic has influenced the behavior of medication use among residents of Brasov County amid panic caused by the virus and to determine the primary sources of information on methods of the prevention and treatment of health conditions. The study focusses on the differences between the two target groups, young people, and adults, considering three socio-demographic factors, such as age, gender, and background. The present research uses two methods of data collection: an interview with 5 doctors and a questionnaire with 543 respondents. This research draws attention to the fact that the behaviors of purchasing and consuming medication during the COVID-19 pandemic has changed due to the spreading of the new virus and the state of emergency, as well as with medication use becoming less sustainable. The results showed that adults were more engaged in the panic buying of medication compared to young people during the pandemic; however, in normal times, young people use more medication. Our study shows that females tend to consume more medicines than males. Moreover, they are more susceptible for seeking media guidance and following advice from the digital realm, because they avoid going to the doctor, especially during the COVID-19 period. Depending on the environment of residence, it was found that people in rural areas generally tend to consume more medication than those in urban areas. However, during the pandemic, the drug use of this category of population has decreased because they do not tend to self-medicate and avoid visiting the doctor because of the fear of becoming contaminated. The results of the research could help to establish measures in order to prevent the panic buying of self-medication and pharmaceuticals, both during pandemics and in normal times, because such behaviors can have negative effects on both health and the environment. Full article
Article
The Prevalence and Implications of Olfactory/Gustatory Dysfunctions among Adult COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Multiethnic Populations Study
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(7), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7070115 - 23 Jun 2022
Abstract
(1) Background: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGDs) was found in COVID-19 patients. Only a few studies looked into the prevalence of OGDs in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence OGDs among multiethnic COVID-19 patients [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGDs) was found in COVID-19 patients. Only a few studies looked into the prevalence of OGDs in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence OGDs among multiethnic COVID-19 patients in the UAE, and its association to patients’ characteristics and disease outcomes; (2) Methods: There were 1785 COVID-19 patients included in our cohort; (3) Results: Males made up most of the study participants (86.3%). A total of 11.7% of the participants reported OGDs. Female gender and ethnicity had significantly higher symptom prevalence (p < 0.001). COVID-19 severity had a strong inverse association with OGDs (p = 0.007). Other illness outcomes, such as ICU admission, pneumonia development, and mortality, showed no correlation. Males, Asians, and patients with comorbidities all had statistically significantly lower prevalence odds. On the other hand, Emirati, Arab, and Iranian patients had a higher prevalence. COVID-19 patients with OGDs had a considerably shorter time until viral clearance than those without the symptom; (4) Conclusions: in nonsevere COVID-19, olfactory/gustatory dysfunction is common. As a result, it could be applied as a predictive sign for early disease diagnosis and prognosis. Full article
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A Bibliographic Analysis of Primary Studies on Physical Activity and COVID-19 during 2020–2021
Epidemiologia 2022, 3(3), 314-322; https://doi.org/10.3390/epidemiologia3030024 - 22 Jun 2022
Abstract
Physical distancing and restrictions have been implemented to reduce the transmission rate of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). In contrast, the impact of the pandemic on levels of physical activity has been the subject of studies worldwide. Since the first reported case in December [...] Read more.
Physical distancing and restrictions have been implemented to reduce the transmission rate of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). In contrast, the impact of the pandemic on levels of physical activity has been the subject of studies worldwide. Since the first reported case in December 2019, the number of scientific studies on COVID-19 has grown in a way that has never been seen before. The current study aimed to perform a bibliometric analysis of primary studies on physical activity and COVID-19 during the first two years of the pandemic. The search was carried out using the SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Our analysis identified a total of 2023 published documents from 10,199 authors, with an annual growth rate of 330% between 2020 and 2021. Open-access scientific journals were the main sources of publication, and the level of collaboration among the most influential researchers contributed to productivity. A co-occurrence analysis of the authors’ keywords indicated a high prevalence of themes related to mental health, depression, anxiety, stress, sleep, and quality of life. In conclusion, the bibliometric analysis revealed a high volume of primary studies on physical activity and COVID-19 during the first two years of the pandemic, and mental health was a much discussed topic. Full article
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Article
Medication Adherence of Vietnamese Outpatients with Chronic Diseases during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(6), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7060101 - 13 Jun 2022
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the medication adherence of outpatients with chronic diseases and the association between both patient attitudes and preventive practices regarding COVID-19 and their medication adherence. We performed a cross-sectional study in Vietnam. Medication adherence was determined [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the medication adherence of outpatients with chronic diseases and the association between both patient attitudes and preventive practices regarding COVID-19 and their medication adherence. We performed a cross-sectional study in Vietnam. Medication adherence was determined using the translated and validated Vietnamese version of the General Medication Adherence Scale (GMAS). Patient attitudes and preventive practices regarding COVID-19 were measured using the 5K message of the Vietnam Ministry of Health (facemasks, disinfection, distance, no gatherings, health declarations). The associations between patient characteristics and medication adherence were determined by multivariable regression. The study included 1852 outpatients, and 57.6% of the patients adhered to their medications. Patients who recognized the pandemic’s obstruction of medical follow-ups (OR = 1.771; 95%CI = 1.461–2.147; p < 0.001), who applied ≥2 preventive methods (OR = 1.422; 95%CI = 1.173–1.725; p = 0.001), who were employed (OR = 1.677; 95%CI = 1.251–2.248; p = 0.001), who were living in urban areas (OR = 1.336; 95%CI = 1.090–1.637; p = 0.005,) who possessed higher education levels (OR = 1.313; 95%CI = 1.059–1.629; p = 0.013), or who had ≤2 comorbidities (OR = 1.293; 95%CI = 1.044–1.600; p = 0.019) were more likely to adhere to their medications. The adherence percentage for outpatients with chronic diseases was quite low during the pandemic. Patients who did not recognize the COVID-19 pandemic’s obstruction of medical follow-ups or who had poor preventive practices were less likely to adhere to medications. Healthcare providers should pay more attention to these groups to achieve desired treatment outcomes. Full article
Article
Consumption of Herbal Supplements or Homeopathic Remedies to Prevent COVID-19 and Intention of Vaccination for COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(6), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7060095 - 08 Jun 2022
Abstract
Users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have a lower intention to receive vaccines. Furthermore, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region are among the most affected areas by the COVID-19 pandemics and present a high proportion of CAM users. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
Users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have a lower intention to receive vaccines. Furthermore, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region are among the most affected areas by the COVID-19 pandemics and present a high proportion of CAM users. Therefore, this study evaluates the association between the consumption of herbal supplements or homeopathic remedies to prevent COVID-19 and the intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in the LAC region. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) survey with Facebook to assess COVID-19 beliefs, behaviours, and norms. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using generalized linear models of the Poisson family with the log link function. The prevalence of the use of products to prevent COVID-19 was the following: consumption of herbal supplements (7.2%), use of homeopathic remedies (4.8%), and consumption of garlic, ginger, and lemon (11.8%). An association was found between using herbal supplements (19.0% vs. 12.8%; aPR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.30–1.58), the use of homeopathic remedies (20.3% vs. 12.3%; aPR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.25–1.98), and the consumption of garlic, ginger, and lemon (18.9% vs. 11.9%; aPR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.50–1.61) and non-intention to vaccinate against COVID-19. In the LAC population, there is an association between using herbal supplements, using homeopathic remedies and consuming garlic, ginger, and lemon to prevent infection by COVID-19 and non-intention to vaccinate against this disease. Therefore, it is necessary to design targeted strategies for groups that consume these products as preventive measures against COVID-19 to increase vaccination coverage and expand the information regarding transmission and prevention strategies for SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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Review
An Overview of SARS-CoV-2 and Technologies for Detection and Ongoing Treatments: A Human Safety Initiative
COVID 2022, 2(6), 731-751; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2060055 - 07 Jun 2022
Abstract
A new class of coronavirus, known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been discovered, which is responsible for the occurrence of the disease, COVID-19. A comparative study with SARS, MERS and other human viruses was conductedand concluded that SARS-CoV-2 spread [...] Read more.
A new class of coronavirus, known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been discovered, which is responsible for the occurrence of the disease, COVID-19. A comparative study with SARS, MERS and other human viruses was conductedand concluded that SARS-CoV-2 spread more rapidly due to increased globalization and adaptation of the virus in every environment. According to recent WHO reports, by 16 May 2021, the current outbreak of COVID-19 had affected over 174,054,314 people and killed more than 3,744,116 people in more than 222 countries acrossthe world. Finding a solution against the deadly COVID-19 has become an enormous challenge for researchers and virologists. A ring vaccination trial, which recruits subjects connected to a known case either socially or geographically, is a solution to evaluate vaccine efficacy and control the spread of the disease simultaneously, although its implementation is challenging. This review aims to summarize the noteworthy features of the world-intimidating SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic along with its evaluation, problems and challenges in the treatment strategies, clinical efficiency and detection methods proposed so far. This paper describes the impact of the lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic on social, economic, health, and National Health Programs in India; possible ways to control the disease are also discussed. Full article
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Article
A Study on the Trends of the Global Cruise Tourism Industry, Sustainable Development, and the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6890; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116890 - 05 Jun 2022
Abstract
Stable financial operation is the essential factor for the sustainable development of the cruise tourism industry. The cruise industry was one of the fastest growing before the COVID-19 pandemic. The industry is capital intensive, has an enormous supply chain, serves to improve many [...] Read more.
Stable financial operation is the essential factor for the sustainable development of the cruise tourism industry. The cruise industry was one of the fastest growing before the COVID-19 pandemic. The industry is capital intensive, has an enormous supply chain, serves to improve many ports-of-call economies, hires an immense quantity of people worldwide, and has a substantial economic contribution worldwide, especially in coastal countries or areas. COVID-19 has disrupted what had been an unending development of growth and success for the cruise industry. This study aims to analyze the financial performance of the worldwide cruise industry and realize the trends in the cruise tourism industry. The study examines the statistical data of the top three cruise companies that account for nearly 74.6–91.8% of the worldwide cruise tourism for 2015–2021. The financial analysis includes economic structure, solvency, operating ability, profitability, and financial leverage. We also analyze the economic indicators of the top three cruise companies with frequency analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis, and the financial management risks of the top three cruise companies with the Z-Score Model. In addition, the study organizes and summarizes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global cruise tourism. The study found that from mid-March 2020 until July 2021, the temporary suspension decreased passenger numbers, operating losses, and stock price losses. The research results confirm that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused the suspension of cruise ships worldwide. The break has led to a sharp drop in the number of cruise passengers, resulting in a significant decrease in operating income and profits of cruise companies, and the debt-to-assets ratio and leverage ratio have increased significantly. The excessive debt ratio will affect the sustainable operation of cruise companies and the sustainable development of the cruise industry. Because of the enormous impact and damage caused to the cruise industry by the COVID-19 pandemic, it is suggested that the cruise industry should take effective preventive strategies against highly contagious infectious diseases, deploy these strategies ahead of time, and strengthen the resilience and pandemic prevention ability of the cruise industry, to achieve the goal of sustainably developing the cruise industry. Full article
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Article
Chinese Tourists’ Health Risk Avoidance Behavior in the Context of Regular Epidemic Prevention and Control: An Empirical Analysis
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6750; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116750 - 31 May 2022
Abstract
The health risk avoidance behavior of tourists in China, a country actively combating COVID-19, is of research significance. This study proposes and tests a model based on three theories—stimulus-organism-response model, motivation-opportunity-ability model, and health belief model—to examine the impact mechanism of tourists’ health [...] Read more.
The health risk avoidance behavior of tourists in China, a country actively combating COVID-19, is of research significance. This study proposes and tests a model based on three theories—stimulus-organism-response model, motivation-opportunity-ability model, and health belief model—to examine the impact mechanism of tourists’ health risk avoiding behavior under COVID-19′s regular epidemic prevention and control situations and the moderating effect of health risk perception. The results reveal that, from the stimulus perspective, tourists’ motivation, opportunities to travel, and the ability to travel negatively affect tourists’ health risk avoidance behavior. That is to say, the stronger the motivation of tourists to undertake tourist activities, the stronger the safeguards provided by the government, and the better that tourists are informed of the virus and more equipped with healthy habits and skills, the more likely it is that tourists will not take avoidance behavior. From the organism perspective, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility, as mediating factors, positively influence tourists’ health risk avoidance behavior. In contrast, if tourists are more likely to believe in the controllability of the health risk of the epidemic, then they are more likely to travel and less likely to show avoidance behavior. Managerial implications and theoretical contributions are also provided. Full article
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Article
Comparison Epidemiology between Tuberculosis and COVID-19 in East Java Province, Indonesia: An Analysis of Regional Surveillance Data in 2020
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(6), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7060083 - 27 May 2022
Abstract
Tuberculosis and COVID-19 are among the infectious diseases that constitute a public health concern. Therefore, this study aims to examine the recent epidemiology of tuberculosis and COVID-19 in East Java Province, Indonesia, in 2020. Case-based surveillance data were acquired with a retrospective design [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis and COVID-19 are among the infectious diseases that constitute a public health concern. Therefore, this study aims to examine the recent epidemiology of tuberculosis and COVID-19 in East Java Province, Indonesia, in 2020. Case-based surveillance data were acquired with a retrospective design between January and December 2020 by the East Java Health Officer. The data were analyzed using Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS) for mapping, and Microsoft Excel for recording. Furthermore, the statistical analysis (Spearman correlation test) was carried out via Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) applications. A total number of 38,089 confirmed cases of tuberculosis was recorded, with an incidence rate of 95.49/100,000 population, a case fatality rate (CFR) of 3.6%, and an average treatment success rate of 87.78%. COVID-19 is a new viral disease, with a total of 84,133 confirmed COVID-19 cases in East Java, with an incidence rate of 232.9/100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was found in Mojokerto city, while the lowest was found in Sampang. Furthermore, the CFR values of tuberculosis and COVID-19 were 1.4% and 6.8%, respectively. The regional survey in East Java Province showed that the incidence of tuberculosis remains high. This indicated that the search for active cases and preventive promotion was not completed. Therefore, inter-sectoral collaboration can be adapted to provide suitable tuberculosis health care. Full article
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Article
Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak Risk Perception on Willingness to Consume Products from Restaurants: Mediation Effect of Risk Attitude
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6372; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106372 - 23 May 2022
Abstract
The COVID-19 outbreak caused huge losses for the catering industry. The outbreak’s influence on consumers’ risk perception and risk attitude was an important factor for these heavy losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in epidemic risk perception, risk [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 outbreak caused huge losses for the catering industry. The outbreak’s influence on consumers’ risk perception and risk attitude was an important factor for these heavy losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in epidemic risk perception, risk attitude, and the consumers’ willingness to consume products from restaurants during the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. The study collected 502 questionnaires at the end of 2021, and structural analysis was conducted using SPSS 26.0 and AMOS 20.0 statistical programs. The results showed that consumers’ awareness of the coronavirus pandemic (consumers’ epidemic risk perception) had a significant positive effect on their decision-making behavior under uncertain conditions (risk attitude); consumers’ decision-making behavior under uncertain conditions (risk attitude) had a significant negative effect on their willingness to purchase from restaurants; consumers’ awareness of the coronavirus pandemic (consumers’ epidemic risk perception) had a significant negative effect on their willingness to consume products from restaurants; and risk attitude played a mediating role in the influence of consumers’ epidemic risk perception on their willingness to consume products from restaurants. This study can provide guidance and reference for restaurants on how to deal with the epidemic situation, help them undertake risk prevention work and reduce losses, and promote the healthy and sustainable development of the restaurant. Full article
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Article
Antimicrobial Prescribing Patterns in Patients with COVID-19 in Russian Multi-Field Hospitals in 2021: Results of the Global-PPS Project
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(5), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7050075 - 16 May 2022
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health challenge with understudied effects on antimicrobial usage. We aimed to analyze antimicrobial prescribing patterns in COVID-19 patients in Russian multi-field hospitals by means of the Global-PPS Project developed by the University of Antwerp. Out of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health challenge with understudied effects on antimicrobial usage. We aimed to analyze antimicrobial prescribing patterns in COVID-19 patients in Russian multi-field hospitals by means of the Global-PPS Project developed by the University of Antwerp. Out of 999 patients in COVID-19 wards in six hospitals surveyed in 2021, 51.3% received antimicrobials (79% in intensive care, 47.5% in medical wards). Systemic antivirals and antibiotics were prescribed to 31% and 35.1% of patients, respectively, and a combination of both to 14.1% of patients. The top antivirals administered were favipiravir (65%), remdesivir (19.2%), and umifenovir (15.8%); the top antibiotics were ceftriaxone (29.7%), levofloxacin (18%), and cefoperazone/sulbactam (10.4%). The vast majority of antibiotics was prescribed for treatment of pneumonia or COVID-19 infection (59.3% and 25.1%, respectively). Treatment was based on biomarker data in 42.7% of patients but was targeted only in 29.6% (6.7% for antibiotics). The rate of non-compliance with guidelines reached 16.6%. Antimicrobial prescribing patterns varied considerably in COVID-19 wards in Russian hospitals with groundlessly high rates of systemic antibiotics. Antimicrobial usage surveillance and stewardship should be applied to inpatient care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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Article
Humoral Immune Response Induced by the BBIBP-CorV Vaccine (Sinopharm) in Healthcare Workers: A Cohort Study
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7050066 - 24 Apr 2022
Abstract
Insufficient data have been reported about the effect of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) on the humoral response through time in healthcare workers (HCW). This retrospective cohort studied the information of 252 HCW from a private laboratory, comparing the antibody-mediated response provoked by [...] Read more.
Insufficient data have been reported about the effect of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) on the humoral response through time in healthcare workers (HCW). This retrospective cohort studied the information of 252 HCW from a private laboratory, comparing the antibody-mediated response provoked by BBIBP-CorV between HCW previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (PI) and not previously infected (NPI), employing the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S and the cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection kit at intervals of 21, 90, and 180 days after vaccination. The presence of neutralizing antibodies in HCW 21 days after full vaccination was 100% in PI and 91.60% in NPI. We observed a progressive decrease in antibody levels over time in both groups. Comparing HCW PI with NPI, PI had a 10.9, 14.3, and 8.6-fold higher antibody titer with the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S at 21 (p < 0.001), 90 (p< 0.001) and 180 days (p < 0.001) respectively, compared to NPI. Using the percent of signal inhibition (PSI) of the antibody neutralization cPass™, HCW PI showed a level of 1.3, 2.0, and 3.1 times more antibodies, at 21 (p < 0.001), 90 (p < 0.001), and 180 days (p < 0.001) respectively, compared to NPI. We determined a progressive decrease in humoral immunity over time, particularly higher in those NPI. Full article
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Article
Timing of Initiation of Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy in Patients with COVID-19
COVID 2022, 2(5), 532-539; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2050039 - 21 Apr 2022
Abstract
High-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy is widely used in patients with severe COVID-19. This therapy is known to have sufficient clinical effectiveness, but the optimal administration method is not known. In this study, we assessed the deterioration of oxygenation after methylprednisolone pulse therapy in [...] Read more.
High-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy is widely used in patients with severe COVID-19. This therapy is known to have sufficient clinical effectiveness, but the optimal administration method is not known. In this study, we assessed the deterioration of oxygenation after methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with COVID-19 according to disease severity (oxygen requirement) at initiation of therapy. Ninety-nine patients with COVID-19 who received methylprednisolone pulse therapy at Saitama Medical University Hospital in Japan between October 2020 and October 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes were compared according to the fraction of inspired oxygen as a measure of disease severity at initiation of methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Based on the FIO2 level at initiation of methylprednisolone pulse therapy, patients were classified into an early treatment group (FIO2 ≤ 0.39; n = 21), a middle treatment group (FIO2 0.40–0.69; n = 38), and a late treatment group (FIO2 ≥ 0.70; n = 40). The frequency of administration of mechanical ventilation and the days of oxygen therapy in the middle group were lower than in the other groups. The frequency of adverse events was also lower in the middle group. Both late and early methylprednisolone pulse therapy may lead to further deterioration of COVID-19 and an increase in adverse events. Full article
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Article
Dynamic Impact of the Perceived Value of Public on Panic Buying Behavior during COVID-19
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 4874; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094874 - 19 Apr 2022
Abstract
In this paper, an evolutionary game model for the development of panic buying events in COVID-19 is constructed by studying the dynamic process of the public and the government adjusting their strategic choices and playing a continuous game. This paper uses regret theory [...] Read more.
In this paper, an evolutionary game model for the development of panic buying events in COVID-19 is constructed by studying the dynamic process of the public and the government adjusting their strategic choices and playing a continuous game. This paper uses regret theory to depict the public’s perceived value of the items in the panic buying situation, describes the characteristics of each stage of the rumors spreading process and the evolution process of panic buying events, and introduces the variable of public critical ability to measure the public’s panic buying willingness. The results show that the government’s intervention measures according to the characteristics of different stages can effectively control the continuous fermentation time and influence the scope of panic buying events. The implementation of the government’s rumor-refutation strategy will also significantly affect the volume of public panic buying, which will help the government timely understand the public’s epidemic prevention needs in COVID-19, relieve public panic, and provide a basis for the effective management and scheduling of emergency supplies. Full article
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Article
Vaccine Hesitancy in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7040060 - 12 Apr 2022
Abstract
(1) Background: vaccine hesitancy can put the public’s health at risk from vaccine-preventable diseases. This study aimed to address vaccine hesitancy in Saudi Arabia and understand the problem’s magnitude and causes. (2) Methods: this was a descriptive observational study using quantitative and qualitative [...] Read more.
(1) Background: vaccine hesitancy can put the public’s health at risk from vaccine-preventable diseases. This study aimed to address vaccine hesitancy in Saudi Arabia and understand the problem’s magnitude and causes. (2) Methods: this was a descriptive observational study using quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods conducted in Saudi Arabia between December 2020 and February 2021. Public survey forms, exit interviews, and healthcare professional survey forms were used. (3) Results: our study involved 2030 public survey participants, 119 exit interviews of caregivers, and 500 healthcare professionals, demonstrating that vaccine hesitancy was relatively low. Ninety percent of the participants agreed that it was essential for everyone to receive the recommended vaccines with their children (p < 0.001), 92% believed that vaccines are safe for their children (p < 0.001), 91% of the participants agreed to give their new children all the recommended doses (p < 0.001), 86% welcomed mass/school vaccination campaigns (p < 0.001), and 81% were willing to pay for additional vaccines for themselves and their children (p < 0.001). (4) Conclusions: vaccine hesitancy is low in Saudi Arabia, and a positive attitude toward vaccination was detected among most of the participants. Vaccination decision-making is complex and includes emotional, cultural, social, spiritual, and political aspects. Full article
Essay
Research on Design of Emergency Science Popularization Information Visualization for Public Health Events-Taking “COVID-19”as an Example
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4022; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074022 - 29 Mar 2022
Abstract
This study explores the optimization method of emergency popular science information design elements in public health events, breaks through the traditional design with the designer as the subjective consciousness and proposes an emergency popular science information design method oriented by perceptual narrative. First, [...] Read more.
This study explores the optimization method of emergency popular science information design elements in public health events, breaks through the traditional design with the designer as the subjective consciousness and proposes an emergency popular science information design method oriented by perceptual narrative. First, relevant research on public health events was carried out to screen out and analyze relevant narrative information elements and image elements, and narrative element divergence tree was established to show evaluation indicators. Second, relevant personnel were invited to evaluate the importance and kansei engineering, factor analysis and other methods were used to establish the correlation evaluation indicators of narrative elements. Finally, the optimization narrative elements of popular science information design were calculated with the fuzzy evaluation method to provide an effective auxiliary role for the visualization design of emergency popular science information. Taking “COVID-19 Event” as an example, the narrative design practice of emergency popular science elements was carried out. According to 313 effective questionnaires, the satisfaction of “COVID-19 event” popular science information elements that adopt the optimization method is relatively high, which verifies the feasibility of this method. The conclusion proves that the perceptual narrative design method can obtain the perceptual identity from the audience and plays a positive role in disseminating emergency popular science information. Full article
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Article
Evidence from Thailand on Easing COVID-19’s International Travel Restrictions: An Impact on Economic Production, Household Income, and Sustainable Tourism Development
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3423; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063423 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Even though international travel restrictions are being used to keep the COVID-19 pandemic under control, these measures cannot be considered as long-term solutions to the ongoing crisis. Limitations on traveling activities have tremendous adverse consequences on a country’s economy, particularly leading in radically [...] Read more.
Even though international travel restrictions are being used to keep the COVID-19 pandemic under control, these measures cannot be considered as long-term solutions to the ongoing crisis. Limitations on traveling activities have tremendous adverse consequences on a country’s economy, particularly leading in radically expanding economic downturn and a shrinking tourism industry. To overcome this hardship, several countries have eased COVID-19 travel restrictions. However, there are still questions concerning the benefit to society as the impact assessment of this implementation transmitting to an economy has not been explicitly investigated. In response to this, we aim to assess the impacts of this implementation as to provide a guideline to global countries for their future adoption. By calculating the output and household income multipliers from the tourism input–output table, this study utilizes a case study from Thailand to indicate that prolonging the full mobility restrictions of international tourists, which results in a yearly loss of revenue in Thai tourism industry, would cost country production up to 144.97 billion USD and up to 45.4 billion USD for loss of household income. When international travel limitations were relaxed, production and household damage would fall to 142.24 billion USD (+1.88%) and 44.7 billion USD (+1.54%), respectively. At individual sectors level, our calculation identified that the most damage of production activities would exist in public utility, agriculture, and food manufacturing sectors. In the perspective of household income, those in the agricultural sector would have greatest impact. This impact results from the Thai tourism industry positioned as a buyer in an economy, having most impact on sectors selling their products or inputs to the tourism industry. As suggested by the input–output multipliers, we emphasize that strengthening the resilience of tourism-related sectors and reforming the tourism industry in relation to potential consumption and production patterns are critical for sustainable tourism development. Full article
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Article
Quality of Life of the Elderly during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Asian Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study across Six Countries
Life 2022, 12(3), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12030365 - 03 Mar 2022
Abstract
Background: Few studies have explored the determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying these factors may help implement appropriate policies to enhance HRQoL in the elderly. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors of physical [...] Read more.
Background: Few studies have explored the determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying these factors may help implement appropriate policies to enhance HRQoL in the elderly. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors of physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores of HRQoL in selected six low- and middle-income Asian countries. Methods: We conducted an online survey of older people aged ≥55 years in six countries: Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, Malaysia, Palestine, and Sri Lanka. The Stark QoL questionnaire was used to measure the PCS and MCS scores. Univariate and multiple variable analyses after adjusting for confounders were performed to identify the possible predictors of PCS and MCS. Results: A total of 1644 older people (69.1 ± 7.8 years, range 55–97 years, Female: 50.9%) responded to the survey. We documented age, country of residence, marital status, number of male children, current employment status, and health insurance, ability to pay household bills, frequency of family members visits and receiving support during COVID-19 pandemic predicted both PCS and MCS. However, gender, residence, and number of female children were associated with PCS only (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors such as age, country of residence, marital status, number of male children, current employment status, health insurance, ability to pay household bills, frequency of family members visiting family members, and receiving support during the COVID-19 pandemic affecting both physical and mental quality of life. These results can guide formulating health care planning policies to enhance QoL during COVID-19 and future pandemics in the elderly. Full article
Review
The COVID-19 Infodemic: Mechanism, Impact, and Counter-Measures—A Review of Reviews
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2605; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052605 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The acceptability of appropriate SARS-CoV-2 pandemic measures including vaccinations is currently being hampered due to significant misinformation all over the globe, also known as the “infodemic” within the pandemic. We asked the following two research questions: (1) What is the current extent of [...] Read more.
The acceptability of appropriate SARS-CoV-2 pandemic measures including vaccinations is currently being hampered due to significant misinformation all over the globe, also known as the “infodemic” within the pandemic. We asked the following two research questions: (1) What is the current extent of the global infodemic preventing populations from receiving adequate healthcare including COVID-vaccinations? (2) Which are appropriate countermeasures to manage the infodemic in order to guarantee adequate healthcare in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic? Pubmed and Cochrane Library were accessed on 29 October 2021 and searched for reviews and systematic reviews on “COVID-19” and “infodemic”. The literature identified was analyzed with methods of qualitative research focusing on (1) mechanism, (2) impact, and (3) countermeasures to confront the infodemic. The world-wide infodemic is being recognized as a multifaceted problem beyond health and human rights, extending into global political spheres such as societal cohesion and security. The mechanism of the COVID-19 infodemic involves specific factors related to the situation, sender, instrument, and recipient. Although freedom of expression and the right to seek, receive, and impart information through any media is a fundamental human right, the infodemic has a substantial impact on health, another fundamental human right, by causing stress, deception, violence, and harm. Mixed-synergistic pre-impact, trans-impact, and post-impact countermeasures can be taken; the most important is building and maintaining trust. Full article
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Communication
The Shortcomings of COVID-19 Testing in Ecuador: Time to Incentivize Research and Innovation
Life 2022, 12(3), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12030325 - 22 Feb 2022
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic hit Ecuador severely. The country caught the attention of international media due to its high death toll and overwhelmed healthcare system. The clinical diagnostics system was rapidly overloaded, and the import of PCR tests was delayed. The case of Ecuador [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic hit Ecuador severely. The country caught the attention of international media due to its high death toll and overwhelmed healthcare system. The clinical diagnostics system was rapidly overloaded, and the import of PCR tests was delayed. The case of Ecuador illustrates how middle-income countries rely heavily on the importation of biotechnological products for their healthcare systems. The Ecuadorian experience during the COVID-19 pandemic serves as a call for the formation of policies for the development of the biotechnological industry. Full article
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Article
Early and Dynamic Socio-Academic Variables Related to Dropout Intention: A Predictive Model Made during the Pandemic
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020831 - 12 Jan 2022
Abstract
Social and academic integration variables have been shown to be relevant for the understanding of university dropout. However, there is less evidence regarding the influence of these variables on dropout intention, as well as the predictive models that explain their relationships. Improvements in [...] Read more.
Social and academic integration variables have been shown to be relevant for the understanding of university dropout. However, there is less evidence regarding the influence of these variables on dropout intention, as well as the predictive models that explain their relationships. Improvements in this topic become relevant considering that dropout intention stands as a useful measure to anticipate and intervene this phenomenon. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a predictive model for university dropout intention that considers the relationships between social and academic variables during the first university semester of 2020. The research was conducted using a cross-sectional associative-predictive design, with a convenience sampling (n = 711) due to the restrictions of the pandemic period. The results showed a good fit of the proposed hypothetical model that explained 38.7% of dropout intention. Both social support and perceived social isolation predicted the sense of belonging and, through it, engagement. Previous academic performance predicted early academic performance and, through it, engagement. The set of variables predicted the intention to quit through engagement. These results are a contribution both to the understanding of the phenomenon and to guide potential interventions in the early stages of the university experience. Full article
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Review
Asymptomatic Hypoxemia as a Characteristic Symptom of Coronavirus Disease: A Narrative Review of Its Pathophysiology
COVID 2022, 2(1), 47-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2010004 - 05 Jan 2022
Abstract
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a pandemic and caused a huge burden to healthcare systems worldwide. One of the characteristic symptoms of COVID-19 is asymptomatic hypoxemia, also called happy hypoxia, silent hypoxemia, or asymptomatic [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a pandemic and caused a huge burden to healthcare systems worldwide. One of the characteristic symptoms of COVID-19 is asymptomatic hypoxemia, also called happy hypoxia, silent hypoxemia, or asymptomatic hypoxemia. Patients with asymptomatic hypoxemia often have no subjective symptoms, such as dyspnea, even though hypoxemia is judged by objective tests, such as blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry. Asymptomatic hypoxemia can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, and the delay in making a diagnosis and providing initial treatment can have fatal outcomes, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus far, not many studies have covered asymptomatic hypoxemia. We present a review on the human response to hypoxemia, focusing on the respiratory response to hypoxemia rather than the pathophysiology of lung injury arising from SARS-CoV-2 infection. We have also discussed whether asymptomatic hypoxemia is specific to SARS-CoV-2 infection or a common phenomenon in lung-targeted viral infections. Full article
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Article
Impact of Consumer Health Awareness on Dairy Product Purchase Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010314 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a reduction in the overall consumption of dairy products in China. How to restore the consumption potential of dairy products and alleviate the serious impact on the dairy market in the post-epidemic period is an [...] Read more.
Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a reduction in the overall consumption of dairy products in China. How to restore the consumption potential of dairy products and alleviate the serious impact on the dairy market in the post-epidemic period is an urgent problem that needs to be resolved. Based on the survey data of 1780 consumers in 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) of China, the Heckman two-stage model was used to empirically test the impact of consumer health awareness on dairy product purchase behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic and to further analyze the differences in factors affecting dairy product purchase behavior with the restriction of consumer health awareness. The results showed that the overall level of consumer health awareness after the outbreak of COVID-19 was relatively high. A total of 79% of consumers preferred to buy dairy products after the COVID-19 outbreak, and the proportion of purchased dairy products increased by an average of 17.49%, compared with that before the COVID-19 outbreak. Health change perception, health concern degree, and health habit development in consumer health awareness all have important impacts on the purchase behavior of dairy products. Among them, health change perception and health habit development both positively and significantly affected the purchase intention. Moreover, all three aspects of consumer health awareness positively increased the proportion of dairy product purchases. Difference analysis showed that there were obvious differences among consumer groups with different health awareness in dairy product purchase decisions. Component factor analysis found that, overall, consumer health awareness directly affected the purchase intention and increased the purchase proportion of dairy products. Therefore, policy recommendations are proposed to increase the consumption momentum of dairy products by raising consumer health awareness in the post-epidemic period. Full article
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