Topic Editors

Dean, Faculty of Humanities and Health Sciences, Curtin University, Malaysia 98009, Malaysia
School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China
Disease Control Coordination, São Paulo State Health Department, São Paulo 01246-000, Brazil
Dr. Sudip Bhattacharya
Department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun 248001, Uttarakhand, India
Faculty of Education, University of City Island, Gazimagusa 99450, Cyprus

Impact of COVID-19 Global Crisis on the Sustainable Development Goals

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 May 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 July 2023)
Viewed by
121594

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

When world leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in 2015, they committed to a shared vision to set the world on a sustainable path for the people, planet, peace, partnership and prosperity. Almost one third of the way into the journey, at the SDG Summit held in September 2019, Member States recognized that global efforts were coming up short to deliver that transformational shift by 2030 and a renewed international commitment was needed to fulfill this promise to present and future generations. The year 2020 kickstarted the Decade of Action—a reaffirmation of the global commitment through accelerated efforts and sustainable solutions to the world’s biggest challenges, ranging from eradicating poverty and reducing gender inequality to addressing climate change. However, in only a brief period of time, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted efforts to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The global community finds itself in an unprecedented situation where parallel health, economic and social crises left countries struggling to contain the epidemic and provide immediate financial relief for the many people affected by the associated macroeconomic downturns. The pandemic threatens to reverse years of progress on poverty, hunger, health care and education. While the virus has impacted everyone, it is affecting the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people the most. This Special Issue aims to analyze the impacts of the COVID-19 global crisis on the Sustainable Development Goals and highlights the consequences, implications, risks and opportunities of the COVID 19 pandemic for our current world order. The pandemic and its response, in the form of protracted nationwide lockdowns have had several short-term as well as long-term impacts on human health, society, the economy and the environment. This Special Issue welcomes papers that address the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals 2030, from policy-makers, educators, researchers and practitioners in various disciplines in academia and industry. The manuscript should be designed based on quantitative or qualitative data analyzing the situation.

Dr. Roy Rillera Marzo
Dr. Yulan Lin
Dr. Edlaine Faria de Moura Villela
Dr. Sudip Bhattacharya
Prof. Dr. Kittisak Jermsittiparsert
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
  • sustainable development goals
  • public health
  • social science
  • health-related social media analytics
  • human behaviors
  • healthcare technology
  • social activities
  • internet of things (IoT)
  • machine learning
  • data-mining and deep-learning techniques applied to behaviors, healthcare, and SNS texts

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
COVID
covid
- - 2021 16.8 Days CHF 1000
Epidemiologia
epidemiologia
- - 2020 28.4 Days CHF 1200
Life
life
3.2 2.7 2011 17.5 Days CHF 2600
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
tropicalmed
2.9 4.1 2016 19.4 Days CHF 2700
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600
Journal of Personalized Medicine
jpm
3.4 2.6 2011 17.8 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (38 papers)

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31 pages, 668 KiB  
Article
A New Distribution for Modeling Data with Increasing Hazard Rate: A Case of COVID-19 Pandemic and Vinyl Chloride Data
by Ahlam H. Tolba, Chrisogonus K. Onyekwere, Ahmed R. El-Saeed, Najwan Alsadat, Hanan Alohali and Okechukwu J. Obulezi
Sustainability 2023, 15(17), 12782; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151712782 - 23 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
A novel lifetime distribution has been defined and examined in this study. The odd Lindley–Pareto (OLiP) distribution is the name we give to the new distribution. The new density function can be written as an odd Lindley-G distribution with Pareto amplification. The moment-generating [...] Read more.
A novel lifetime distribution has been defined and examined in this study. The odd Lindley–Pareto (OLiP) distribution is the name we give to the new distribution. The new density function can be written as an odd Lindley-G distribution with Pareto amplification. The moment-generating function and characteristic function, entropy and asymptotic behavior, order statistics and moments, mode, variance, skewness, and kurtosis are some of the aspects of the OLiP distribution that are discovered. Seven non-Bayesian estimation techniques and Bayesian estimation utilizing Markov chain Monte Carlo were compared for performance. Additionally, when the lifetime test is truncated after a predetermined period, single acceptance sampling plans (SASPs) are created for the newly suggested, OLiP distribution. The median lifetime of the OLiP distribution with pre-specified factors is taken as the truncation time. To guarantee that the specific life test is obtained at the defined risk to the user, the minimum sample size is required. For a particular consumer’s risk, the OLiP distribution’s parameters, and the truncation time, numerical results are obtained. The new distribution is illustrated using mortality rates of COVID-19 patients in Canada and vinyl chloride data in (g/L) from ground-water monitoring wells that are located in clean-up-gradient areas. Full article
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11 pages, 7019 KiB  
Communication
COVID Pandemics and Inland Transportation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Note on the Risks of Infection in Typical Passenger Vessels
by Harlysson W. S. Maia, Jassiel V. H. Fontes, Daniel Silva Bitencourtt, Edgar Mendoza, Rodolfo Silva, Irving D. Hernández and Hector Reis Almeida
COVID 2023, 3(8), 1052-1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid3080077 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Located in the center of the largest river basin in the world, the State of Amazonas in Brazil has an extensive network of more than 20 thousand kilometers of navigable waterways, which is the main mode of transportation between localities, both for cargo [...] Read more.
Located in the center of the largest river basin in the world, the State of Amazonas in Brazil has an extensive network of more than 20 thousand kilometers of navigable waterways, which is the main mode of transportation between localities, both for cargo and passengers. The region is practically disconnected from the rest of the country due to the lack of roads. Thus, the Amazon River network acted as an efficient means of transmission of the new coronavirus (COVID-19), rapidly transforming the region into an epicenter of the pandemic with one of the highest infection rates in Brazil. Despite the adoption of national and state measures to combat new infections, the situation continued to deteriorate for reasons still under investigation. Given this scenario, this work aims to identify possible infection risks in typical passenger vessels used in the Brazilian Amazon. Three case studies of different passenger vessels were considered, discussing possible scenarios that could allow the spread of COVID and proposing some recommendations for infection prevention. It is hoped that this communication will contribute to the dissemination of information related to the typical means of long-distance passenger transport in the Amazon, to the planning of infectious disease prevention strategies on board regional ships and to ensure a sustainable future for the Amazonian population. Furthermore, this research aims to contribute to the sustainable development goals of the United Nations 2030 Agenda on health and well-being. Full article
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9 pages, 1957 KiB  
Communication
The Renin–Angiotensin System in COVID-19: Can Long COVID Be Predicted?
by Simone König, Richard Vollenberg and Phil-Robin Tepasse
Life 2023, 13(7), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13071462 - 28 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1517
Abstract
(1) Background: Co-morbidities such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease are major risk factors for severe COVID-19. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) is critically involved in their pathophysiology and is counter-balanced by both angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2, and the kallikrein–kinin [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Co-morbidities such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease are major risk factors for severe COVID-19. The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) is critically involved in their pathophysiology and is counter-balanced by both angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2, and the kallikrein–kinin system (KKS). Considerable research interest with respect to COVID-19 treatment is currently being directed towards the components of these systems. In earlier studies, we noticed significantly reduced carboxypeptidase N (CPN, KKS member) activity and excessive angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, RAS member) activity in the sera of both hospitalized COVID-19 patients and a subgroup of convalescent patients. The data had been obtained using labeled bradykinin (BK) as a reporter peptide, which is a target of both CPN and ACE. The data were supplemented with mass-spectrometry-based serum proteomic analysis. Here, we hypothesize that the degree of BK serum degradation could be indicative of Long COVID. (2) Review and Discussion: The recent literature is briefly reviewed. The fact that the levels of the BK serum degradation products did not reach normal concentrations in almost half of the patients during convalescences could have been partially due to a dysregulated RAS. (3) Conclusions: Standard tests for routine patient care in Long COVID come often back normal. We suggest that the measurement of selected members of the RAS such as ACE and angiotensin II or the use of our BK degradation assay could identify Long COVID candidates. Clinical studies are required to test this hypothesis. Full article
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14 pages, 1551 KiB  
Article
Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Patients with COVID-19 Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit: A Two-Year Retrospective Analysis
by Juliana Raimondo e Silva Malzone, Ana Paula Ribeiro, Tatiane Silva de Souza, Debora Driemeyer Wilbert, Neil Ferreira Novo and Yara Juliano
Life 2023, 13(3), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030741 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
In March 2020, COVID-19 was characterized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Hospitalized patients affected by COVID-19 presented with severe respiratory and motor impairment, especially those who required intensive treatment and invasive mechanical ventilation, with sequelae that extended after the period [...] Read more.
In March 2020, COVID-19 was characterized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Hospitalized patients affected by COVID-19 presented with severe respiratory and motor impairment, especially those who required intensive treatment and invasive mechanical ventilation, with sequelae that extended after the period of hospitalization. Thus, the aim of the current study was to verify the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in 2020 and 2021, according to age group. Methods: A retrospective cohort study. Data were collected through the “ICUs Brasileiras” between March 2020 and November 2021 for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) due to COVID-19. The following were analyzed: the number of hospital admissions, days in the ICU and hospital, clinical aspects (non-invasive or invasive ventilatory support, comorbidities, frailty, SAPS 3 and SOFA severity scales, use of amines and renal support), and ICU and hospital mortality rate. Results: A total of 166,966 ICU hospital admissions were evaluated over the evaluated quarters. The main results showed a peak in the number of hospitalizations between March and May 2021, with a higher percentage of males. The peak of ICU admissions for 7 days was between March and May 2021 and 21 days between March and May 2020. In addition, higher deaths were observed in the age groups between 40 and 80 years between 2020 and 2021, with the group above 81 being the age group with the highest mortality. Mortality in the ICU of ventilated patients was higher in the age group above 70 years. Another observation was the predominance of SAPS 3 and the peak of mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days between June and August 2021. Conclusion: The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were influenced by age group, showing higher mortality over 81 years and over 70 years in the ICU supported by mechanical ventilation, maintained for 7 days from June to August 2021. The years 2020 and 2021 also showed differences for patients with COVID-19, with greater hospitalization between March and May 2021, especially in the ICU for 7 days, and between March and May 2020 for the 21-day period. Full article
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19 pages, 330 KiB  
Article
Researching Teacher Work Motivation in Ghana through the Lens of COVID-19
by Michael Agyemang Adarkwah
COVID 2023, 3(2), 301-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid3020023 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Teachers, particularly in developing contexts, were vulnerable populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. As natural parental figures for students, they had to reconcile the dual role of ensuring the safety and health of students and their own and their family’s well-being. The external crisis [...] Read more.
Teachers, particularly in developing contexts, were vulnerable populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. As natural parental figures for students, they had to reconcile the dual role of ensuring the safety and health of students and their own and their family’s well-being. The external crisis of COVID-19 heightened the negative experiences of teachers in their work environments during both online and physical instruction. This qualitative phenomenological study involving thirty (30) secondary school teachers in Ghana took a comprehensive and fresh look at how COVID-19 impacted the work motivation of teachers. It was found that teachers suffered a great deal of stress in the wake of the pandemic and had to face mounting concerns about their working conditions. The low morale of teachers precipitated by COVID-19 made them develop attrition intentions. However, intrinsic and altruistic traits such as passion, the feeling of responsibility, and the desire to contribute to society and foster student development made teachers resilient towards the deleterious effects of the pandemic to promote optimal teaching. Future studies should investigate the installation of support structures that strengthen the motivation of teachers in unforeseen crises. Full article
16 pages, 2078 KiB  
Article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Malaria Control in Africa: A Preliminary Analysis
by Liping Gao, Qi Shi, Zhiguo Liu, Zhenjun Li and Xiaoping Dong
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8010067 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5960
Abstract
Malaria remains a significant public health concern in Africa, and the emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have negatively impacted malaria control. Here, we conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis of malaria globally, and preliminarily explored the impact of COVID-19 on the malaria [...] Read more.
Malaria remains a significant public health concern in Africa, and the emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have negatively impacted malaria control. Here, we conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis of malaria globally, and preliminarily explored the impact of COVID-19 on the malaria elimination program in regions of Africa (AFR). The present analysis found that there was a vast heterogeneity of incidence of deaths caused by malaria globally in different continents, and the highest malaria burden was observed in AFR. In 2020, there was an obviously increasing trend in the malaria epidemic in AFR, while the other four continents exhibited stable and declining patterns. Historically, malaria has been largely concentrated in high-malaria-burden regions, such as West Africa, and there has been an obvious increasing trend in Nigeria. These data suggest that dynamic changes in the malaria epidemic situation worldwide have primarily originated from AFR, and West Africa has played an important role in the global malaria increase in recent years. Under the coercion of COVID-19, multiple factors have co-driven the increase in malaria in AFR, including insufficient financial investments, a high native malaria burden, weak surveillance systems, limited medical resources, and low socioeconomic development levels. In addition, the shift of medical resources (e.g., health workers and personal protective equipment (PPE), the manufacturing of diagnostic reagents, and drugs) from malaria control to emergency COVID-19 response in the pandemic’s early stage caused disruptions, reductions, and delays in pillar malaria control measures, leading to a significant negative impact on malaria control. In particular, a funding shortfall at both the international and domestic levels led to a “significant threat,” resulting in vast gaps in access to proven malaria control tools. Although there has been a declining trend in malaria control over time due to COVID-19, the effect still cannot be ignored. Hence, we recommend the implementation of medical and technical resource assistance as a priority strategy to support Africa (West Africa) in order to curb further transmission. Full article
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14 pages, 3471 KiB  
Article
Screening and Analysis of Serum Protein Biomarkers Infected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
by Zhaomin Feng, Yang Pan, Yimeng Liu, Jiachen Zhao, Xiaomin Peng, Guilan Lu, Weixian Shi, Daitao Zhang and Shujuan Cui
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(12), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7120397 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread widely around the world, and in-depth research on COVID-19 is necessary for biomarkers and target drug discovery. This analysis collected serum from six COVID-19-infected patients and six healthy people. The protein changes in the infected and healthy [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread widely around the world, and in-depth research on COVID-19 is necessary for biomarkers and target drug discovery. This analysis collected serum from six COVID-19-infected patients and six healthy people. The protein changes in the infected and healthy control serum samples were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The differential protein signature in both groups was retrieved and analyzed by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG), Gene ontology, COG/KOG, protein–protein interaction, and protein domain interactions tools. We shortlisted 24 differentially expressed proteins between both groups. Ten genes were significantly up-regulated in the infection group, and fourteen genes were significantly down-regulated. The GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis suggested that the chromosomal part and chromosome were the most enriched items. The oxytocin signaling pathway was the most enriched item of KEGG analysis. The netrin module (non-TIMP type) was the most enriched protein domain in this study. Functional analysis of S100A9, PIGR, C4B, IL-6R, IGLV3-19, IGLV3-1, and IGLV5-45 revealed that SARS-CoV-2 was closely related to immune response. Full article
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23 pages, 5568 KiB  
Article
What Do They Feel, Do, and Expect? The Young Generation’s Perception of Environmental Problems and Sustainable Development Goals in the Context of Quality of Life
by Jadwiga Adamczyk and Magdalena Adamczyk-Kowalczuk
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 15551; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142315551 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2234
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the need to rethink, revision, and modify the sustainable development goals since changes have never been so unpredictable in terms of future events. While material welfare has long been identified and given attention, the pandemic has demonstrated the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the need to rethink, revision, and modify the sustainable development goals since changes have never been so unpredictable in terms of future events. While material welfare has long been identified and given attention, the pandemic has demonstrated the importance of health security and socio-psychological well-being. The aim of this article is to identify the young generation’s perception of environmental problems and sustainable development goals in the context of quality of life. In January 2022, we conducted an online survey (CAWI) among 120 young adults aged 21–28, who were asked, i.a., to assess current ecological threats, economic security, and social problems and to reevaluate the goals of sustainable development. One of the general conclusions is that global threats are more important for young people than local ones, and future threats are more important than the present ones. The results indicate a high awareness and sensitivity among the young generation to the important elements of the sustainable development goals, particularly regarding the elimination of hunger, the access to potable water, and providing education in the global dimension. The research results reflect the expectations of the young generation regarding the implementation of sustainable development goals, especially concerning environmental and social aspects. Full article
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16 pages, 9257 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Spatio-Temporal and Behavioural Variations in Taxi Travel Based on Big Data during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of New York City
by Sen Li, Shitai Bao, Ceyi Yao and Lan Zhang
Sustainability 2022, 14(20), 13548; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013548 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1591
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused severe social and economic chaos worldwide. To explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the travel patterns of residents, we analysed taxi trajectory data and COVID-19 pandemic data from New York City. Pearson coefficients, which were −0.7139, [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused severe social and economic chaos worldwide. To explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the travel patterns of residents, we analysed taxi trajectory data and COVID-19 pandemic data from New York City. Pearson coefficients, which were −0.7139, −0.8041, and −0.7046 during the three waves of the COVID-19, revealed a significant negative correlation between confirmed cases and taxi trips. Moran’s I was higher in drop-off areas than in pick-up areas, indicating a stronger spatial autocorrelation in drop-off areas during the study period. The hotspots of travel destinations had changed by spatial clustering, and variations in origin–destination distribution were obvious after the pandemic. Comparison of temporal and spatial dimensions before and after the pandemic revealed that strict epidemic policies directly affected travel. For instance, a week after the restrictions the taxi journeys plummeted by 95.3%, and their spatial and temporal patterns also changed. Once the anti-epidemic policy was eased or lifted, the taxi travel recovered, whereas, notably the new Omicron wave did not cause dramatic changes in taxi journeys. Despite this, travel spatial and temporal patterns did not return to pre-pandemic levels by the end of March 2022, the taxi journeys remained below half the pre-pandemic level. This study identified the profound impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on travel patterns and revealed distinct variations in behavioural responses during the pandemic and in response to subsequent policies. Strengthening targeted epidemic prevention and control measures are required to improve the balance between anti-epidemic policies and implementation efforts, that will facilitate the recovery of urban transport, work, and lifestyle of residents. Full article
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11 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Impact of Aerobic and Strengthening Exercise on Quality of Life (QOL), Mental Health and Physical Performance of Elderly People Residing at Old Age Homes
by Theingi Maung Maung, Timsi Jain, Jagannathan Madhanagopal, Sawri Rajan L. Rajagopal Naidu, Hnin Pwint Phyu and Win Myint Oo
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 10881; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710881 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2449
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 infection spread rapidly in Malaysia, and elderly people with underlying comorbidities were affected most. The study aimed to determine the effect of exercise on QOL and mental health among elderly people residing in old age homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 infection spread rapidly in Malaysia, and elderly people with underlying comorbidities were affected most. The study aimed to determine the effect of exercise on QOL and mental health among elderly people residing in old age homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Out of 178 older adults from old age homes in Kedah and Penang States, 39 respondents undertook aerobic and strengthening exercises. A single group pre-test and post-test study was conducted in one government home and nine private homes in the northern region of Malaysia. The DASS-21 scale was used to assess mental health, and the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to evaluate QOL. Results: After 12 weeks of the exercise programme, scores for the physical domain increased from 53.1 to 61.8, for the psychological domain from 51.8 to 59.3, for the social domain from 53.2 to 60.5 and for the environmental domain from 67.2 to 72.1. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in the depression score from 6.2 to 4.4, the anxiety score from 3.5 to 2.2 and the stress score, from 4.6 to 2.8. Conclusion: Performing aerobic and strengthening exercises for a minimum of 12 weeks may have helped to improve mental health among the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic, and it may also improve the quality of life for those who are residing in old age homes. Full article
10 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
Mental Health Screening during COVID-19 Pandemic among School Teachers in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Theingi Maung Maung, Sing Ying Tan, Chai Li Tay, Mohammed Shahjahan Kabir, Lubna Shirin and Tan Yong Chia
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 10664; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710664 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2533
Abstract
(1) Background: The teaching profession has become more challenging due to the increased use of information technology, which potentially increases psychological distress among teachers. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among school teachers in Malaysia during the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The teaching profession has become more challenging due to the increased use of information technology, which potentially increases psychological distress among teachers. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among school teachers in Malaysia during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated sociodemographic factors. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Malaysia. A validated DASS-21 questionnaire was used for mental health screening, and the study was conducted online during the pandemic period. (3) Results: The percentages of respondents with mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe depression were 12%, 9.7%, 4.7%, and 3.1%, respectively. Those with mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe anxiety accounted for 11.5%, 12.3%, 6.3%, and 6%, respectively. Those with mild, moderate, severe, and very severe stress accounted for 12.8%, 12%, 5.3%, and 2.5%, respectively. Perceived overworking was significantly greater during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic. Significant experience in teaching, and less perceived overworking before and during the pandemic were associated with better mental health. (4) Conclusions: Periodic mental health screening for teachers may be beneficial in preventing mental health disorders and improving the quality of student education. A full assessment and innovation of the curriculum and workload should be implemented. Full article
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8 pages, 1272 KiB  
Commentary
Learning from the COVID-19 Pandemic Crisis to Overcome the Global Environmental Crisis
by Christoph von Hagke, Chloe Hill, Angela Hof, Thomas Rinder, Andreas Lang and Jan Christian Habel
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 10545; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710545 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
The COVID-19 crisis and the environmental crisis share a range of similarities. Both crises take place on a global scale and affect all aspects of our lives. However, we humans respond differently to these challenges. Here, we compare and comment on characteristics of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 crisis and the environmental crisis share a range of similarities. Both crises take place on a global scale and affect all aspects of our lives. However, we humans respond differently to these challenges. Here, we compare and comment on characteristics of the COVID-19 crisis and the environmental crisis, explore how far these two crises are comparable, and what we can learn from actions that have been taken against the COVID-19 crisis. We discuss how human societies are affected by the respective crises, and analyze policy makers’ responses and offer pathways to better inform policy. We highlight the role of science, which significantly contributed to decision making throughout the COVID-19 crisis, but seems frequently underrepresented in the environmental crisis. We conclude that there are significant differences between the two crises in terms of perceptibility and thus communicability. While problems and solutions in the COVID-19 crisis are largely linearly correlated, the challenges of the environmental crisis are far more complex and decoupled, and thus appear much more complex and are often only perceived with difficulty by humans. Thus, tackling the environmental crisis is much more challenging than solving the COVID-19 crisis. To overcome the environmental crisis, purely technical approaches for combating symptoms are not sufficient. However, political interests are usually short-term, and do not correspond with the temporal and spatial scales of global change. There is an urgent need to improve institutionalized scientific advisory mechanisms and to empower global policy makers who are independent of local interest groups. Furthermore, we need the sound communication of complex interactions to the general public and the translation of scientific findings into action. One possibility to achieve this is to bring together natural scientists with expertise in biology, climate and geosciences and social scientists, psychologists, and, possibly, artists. Full article
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13 pages, 4225 KiB  
Article
The Effect of COVID-19 Restrictions on Changes in Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Was “A Double-Edged Sword”: It Improved for Some and Worsened for Others
by Albertas Skurvydas, Ausra Lisinskiene, Daiva Majauskiene, Dovile Valanciene, Ruta Dadeliene, Natalja Istomina and Asta Sarkauskiene
Sustainability 2022, 14(16), 10091; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610091 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1519
Abstract
The objective was to determine the contributions to changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the COVID-19 restrictions by age, gender, education, place of residence, type of work, type of sport, Body Mass Index (BMI), subjective health status, smoking, alcohol consumption, overeating, impulsivity, [...] Read more.
The objective was to determine the contributions to changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the COVID-19 restrictions by age, gender, education, place of residence, type of work, type of sport, Body Mass Index (BMI), subjective health status, smoking, alcohol consumption, overeating, impulsivity, depression symptoms, stress level, sleep duration and emotional intelligence (EI). We interviewed 6369 people in Lithuania before the COVID-19 pandemic and 2392 during the COVID-19 restrictions, and they were 18–4 years old. The initial COVID-19 restrictions reduced MVPA. This decrease was greater in individuals with lower education levels, higher BMI, higher stress levels and higher self-rated health status. MVPA decreased among those whose self-rated health status was the poorest but increased among those whose self-rated health status was the best. MVPA decreased among young women, women whose work was mostly sedentary and smoking women, and it decreased among overeating men. The particularity of sport, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, EI, impulsivity and depression symptoms did not have a significant effect on changes in MVPA during the COVID-19 restrictions, among either gender or any age group. Full article
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14 pages, 2220 KiB  
Article
ABO Blood Group in Relation to COVID-19 Susceptibility and Clinical Outcomes: A Retrospective Observational Study in the United Arab Emirates
by Wael Hafez, Shougyat Ahmed, Nihad Abbas, Kamran Ahmed, Samera Kamran, Arun Arya, Srinivasa Raghu Rao, Mahmoud Abdelshakor, Sara Ali, Honeymol Sebastian, Mishal Tariq, Kumar Lal and Ahmed Abdelrahman
Life 2022, 12(8), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12081157 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2754
Abstract
(1) Background: The association between ABO blood groups and COVID-19 outcomes was investigated in several studies. The results were controversial. This study aimed to explore the association between ABO blood groups and COVID-19 outcomes. (2) Methods: This retrospective study included 303 COVID-19 patients [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The association between ABO blood groups and COVID-19 outcomes was investigated in several studies. The results were controversial. This study aimed to explore the association between ABO blood groups and COVID-19 outcomes. (2) Methods: This retrospective study included 303 COVID-19 patients treated at the NMC Royal Hospital in the United Arab Emirates between 8 April 2020 and 30 June 2020. (3) Results: The mean age of patients included in the study was 39.3 ± 10.7 years, and 72.9% of patients were males. The prevalence of blood groups O, A, B, and AB was 40.3%, 27.7%, 25.1%, and 6.9%, respectively. The correlation between ABO blood groups and COVID-19 outcomes was insignificant except in the AB group, with significantly higher odds of disease severity. Increased age, higher body mass index (BMI), and being of male gender increased the risk for pneumonia among all blood groups. Both increased age and higher BMI increased the risk of mortality, and increased age increased the risk of disease severity. Troponin and platelet counts were significantly different in the A group compared to the non-A groups. Time to viral clearance was not different among blood groups. However, adjustment for Rh groups resulted in a significantly shorter time in the B group. (4) Conclusions: There was no significant association between ABO blood groups and COVID-19 outcomes, with the exception of group AB. Full article
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9 pages, 907 KiB  
Case Report
Co-Infection with Plasmodium vivax and COVID-19 in Thailand
by Parat Boonyarangka, Kittijarankon Phontham, Sabaithip Sriwichai, Kamonporn Poramathikul, Krit Harncharoenkul, Worachet Kuntawunginn, Napat Maneesrikhum, Sarayouth Srisawath, Chanida Seenuan, Chattakorn Thanyakait, Kanjana Inkabajan, Suda Pludpiem, Kingkan Pidtana, Samandra Demons, Brian Vesely, Mariusz Wojnarski, John S. Griesenbeck and Michele Spring
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(8), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7080145 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2988
Abstract
With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, healthcare systems not only had to address the pressing clinical needs of the COVID-19 pandemic but anticipate the effect on and of other conditions and diseases. This was of particular concern in areas of the world endemic with [...] Read more.
With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, healthcare systems not only had to address the pressing clinical needs of the COVID-19 pandemic but anticipate the effect on and of other conditions and diseases. This was of particular concern in areas of the world endemic with malaria, a disease which takes hundreds of thousands of lives each year. This case report from Thailand describes a 25-year-old man diagnosed with Plasmodium vivax, who was then found to be co-infected with COVID-19. Both conditions can have overlapping acute febrile illness symptoms which may delay or complicate diagnoses. He had no prior history of malaria and had received two vaccinations against COVID-19. His clinical course was mild with no pulmonary complications or oxygen requirement, and he responded well to treatments for both conditions. Three months after cure, he again contracted COVID-19 but did not experience any P. vivax relapse. Review of the available literature produced less than 10 publications describing co-infections with P. vivax and COVID-19; nonetheless, in endemic areas, vigilance for both diseases should continue, as co-infections could significantly alter the course of clinical management and prognosis as well as affect the healthcare staff caring for these patients. Full article
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16 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Does Sustainable Consumption Matter? The Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Medication Use in Brasov, Romania
by Ecaterina Coman, Claudiu Coman, Angela Repanovici, Mihaela Baritz, Attila Kovacs, Ana Maria Tomozeiu, Silviu Barbu and Ovidiu Toderici
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8017; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138017 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Sustainable consumption refers to the choice, purchase, use, and disposal of goods so as to enable all people to meet their present and future objective needs. However, panic caused by the gradual onset of the pandemic had a considerable impact on the behavior [...] Read more.
Sustainable consumption refers to the choice, purchase, use, and disposal of goods so as to enable all people to meet their present and future objective needs. However, panic caused by the gradual onset of the pandemic had a considerable impact on the behavior of consumption and purchase of medication, and the question remains whether sustainable consumption still matters during a crisis or not. The present study aims to analyze whether the pandemic has influenced the behavior of medication use among residents of Brasov County amid panic caused by the virus and to determine the primary sources of information on methods of the prevention and treatment of health conditions. The study focusses on the differences between the two target groups, young people, and adults, considering three socio-demographic factors, such as age, gender, and background. The present research uses two methods of data collection: an interview with 5 doctors and a questionnaire with 543 respondents. This research draws attention to the fact that the behaviors of purchasing and consuming medication during the COVID-19 pandemic has changed due to the spreading of the new virus and the state of emergency, as well as with medication use becoming less sustainable. The results showed that adults were more engaged in the panic buying of medication compared to young people during the pandemic; however, in normal times, young people use more medication. Our study shows that females tend to consume more medicines than males. Moreover, they are more susceptible for seeking media guidance and following advice from the digital realm, because they avoid going to the doctor, especially during the COVID-19 period. Depending on the environment of residence, it was found that people in rural areas generally tend to consume more medication than those in urban areas. However, during the pandemic, the drug use of this category of population has decreased because they do not tend to self-medicate and avoid visiting the doctor because of the fear of becoming contaminated. The results of the research could help to establish measures in order to prevent the panic buying of self-medication and pharmaceuticals, both during pandemics and in normal times, because such behaviors can have negative effects on both health and the environment. Full article
12 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
The Prevalence and Implications of Olfactory/Gustatory Dysfunctions among Adult COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Multiethnic Populations Study
by Wael Hafez, Mahmoud Abdelshakor, Muneir Gador, Ikram Abdelli and Shougyat Ahmed
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(7), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7070115 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
(1) Background: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGDs) was found in COVID-19 patients. Only a few studies looked into the prevalence of OGDs in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence OGDs among multiethnic COVID-19 patients [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGDs) was found in COVID-19 patients. Only a few studies looked into the prevalence of OGDs in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence OGDs among multiethnic COVID-19 patients in the UAE, and its association to patients’ characteristics and disease outcomes; (2) Methods: There were 1785 COVID-19 patients included in our cohort; (3) Results: Males made up most of the study participants (86.3%). A total of 11.7% of the participants reported OGDs. Female gender and ethnicity had significantly higher symptom prevalence (p < 0.001). COVID-19 severity had a strong inverse association with OGDs (p = 0.007). Other illness outcomes, such as ICU admission, pneumonia development, and mortality, showed no correlation. Males, Asians, and patients with comorbidities all had statistically significantly lower prevalence odds. On the other hand, Emirati, Arab, and Iranian patients had a higher prevalence. COVID-19 patients with OGDs had a considerably shorter time until viral clearance than those without the symptom; (4) Conclusions: in nonsevere COVID-19, olfactory/gustatory dysfunction is common. As a result, it could be applied as a predictive sign for early disease diagnosis and prognosis. Full article
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9 pages, 1436 KiB  
Review
A Bibliographic Analysis of Primary Studies on Physical Activity and COVID-19 during 2020–2021
by Melissa Ciuldim, Rozangela Verlengia and Alex Harley Crisp
Epidemiologia 2022, 3(3), 314-322; https://doi.org/10.3390/epidemiologia3030024 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Physical distancing and restrictions have been implemented to reduce the transmission rate of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). In contrast, the impact of the pandemic on levels of physical activity has been the subject of studies worldwide. Since the first reported case in December [...] Read more.
Physical distancing and restrictions have been implemented to reduce the transmission rate of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). In contrast, the impact of the pandemic on levels of physical activity has been the subject of studies worldwide. Since the first reported case in December 2019, the number of scientific studies on COVID-19 has grown in a way that has never been seen before. The current study aimed to perform a bibliometric analysis of primary studies on physical activity and COVID-19 during the first two years of the pandemic. The search was carried out using the SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Our analysis identified a total of 2023 published documents from 10,199 authors, with an annual growth rate of 330% between 2020 and 2021. Open-access scientific journals were the main sources of publication, and the level of collaboration among the most influential researchers contributed to productivity. A co-occurrence analysis of the authors’ keywords indicated a high prevalence of themes related to mental health, depression, anxiety, stress, sleep, and quality of life. In conclusion, the bibliometric analysis revealed a high volume of primary studies on physical activity and COVID-19 during the first two years of the pandemic, and mental health was a much discussed topic. Full article
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11 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Medication Adherence of Vietnamese Outpatients with Chronic Diseases during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Suol Thanh Pham, Cuong Van Dam, Chu Xuan Duong, Nghi Huynh Phuong Duong, Xuyen Thi Kim Nguyen, Han Gia Diep, Nguyet Kim Nguyen, Duyen Thi Nhan Le, Trang Thi Nhu Nguyen, Tu Thi Cam Le, Thao Thi Thanh Nguyen, Henri van Asten and Thang Nguyen
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(6), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7060101 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the medication adherence of outpatients with chronic diseases and the association between both patient attitudes and preventive practices regarding COVID-19 and their medication adherence. We performed a cross-sectional study in Vietnam. Medication adherence was determined [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the medication adherence of outpatients with chronic diseases and the association between both patient attitudes and preventive practices regarding COVID-19 and their medication adherence. We performed a cross-sectional study in Vietnam. Medication adherence was determined using the translated and validated Vietnamese version of the General Medication Adherence Scale (GMAS). Patient attitudes and preventive practices regarding COVID-19 were measured using the 5K message of the Vietnam Ministry of Health (facemasks, disinfection, distance, no gatherings, health declarations). The associations between patient characteristics and medication adherence were determined by multivariable regression. The study included 1852 outpatients, and 57.6% of the patients adhered to their medications. Patients who recognized the pandemic’s obstruction of medical follow-ups (OR = 1.771; 95%CI = 1.461–2.147; p < 0.001), who applied ≥2 preventive methods (OR = 1.422; 95%CI = 1.173–1.725; p = 0.001), who were employed (OR = 1.677; 95%CI = 1.251–2.248; p = 0.001), who were living in urban areas (OR = 1.336; 95%CI = 1.090–1.637; p = 0.005,) who possessed higher education levels (OR = 1.313; 95%CI = 1.059–1.629; p = 0.013), or who had ≤2 comorbidities (OR = 1.293; 95%CI = 1.044–1.600; p = 0.019) were more likely to adhere to their medications. The adherence percentage for outpatients with chronic diseases was quite low during the pandemic. Patients who did not recognize the COVID-19 pandemic’s obstruction of medical follow-ups or who had poor preventive practices were less likely to adhere to medications. Healthcare providers should pay more attention to these groups to achieve desired treatment outcomes. Full article
14 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
Consumption of Herbal Supplements or Homeopathic Remedies to Prevent COVID-19 and Intention of Vaccination for COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean
by Guido Bendezu-Quispe, Jerry K. Benites-Meza, Diego Urrunaga-Pastor, Percy Herrera-Añazco, Angela Uyen-Cateriano, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, Carlos J. Toro-Huamanchumo, Adrian V. Hernandez and Vicente A. Benites-Zapata
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(6), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7060095 - 8 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4419
Abstract
Users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have a lower intention to receive vaccines. Furthermore, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region are among the most affected areas by the COVID-19 pandemics and present a high proportion of CAM users. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
Users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have a lower intention to receive vaccines. Furthermore, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region are among the most affected areas by the COVID-19 pandemics and present a high proportion of CAM users. Therefore, this study evaluates the association between the consumption of herbal supplements or homeopathic remedies to prevent COVID-19 and the intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in the LAC region. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) survey with Facebook to assess COVID-19 beliefs, behaviours, and norms. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using generalized linear models of the Poisson family with the log link function. The prevalence of the use of products to prevent COVID-19 was the following: consumption of herbal supplements (7.2%), use of homeopathic remedies (4.8%), and consumption of garlic, ginger, and lemon (11.8%). An association was found between using herbal supplements (19.0% vs. 12.8%; aPR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.30–1.58), the use of homeopathic remedies (20.3% vs. 12.3%; aPR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.25–1.98), and the consumption of garlic, ginger, and lemon (18.9% vs. 11.9%; aPR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.50–1.61) and non-intention to vaccinate against COVID-19. In the LAC population, there is an association between using herbal supplements, using homeopathic remedies and consuming garlic, ginger, and lemon to prevent infection by COVID-19 and non-intention to vaccinate against this disease. Therefore, it is necessary to design targeted strategies for groups that consume these products as preventive measures against COVID-19 to increase vaccination coverage and expand the information regarding transmission and prevention strategies for SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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21 pages, 3096 KiB  
Review
An Overview of SARS-CoV-2 and Technologies for Detection and Ongoing Treatments: A Human Safety Initiative
by Ramsingh Kurrey and Anushree Saha
COVID 2022, 2(6), 731-751; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2060055 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
A new class of coronavirus, known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been discovered, which is responsible for the occurrence of the disease, COVID-19. A comparative study with SARS, MERS and other human viruses was conductedand concluded that SARS-CoV-2 spread [...] Read more.
A new class of coronavirus, known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been discovered, which is responsible for the occurrence of the disease, COVID-19. A comparative study with SARS, MERS and other human viruses was conductedand concluded that SARS-CoV-2 spread more rapidly due to increased globalization and adaptation of the virus in every environment. According to recent WHO reports, by 16 May 2021, the current outbreak of COVID-19 had affected over 174,054,314 people and killed more than 3,744,116 people in more than 222 countries acrossthe world. Finding a solution against the deadly COVID-19 has become an enormous challenge for researchers and virologists. A ring vaccination trial, which recruits subjects connected to a known case either socially or geographically, is a solution to evaluate vaccine efficacy and control the spread of the disease simultaneously, although its implementation is challenging. This review aims to summarize the noteworthy features of the world-intimidating SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic along with its evaluation, problems and challenges in the treatment strategies, clinical efficiency and detection methods proposed so far. This paper describes the impact of the lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic on social, economic, health, and National Health Programs in India; possible ways to control the disease are also discussed. Full article
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28 pages, 4136 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Trends of the Global Cruise Tourism Industry, Sustainable Development, and the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Li-Ying Lin, Chang-Ching Tsai and Jen-Yao Lee
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6890; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116890 - 5 Jun 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 14337
Abstract
Stable financial operation is the essential factor for the sustainable development of the cruise tourism industry. The cruise industry was one of the fastest growing before the COVID-19 pandemic. The industry is capital intensive, has an enormous supply chain, serves to improve many [...] Read more.
Stable financial operation is the essential factor for the sustainable development of the cruise tourism industry. The cruise industry was one of the fastest growing before the COVID-19 pandemic. The industry is capital intensive, has an enormous supply chain, serves to improve many ports-of-call economies, hires an immense quantity of people worldwide, and has a substantial economic contribution worldwide, especially in coastal countries or areas. COVID-19 has disrupted what had been an unending development of growth and success for the cruise industry. This study aims to analyze the financial performance of the worldwide cruise industry and realize the trends in the cruise tourism industry. The study examines the statistical data of the top three cruise companies that account for nearly 74.6–91.8% of the worldwide cruise tourism for 2015–2021. The financial analysis includes economic structure, solvency, operating ability, profitability, and financial leverage. We also analyze the economic indicators of the top three cruise companies with frequency analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis, and the financial management risks of the top three cruise companies with the Z-Score Model. In addition, the study organizes and summarizes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global cruise tourism. The study found that from mid-March 2020 until July 2021, the temporary suspension decreased passenger numbers, operating losses, and stock price losses. The research results confirm that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused the suspension of cruise ships worldwide. The break has led to a sharp drop in the number of cruise passengers, resulting in a significant decrease in operating income and profits of cruise companies, and the debt-to-assets ratio and leverage ratio have increased significantly. The excessive debt ratio will affect the sustainable operation of cruise companies and the sustainable development of the cruise industry. Because of the enormous impact and damage caused to the cruise industry by the COVID-19 pandemic, it is suggested that the cruise industry should take effective preventive strategies against highly contagious infectious diseases, deploy these strategies ahead of time, and strengthen the resilience and pandemic prevention ability of the cruise industry, to achieve the goal of sustainably developing the cruise industry. Full article
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25 pages, 601 KiB  
Article
Chinese Tourists’ Health Risk Avoidance Behavior in the Context of Regular Epidemic Prevention and Control: An Empirical Analysis
by Mingming Lu and Peihua Shi
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6750; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116750 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
The health risk avoidance behavior of tourists in China, a country actively combating COVID-19, is of research significance. This study proposes and tests a model based on three theories—stimulus-organism-response model, motivation-opportunity-ability model, and health belief model—to examine the impact mechanism of tourists’ health [...] Read more.
The health risk avoidance behavior of tourists in China, a country actively combating COVID-19, is of research significance. This study proposes and tests a model based on three theories—stimulus-organism-response model, motivation-opportunity-ability model, and health belief model—to examine the impact mechanism of tourists’ health risk avoiding behavior under COVID-19′s regular epidemic prevention and control situations and the moderating effect of health risk perception. The results reveal that, from the stimulus perspective, tourists’ motivation, opportunities to travel, and the ability to travel negatively affect tourists’ health risk avoidance behavior. That is to say, the stronger the motivation of tourists to undertake tourist activities, the stronger the safeguards provided by the government, and the better that tourists are informed of the virus and more equipped with healthy habits and skills, the more likely it is that tourists will not take avoidance behavior. From the organism perspective, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility, as mediating factors, positively influence tourists’ health risk avoidance behavior. In contrast, if tourists are more likely to believe in the controllability of the health risk of the epidemic, then they are more likely to travel and less likely to show avoidance behavior. Managerial implications and theoretical contributions are also provided. Full article
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16 pages, 4109 KiB  
Article
Comparison Epidemiology between Tuberculosis and COVID-19 in East Java Province, Indonesia: An Analysis of Regional Surveillance Data in 2020
by Budi Utomo, Chow Khuen Chan, Ni Made Mertaniasih, Soedarsono Soedarsono, Shifa Fauziyah, Teguh Hari Sucipto, Febriana Aquaresta, Dwinka Syafira Eljatin and I Made Dwi Mertha Adnyana
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(6), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7060083 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3297
Abstract
Tuberculosis and COVID-19 are among the infectious diseases that constitute a public health concern. Therefore, this study aims to examine the recent epidemiology of tuberculosis and COVID-19 in East Java Province, Indonesia, in 2020. Case-based surveillance data were acquired with a retrospective design [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis and COVID-19 are among the infectious diseases that constitute a public health concern. Therefore, this study aims to examine the recent epidemiology of tuberculosis and COVID-19 in East Java Province, Indonesia, in 2020. Case-based surveillance data were acquired with a retrospective design between January and December 2020 by the East Java Health Officer. The data were analyzed using Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS) for mapping, and Microsoft Excel for recording. Furthermore, the statistical analysis (Spearman correlation test) was carried out via Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) applications. A total number of 38,089 confirmed cases of tuberculosis was recorded, with an incidence rate of 95.49/100,000 population, a case fatality rate (CFR) of 3.6%, and an average treatment success rate of 87.78%. COVID-19 is a new viral disease, with a total of 84,133 confirmed COVID-19 cases in East Java, with an incidence rate of 232.9/100,000 population. The highest incidence rate was found in Mojokerto city, while the lowest was found in Sampang. Furthermore, the CFR values of tuberculosis and COVID-19 were 1.4% and 6.8%, respectively. The regional survey in East Java Province showed that the incidence of tuberculosis remains high. This indicated that the search for active cases and preventive promotion was not completed. Therefore, inter-sectoral collaboration can be adapted to provide suitable tuberculosis health care. Full article
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16 pages, 466 KiB  
Article
Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak Risk Perception on Willingness to Consume Products from Restaurants: Mediation Effect of Risk Attitude
by Zhao Li, Wangbing Liang and Jingfeng Luo
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6372; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106372 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
The COVID-19 outbreak caused huge losses for the catering industry. The outbreak’s influence on consumers’ risk perception and risk attitude was an important factor for these heavy losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in epidemic risk perception, risk [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 outbreak caused huge losses for the catering industry. The outbreak’s influence on consumers’ risk perception and risk attitude was an important factor for these heavy losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in epidemic risk perception, risk attitude, and the consumers’ willingness to consume products from restaurants during the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. The study collected 502 questionnaires at the end of 2021, and structural analysis was conducted using SPSS 26.0 and AMOS 20.0 statistical programs. The results showed that consumers’ awareness of the coronavirus pandemic (consumers’ epidemic risk perception) had a significant positive effect on their decision-making behavior under uncertain conditions (risk attitude); consumers’ decision-making behavior under uncertain conditions (risk attitude) had a significant negative effect on their willingness to purchase from restaurants; consumers’ awareness of the coronavirus pandemic (consumers’ epidemic risk perception) had a significant negative effect on their willingness to consume products from restaurants; and risk attitude played a mediating role in the influence of consumers’ epidemic risk perception on their willingness to consume products from restaurants. This study can provide guidance and reference for restaurants on how to deal with the epidemic situation, help them undertake risk prevention work and reduce losses, and promote the healthy and sustainable development of the restaurant. Full article
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12 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Prescribing Patterns in Patients with COVID-19 in Russian Multi-Field Hospitals in 2021: Results of the Global-PPS Project
by Sergey Avdeev, Svetlana Rachina, Yuliya Belkova, Roman Kozlov, Ann Versporten, Ines Pauwels, Herman Goossens, Elena Bochanova, Elena Elokhina, Ulyana Portnjagina, Olga Reshetko, Igor Sychev, Darya Strelkova and On behalf of Russian Global-PPS Project Study Group
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(5), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7050075 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health challenge with understudied effects on antimicrobial usage. We aimed to analyze antimicrobial prescribing patterns in COVID-19 patients in Russian multi-field hospitals by means of the Global-PPS Project developed by the University of Antwerp. Out of [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health challenge with understudied effects on antimicrobial usage. We aimed to analyze antimicrobial prescribing patterns in COVID-19 patients in Russian multi-field hospitals by means of the Global-PPS Project developed by the University of Antwerp. Out of 999 patients in COVID-19 wards in six hospitals surveyed in 2021, 51.3% received antimicrobials (79% in intensive care, 47.5% in medical wards). Systemic antivirals and antibiotics were prescribed to 31% and 35.1% of patients, respectively, and a combination of both to 14.1% of patients. The top antivirals administered were favipiravir (65%), remdesivir (19.2%), and umifenovir (15.8%); the top antibiotics were ceftriaxone (29.7%), levofloxacin (18%), and cefoperazone/sulbactam (10.4%). The vast majority of antibiotics was prescribed for treatment of pneumonia or COVID-19 infection (59.3% and 25.1%, respectively). Treatment was based on biomarker data in 42.7% of patients but was targeted only in 29.6% (6.7% for antibiotics). The rate of non-compliance with guidelines reached 16.6%. Antimicrobial prescribing patterns varied considerably in COVID-19 wards in Russian hospitals with groundlessly high rates of systemic antibiotics. Antimicrobial usage surveillance and stewardship should be applied to inpatient care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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10 pages, 1690 KiB  
Article
Humoral Immune Response Induced by the BBIBP-CorV Vaccine (Sinopharm) in Healthcare Workers: A Cohort Study
by Juan C. Gómez de la Torre, José Alonso Cáceres-DelAguila, Cecilia Muro-Rojo, Nathalia De La Cruz-Escurra, Cesar Copaja-Corzo, Miguel Hueda-Zavaleta, Daniella Arenas Siles and Vicente A Benites-Zapata
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7050066 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3167
Abstract
Insufficient data have been reported about the effect of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) on the humoral response through time in healthcare workers (HCW). This retrospective cohort studied the information of 252 HCW from a private laboratory, comparing the antibody-mediated response provoked by [...] Read more.
Insufficient data have been reported about the effect of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) on the humoral response through time in healthcare workers (HCW). This retrospective cohort studied the information of 252 HCW from a private laboratory, comparing the antibody-mediated response provoked by BBIBP-CorV between HCW previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (PI) and not previously infected (NPI), employing the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S and the cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection kit at intervals of 21, 90, and 180 days after vaccination. The presence of neutralizing antibodies in HCW 21 days after full vaccination was 100% in PI and 91.60% in NPI. We observed a progressive decrease in antibody levels over time in both groups. Comparing HCW PI with NPI, PI had a 10.9, 14.3, and 8.6-fold higher antibody titer with the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S at 21 (p < 0.001), 90 (p< 0.001) and 180 days (p < 0.001) respectively, compared to NPI. Using the percent of signal inhibition (PSI) of the antibody neutralization cPass™, HCW PI showed a level of 1.3, 2.0, and 3.1 times more antibodies, at 21 (p < 0.001), 90 (p < 0.001), and 180 days (p < 0.001) respectively, compared to NPI. We determined a progressive decrease in humoral immunity over time, particularly higher in those NPI. Full article
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8 pages, 1114 KiB  
Article
Timing of Initiation of Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy in Patients with COVID-19
by Mieko Tokano, Norihito Tarumoto, Kazuo Imai, Jun Sakai, Noriomi Ishibashi, Kazuhiro Yokota, Hideto Nakayama, Yoshiyuki Haga and Shigefumi Maesaki
COVID 2022, 2(5), 532-539; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2050039 - 21 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2331
Abstract
High-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy is widely used in patients with severe COVID-19. This therapy is known to have sufficient clinical effectiveness, but the optimal administration method is not known. In this study, we assessed the deterioration of oxygenation after methylprednisolone pulse therapy in [...] Read more.
High-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy is widely used in patients with severe COVID-19. This therapy is known to have sufficient clinical effectiveness, but the optimal administration method is not known. In this study, we assessed the deterioration of oxygenation after methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with COVID-19 according to disease severity (oxygen requirement) at initiation of therapy. Ninety-nine patients with COVID-19 who received methylprednisolone pulse therapy at Saitama Medical University Hospital in Japan between October 2020 and October 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes were compared according to the fraction of inspired oxygen as a measure of disease severity at initiation of methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Based on the FIO2 level at initiation of methylprednisolone pulse therapy, patients were classified into an early treatment group (FIO2 ≤ 0.39; n = 21), a middle treatment group (FIO2 0.40–0.69; n = 38), and a late treatment group (FIO2 ≥ 0.70; n = 40). The frequency of administration of mechanical ventilation and the days of oxygen therapy in the middle group were lower than in the other groups. The frequency of adverse events was also lower in the middle group. Both late and early methylprednisolone pulse therapy may lead to further deterioration of COVID-19 and an increase in adverse events. Full article
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15 pages, 705 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Impact of the Perceived Value of Public on Panic Buying Behavior during COVID-19
by Qing-Hua Mao, Jiang-Xiao Hou and Peng-Zhen Xie
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 4874; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094874 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
In this paper, an evolutionary game model for the development of panic buying events in COVID-19 is constructed by studying the dynamic process of the public and the government adjusting their strategic choices and playing a continuous game. This paper uses regret theory [...] Read more.
In this paper, an evolutionary game model for the development of panic buying events in COVID-19 is constructed by studying the dynamic process of the public and the government adjusting their strategic choices and playing a continuous game. This paper uses regret theory to depict the public’s perceived value of the items in the panic buying situation, describes the characteristics of each stage of the rumors spreading process and the evolution process of panic buying events, and introduces the variable of public critical ability to measure the public’s panic buying willingness. The results show that the government’s intervention measures according to the characteristics of different stages can effectively control the continuous fermentation time and influence the scope of panic buying events. The implementation of the government’s rumor-refutation strategy will also significantly affect the volume of public panic buying, which will help the government timely understand the public’s epidemic prevention needs in COVID-19, relieve public panic, and provide a basis for the effective management and scheduling of emergency supplies. Full article
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15 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Vaccine Hesitancy in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Olfat Alaamri, Ezzuddin A. Okmi and Yasser Suliman
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7040060 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4197
Abstract
(1) Background: vaccine hesitancy can put the public’s health at risk from vaccine-preventable diseases. This study aimed to address vaccine hesitancy in Saudi Arabia and understand the problem’s magnitude and causes. (2) Methods: this was a descriptive observational study using quantitative and qualitative [...] Read more.
(1) Background: vaccine hesitancy can put the public’s health at risk from vaccine-preventable diseases. This study aimed to address vaccine hesitancy in Saudi Arabia and understand the problem’s magnitude and causes. (2) Methods: this was a descriptive observational study using quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods conducted in Saudi Arabia between December 2020 and February 2021. Public survey forms, exit interviews, and healthcare professional survey forms were used. (3) Results: our study involved 2030 public survey participants, 119 exit interviews of caregivers, and 500 healthcare professionals, demonstrating that vaccine hesitancy was relatively low. Ninety percent of the participants agreed that it was essential for everyone to receive the recommended vaccines with their children (p < 0.001), 92% believed that vaccines are safe for their children (p < 0.001), 91% of the participants agreed to give their new children all the recommended doses (p < 0.001), 86% welcomed mass/school vaccination campaigns (p < 0.001), and 81% were willing to pay for additional vaccines for themselves and their children (p < 0.001). (4) Conclusions: vaccine hesitancy is low in Saudi Arabia, and a positive attitude toward vaccination was detected among most of the participants. Vaccination decision-making is complex and includes emotional, cultural, social, spiritual, and political aspects. Full article
24 pages, 6365 KiB  
Essay
Research on Design of Emergency Science Popularization Information Visualization for Public Health Events-Taking “COVID-19”as an Example
by Hong Li and Kuohsun Wen
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4022; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074022 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2984
Abstract
This study explores the optimization method of emergency popular science information design elements in public health events, breaks through the traditional design with the designer as the subjective consciousness and proposes an emergency popular science information design method oriented by perceptual narrative. First, [...] Read more.
This study explores the optimization method of emergency popular science information design elements in public health events, breaks through the traditional design with the designer as the subjective consciousness and proposes an emergency popular science information design method oriented by perceptual narrative. First, relevant research on public health events was carried out to screen out and analyze relevant narrative information elements and image elements, and narrative element divergence tree was established to show evaluation indicators. Second, relevant personnel were invited to evaluate the importance and kansei engineering, factor analysis and other methods were used to establish the correlation evaluation indicators of narrative elements. Finally, the optimization narrative elements of popular science information design were calculated with the fuzzy evaluation method to provide an effective auxiliary role for the visualization design of emergency popular science information. Taking “COVID-19 Event” as an example, the narrative design practice of emergency popular science elements was carried out. According to 313 effective questionnaires, the satisfaction of “COVID-19 event” popular science information elements that adopt the optimization method is relatively high, which verifies the feasibility of this method. The conclusion proves that the perceptual narrative design method can obtain the perceptual identity from the audience and plays a positive role in disseminating emergency popular science information. Full article
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13 pages, 1229 KiB  
Article
Evidence from Thailand on Easing COVID-19’s International Travel Restrictions: An Impact on Economic Production, Household Income, and Sustainable Tourism Development
by Ratchaphong Klinsrisuk and Watchara Pechdin
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3423; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063423 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 6287
Abstract
Even though international travel restrictions are being used to keep the COVID-19 pandemic under control, these measures cannot be considered as long-term solutions to the ongoing crisis. Limitations on traveling activities have tremendous adverse consequences on a country’s economy, particularly leading in radically [...] Read more.
Even though international travel restrictions are being used to keep the COVID-19 pandemic under control, these measures cannot be considered as long-term solutions to the ongoing crisis. Limitations on traveling activities have tremendous adverse consequences on a country’s economy, particularly leading in radically expanding economic downturn and a shrinking tourism industry. To overcome this hardship, several countries have eased COVID-19 travel restrictions. However, there are still questions concerning the benefit to society as the impact assessment of this implementation transmitting to an economy has not been explicitly investigated. In response to this, we aim to assess the impacts of this implementation as to provide a guideline to global countries for their future adoption. By calculating the output and household income multipliers from the tourism input–output table, this study utilizes a case study from Thailand to indicate that prolonging the full mobility restrictions of international tourists, which results in a yearly loss of revenue in Thai tourism industry, would cost country production up to 144.97 billion USD and up to 45.4 billion USD for loss of household income. When international travel limitations were relaxed, production and household damage would fall to 142.24 billion USD (+1.88%) and 44.7 billion USD (+1.54%), respectively. At individual sectors level, our calculation identified that the most damage of production activities would exist in public utility, agriculture, and food manufacturing sectors. In the perspective of household income, those in the agricultural sector would have greatest impact. This impact results from the Thai tourism industry positioned as a buyer in an economy, having most impact on sectors selling their products or inputs to the tourism industry. As suggested by the input–output multipliers, we emphasize that strengthening the resilience of tourism-related sectors and reforming the tourism industry in relation to potential consumption and production patterns are critical for sustainable tourism development. Full article
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11 pages, 253 KiB  
Article
Quality of Life of the Elderly during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Asian Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study across Six Countries
by Roy Rillera Marzo, Praval Khanal, Absar Ahmad, Farooq Azam Rathore, Shekhar Chauhan, Akansha Singh, Sunil Shrestha, Ayesha AlRifai, Masoud Lotfizadeh, Delan Ameen Younus, Md. Arif Billah, Farzana Rahman, Yalini Sivaladchanam, Devi Mohan and Tin Tin Su
Life 2022, 12(3), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12030365 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4125
Abstract
Background: Few studies have explored the determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying these factors may help implement appropriate policies to enhance HRQoL in the elderly. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors of physical [...] Read more.
Background: Few studies have explored the determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying these factors may help implement appropriate policies to enhance HRQoL in the elderly. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors of physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores of HRQoL in selected six low- and middle-income Asian countries. Methods: We conducted an online survey of older people aged ≥55 years in six countries: Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, Malaysia, Palestine, and Sri Lanka. The Stark QoL questionnaire was used to measure the PCS and MCS scores. Univariate and multiple variable analyses after adjusting for confounders were performed to identify the possible predictors of PCS and MCS. Results: A total of 1644 older people (69.1 ± 7.8 years, range 55–97 years, Female: 50.9%) responded to the survey. We documented age, country of residence, marital status, number of male children, current employment status, and health insurance, ability to pay household bills, frequency of family members visits and receiving support during COVID-19 pandemic predicted both PCS and MCS. However, gender, residence, and number of female children were associated with PCS only (all p < 0.05). Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors such as age, country of residence, marital status, number of male children, current employment status, health insurance, ability to pay household bills, frequency of family members visiting family members, and receiving support during the COVID-19 pandemic affecting both physical and mental quality of life. These results can guide formulating health care planning policies to enhance QoL during COVID-19 and future pandemics in the elderly. Full article
13 pages, 1666 KiB  
Review
The COVID-19 Infodemic: Mechanism, Impact, and Counter-Measures—A Review of Reviews
by Markus Ries
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2605; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052605 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4185
Abstract
The acceptability of appropriate SARS-CoV-2 pandemic measures including vaccinations is currently being hampered due to significant misinformation all over the globe, also known as the “infodemic” within the pandemic. We asked the following two research questions: (1) What is the current extent of [...] Read more.
The acceptability of appropriate SARS-CoV-2 pandemic measures including vaccinations is currently being hampered due to significant misinformation all over the globe, also known as the “infodemic” within the pandemic. We asked the following two research questions: (1) What is the current extent of the global infodemic preventing populations from receiving adequate healthcare including COVID-vaccinations? (2) Which are appropriate countermeasures to manage the infodemic in order to guarantee adequate healthcare in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic? Pubmed and Cochrane Library were accessed on 29 October 2021 and searched for reviews and systematic reviews on “COVID-19” and “infodemic”. The literature identified was analyzed with methods of qualitative research focusing on (1) mechanism, (2) impact, and (3) countermeasures to confront the infodemic. The world-wide infodemic is being recognized as a multifaceted problem beyond health and human rights, extending into global political spheres such as societal cohesion and security. The mechanism of the COVID-19 infodemic involves specific factors related to the situation, sender, instrument, and recipient. Although freedom of expression and the right to seek, receive, and impart information through any media is a fundamental human right, the infodemic has a substantial impact on health, another fundamental human right, by causing stress, deception, violence, and harm. Mixed-synergistic pre-impact, trans-impact, and post-impact countermeasures can be taken; the most important is building and maintaining trust. Full article
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4 pages, 693 KiB  
Communication
The Shortcomings of COVID-19 Testing in Ecuador: Time to Incentivize Research and Innovation
by Izan Chalen, María Mercedes Cobo, Bernardo Gutierrez, Andrés Carrazco-Montalvo, Patricio Ponce and Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia
Life 2022, 12(3), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12030325 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic hit Ecuador severely. The country caught the attention of international media due to its high death toll and overwhelmed healthcare system. The clinical diagnostics system was rapidly overloaded, and the import of PCR tests was delayed. The case of Ecuador [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic hit Ecuador severely. The country caught the attention of international media due to its high death toll and overwhelmed healthcare system. The clinical diagnostics system was rapidly overloaded, and the import of PCR tests was delayed. The case of Ecuador illustrates how middle-income countries rely heavily on the importation of biotechnological products for their healthcare systems. The Ecuadorian experience during the COVID-19 pandemic serves as a call for the formation of policies for the development of the biotechnological industry. Full article
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18 pages, 966 KiB  
Article
Early and Dynamic Socio-Academic Variables Related to Dropout Intention: A Predictive Model Made during the Pandemic
by Jorge Maluenda-Albornoz, Valeria Infante-Villagrán, Celia Galve-González, Gabriela Flores-Oyarzo and José Berríos-Riquelme
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020831 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3591
Abstract
Social and academic integration variables have been shown to be relevant for the understanding of university dropout. However, there is less evidence regarding the influence of these variables on dropout intention, as well as the predictive models that explain their relationships. Improvements in [...] Read more.
Social and academic integration variables have been shown to be relevant for the understanding of university dropout. However, there is less evidence regarding the influence of these variables on dropout intention, as well as the predictive models that explain their relationships. Improvements in this topic become relevant considering that dropout intention stands as a useful measure to anticipate and intervene this phenomenon. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a predictive model for university dropout intention that considers the relationships between social and academic variables during the first university semester of 2020. The research was conducted using a cross-sectional associative-predictive design, with a convenience sampling (n = 711) due to the restrictions of the pandemic period. The results showed a good fit of the proposed hypothetical model that explained 38.7% of dropout intention. Both social support and perceived social isolation predicted the sense of belonging and, through it, engagement. Previous academic performance predicted early academic performance and, through it, engagement. The set of variables predicted the intention to quit through engagement. These results are a contribution both to the understanding of the phenomenon and to guide potential interventions in the early stages of the university experience. Full article
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13 pages, 1079 KiB  
Review
Asymptomatic Hypoxemia as a Characteristic Symptom of Coronavirus Disease: A Narrative Review of Its Pathophysiology
by Kiichi Hirota, Taku Mayahara, Yosuke Fujii and Kenichiro Nishi
COVID 2022, 2(1), 47-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/covid2010004 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5238
Abstract
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a pandemic and caused a huge burden to healthcare systems worldwide. One of the characteristic symptoms of COVID-19 is asymptomatic hypoxemia, also called happy hypoxia, silent hypoxemia, or asymptomatic [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a pandemic and caused a huge burden to healthcare systems worldwide. One of the characteristic symptoms of COVID-19 is asymptomatic hypoxemia, also called happy hypoxia, silent hypoxemia, or asymptomatic hypoxemia. Patients with asymptomatic hypoxemia often have no subjective symptoms, such as dyspnea, even though hypoxemia is judged by objective tests, such as blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry. Asymptomatic hypoxemia can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, and the delay in making a diagnosis and providing initial treatment can have fatal outcomes, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus far, not many studies have covered asymptomatic hypoxemia. We present a review on the human response to hypoxemia, focusing on the respiratory response to hypoxemia rather than the pathophysiology of lung injury arising from SARS-CoV-2 infection. We have also discussed whether asymptomatic hypoxemia is specific to SARS-CoV-2 infection or a common phenomenon in lung-targeted viral infections. Full article
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20 pages, 449 KiB  
Article
Impact of Consumer Health Awareness on Dairy Product Purchase Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Jiabin Xu, Jingjing Wang and Cuixia Li
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010314 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4411
Abstract
Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a reduction in the overall consumption of dairy products in China. How to restore the consumption potential of dairy products and alleviate the serious impact on the dairy market in the post-epidemic period is an [...] Read more.
Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a reduction in the overall consumption of dairy products in China. How to restore the consumption potential of dairy products and alleviate the serious impact on the dairy market in the post-epidemic period is an urgent problem that needs to be resolved. Based on the survey data of 1780 consumers in 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) of China, the Heckman two-stage model was used to empirically test the impact of consumer health awareness on dairy product purchase behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic and to further analyze the differences in factors affecting dairy product purchase behavior with the restriction of consumer health awareness. The results showed that the overall level of consumer health awareness after the outbreak of COVID-19 was relatively high. A total of 79% of consumers preferred to buy dairy products after the COVID-19 outbreak, and the proportion of purchased dairy products increased by an average of 17.49%, compared with that before the COVID-19 outbreak. Health change perception, health concern degree, and health habit development in consumer health awareness all have important impacts on the purchase behavior of dairy products. Among them, health change perception and health habit development both positively and significantly affected the purchase intention. Moreover, all three aspects of consumer health awareness positively increased the proportion of dairy product purchases. Difference analysis showed that there were obvious differences among consumer groups with different health awareness in dairy product purchase decisions. Component factor analysis found that, overall, consumer health awareness directly affected the purchase intention and increased the purchase proportion of dairy products. Therefore, policy recommendations are proposed to increase the consumption momentum of dairy products by raising consumer health awareness in the post-epidemic period. Full article
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