Next Article in Journal
Feasibility Investigation of Improving the Modified Green–Ampt Model for Treatment of Horizontal Infiltration in Soil
Next Article in Special Issue
Recharge Impulse Spreading in Western Carpathian’s Mountainous Fissure–Karst Aquifer
Previous Article in Journal
Assessing the Impact of Reservoir Parameters on Runoff in the Yalong River Basin using the SWAT Model
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Importance of Detailed Groundwater Monitoring for Underground Structure in Karst (Case Study: HPP Pirot, Southeastern Serbia)
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Flux of Inorganic Carbon as Dissolved, Suspended, and Bed Loads through a Karstic Basin

Department of Geology & Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(4), 644;
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
PDF [4904 KB, uploaded 28 March 2019]


Most studies of carbonate bedrock weathering have focused on the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) flux while dismissing particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) as insignificant. However, under certain flow conditions PIC flux may be an important term in carbonate weathering. In this study, the total inorganic carbon (TIC) flux was calculated in a fluviokarst basin. Water samples and in situ data loggers were used to determine suspended sediment concentration and water chemistry. The mass of PIC within suspended sediments was quantified by cation/anion analysis of dual filtered/unfiltered samples. The flux of bed load material was calculated via stream power calculations. The analysis of recorded storm events indicated that PIC flux is moderate but can be significant during peak storm discharges. A small storm with a 0.87-month return period produced a PIC flux of 14 g s−1 and a DIC flux of 150 g s−1 at 1.4 m3 s−1 discharge. The largest storm had a return period of 7.7 months, a peak discharge of 4.6 m3 s−1, and peak PIC flux of 620 g s−1 compared to a peak DIC flux of 350 g s−1. During storm events, bed load was the most significant component of the total PIC flux, exceeding the suspended load flux by an order of magnitude. When calculated on an annual basis, the data show that PIC contributes about 10 percent to total inorganic carbon removal. View Full-Text
Keywords: suspended load; dissolved load; bed load; inorganic carbon; karst; cave stream suspended load; dissolved load; bed load; inorganic carbon; karst; cave stream

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary materials

  • Supplementary File 1:

    PDF-Document (PDF, 400 KB)

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: doi:10.17632/kyyjv33b99.1

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Paylor, R.; Wicks, C. Flux of Inorganic Carbon as Dissolved, Suspended, and Bed Loads through a Karstic Basin. Water 2019, 11, 644.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top