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Open AccessArticle

The Upwelling Groundwater Flow in the Karst Area of Grassano-Telese Springs (Southern Italy)

Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050872
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
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Abstract

The hydraulic phenomenon of upwelling groundwater flow affecting the karst area of the Grassano-Telese springs (southern Italy) has been investigated through piezometric measurements, discharge, and chemical–physical monitoring of springs, radon activity included. Locally, both large karst springs and sulfurous thermal springs are closely located, and raise several questions on their origin. In this study, the phenomenon of the upwelling flow is supported by different types of evidences: Amazing density of sinkholes connected to hypogenic speleogenesis processes, constancy of temperature, and hydraulic conductivity of spring water, change of radon activity during the hydrological year, increasing of the hydraulic head with depth. Numerical code provides an estimation of the upwelling phenomenon in an unconfined aquifer feeding the karst springs, using MODFLOW tools. Based on the results reached, the phenomenon of the upwelling flow is able to explain the hydrological processes observed in the Telese karst area. View Full-Text
Keywords: karst springs; sulfurous springs; upwelling flux; hydraulic head; sinkholes; groundwater modeling; radon karst springs; sulfurous springs; upwelling flux; hydraulic head; sinkholes; groundwater modeling; radon
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Fiorillo, F.; Leone, G.; Pagnozzi, M.; Catani, V.; Testa, G.; Esposito, L. The Upwelling Groundwater Flow in the Karst Area of Grassano-Telese Springs (Southern Italy). Water 2019, 11, 872.

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