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Evaluation of Minimum Karst Spring Discharge Using a Simple Rainfall-Input Model: The Case Study of Capodacqua di Spigno Spring (Central Italy)

Department of Civil, Building and Environmental Engineering (DICEA), Sapienza University of Rome, 00184 Rome, Italy
Reatin Research Center of Engineering for the Protection and Enhancement of the Environment and Territory (CRITEVAT), Sapienza University of Rome, 02100 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(4), 807;
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Behavior of Karst Aquifers)
PDF [5143 KB, uploaded 18 April 2019]


The increasing occurrence of widespread drought phenomena is a global environmental emergency, especially for the effects of ongoing climate change on groundwater availability. Dry years and extreme temperatures are common drivers of current climate impacts all over the world, including, for example, the freshwater supply for drinking and agriculture purposes, ecosystems, forestry, health, etc. In this frame, to ensure temporal water availability in water-stressed areas, sustainable groundwater management is an increasing challenge. Most groundwater in the South-East Latium Region, Central Italy, as in the whole Apennine Mountains chain, is stored in karst aquifers. In this area important water resources are present, but even here in the last decades they are affected by groundwater depletion as a consequence of occurring drought events, the upward trend in the global average temperature and the increase in groundwater extraction. Due to the lack of flow rate data of springs in many areas of Italy, spring response modeling could be a useful tool for supporting proper water resource management. Several research studies proposed methods based on relationships between spring discharges and rainfall data. The goal of this paper is to propose a simple linear model, based on rainfall-discharge cross correlations, in order to be able to simulate the effects of variation in rainfall on water resource connected Capodacqua di Spigno Spring minimum discharge. The results obtained using the developed model has been compared to an existing method that uses the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) for the estimation of the minimum annual spring discharge. View Full-Text
Keywords: karst spring; groundwater; discharge modelling; water management karst spring; groundwater; discharge modelling; water management

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Sappa, G.; De Filippi, F.M.; Iacurto, S.; Grelle, G. Evaluation of Minimum Karst Spring Discharge Using a Simple Rainfall-Input Model: The Case Study of Capodacqua di Spigno Spring (Central Italy). Water 2019, 11, 807.

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