Review Papers of Urban Water Management 2023

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 19130

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, Trindade, Florianópolis 88040-900, SC, Brazil
Interests: stormwater harvesting; water consumption in buildings; water efficiency; rainwater use in buildings; sustainability; permeable pavements; energy efficiency; buildings; climate change
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The section “Urban Water Management” is inviting reputable researchers to submit high-quality review papers on the following topics: urban water infrastructure; urban water supply; urban drainage; urban catchment hydrology and modeling; sponge cities; storm water management; rainwater harvesting; green roofs; permeable pavement systems; urban water contamination; the effects of urbanization; sustainable development; wastewater; urban wastewater reuse; flood risk management; climate change; and any other topics related to urban water management.

Prof. Dr. Enedir Ghisi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Only review articles are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • urban water infrastructure
  • urban water supply
  • urban drainage
  • urban catchment hydrology and modeling
  • sponge cities
  • storm water management
  • rainwater harvesting
  • green roofs
  • permeable pavement systems
  • urban water contamination
  • effects of urbanization
  • sustainable development
  • wastewater
  • urban wastewater reuse
  • flood risk management
  • climate change

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 4864 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Use of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement in Chile: Urban Infrastructure Solution for Adaptation and Mitigation against Climate Change
by Carlos Cacciuttolo, Felipe Garrido, Daniel Painenao and Andres Sotil
Water 2023, 15(24), 4219; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15244219 - 7 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
There is currently a context of climate change due to the way modern cities are developed, and they are made up mainly of impermeable surfaces and concrete buildings that change the hydrological cycle, causing (i) an increase in temperatures, (ii) the accumulation of [...] Read more.
There is currently a context of climate change due to the way modern cities are developed, and they are made up mainly of impermeable surfaces and concrete buildings that change the hydrological cycle, causing (i) an increase in temperatures, (ii) the accumulation of stormwater on different surfaces, (iii) overflow in drainage systems, and (iv) the alteration of ventilation patterns, among others. This article presents a case study on the implementation of a permeable interlocking concrete paving (PICP) system, and it develops physical–mathematical modeling using software for the design of a parking lot that currently does not have adequate paving and urban drainage, resulting in sporadic flooding due to heavy rainfall in the city of Temuco, La Araucanía region, Chile. This article’s contribution highlights the application of new technology in Chile, discussing road infrastructure solutions based on sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDSs), which seek to implement feasible alternatives in urban sectors to improve human livelihood. The factors studied include structural and hydrological properties, along with the infiltration analysis of the system according to historical rainfall records in the area. This research concludes that the permeable pavement system with a drainage pipe and smooth roughness coefficient performs satisfactorily for an extreme hydrometeorological event corresponding to 140 mm considering 24 h of rainfall with a return period of 100 years equivalent to an inflow of 673 m3/day. Finally, the results indicate that, at least in the conditions of the city of Temuco, the use of permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP) proves to be a sustainable and feasible alternative to implementing measures of adaptation and mitigation against climate change, reducing the city’s flooding zones and allowing the irrigation of urban green areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers of Urban Water Management 2023)
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25 pages, 2269 KiB  
Article
Water Valuation in Urban Settings for Sustainable Water Management
by Abdul Munaf Mohamed Irfeey, Bader Alhafi Alotaibi, Mohamed M. M. Najim and Ashfaq Ahmad Shah
Water 2023, 15(17), 3105; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173105 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4542
Abstract
This study examines water scarcity and quality deterioration in various components of the urban setting, including agriculture, manufacturing, construction, residential buildings, and the recreational industries. This paper also analyzes various measures that can be used as valuation matrices to assess the quality and [...] Read more.
This study examines water scarcity and quality deterioration in various components of the urban setting, including agriculture, manufacturing, construction, residential buildings, and the recreational industries. This paper also analyzes various measures that can be used as valuation matrices to assess the quality and quantity of water consumption, as well as conservation practices and sustainable management strategies. The aim of this work is to enhance and encourage an increase in the value of consumed water through economistic, efficient, and sustainable approaches. The analysis includes the evaluation of measures such as price reform, adoption of efficient appliances, implementation of effective utilization techniques, reduction in water waste, treatment of wastewater, and employment of reuse and reclamation techniques. This article further discusses the multifaceted costs associated with the acquisition of water, emphasizing the need to consider not only economic factors but also environmental and social implications. This study examines the potential adverse effects of introducing value-added measures, specifically focusing on the impact of water pricing reforms on farmers and industrial manufacturers. The analysis highlights the potential increase in costs that these stakeholders may face as a result of such reforms. This study suggests that the implementation of subsidies can be an effective measure to mitigate the negative effects discussed. This article highlights the urgent global need for governments and international organizations to implement strict policies and regulations in order to preserve water resources and protect their inherent value and, also, emphasizes the importance of consumers understanding the true value of water in order to grasp its significance and scarcity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers of Urban Water Management 2023)
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24 pages, 21806 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Sustainable Urban Planning through GIS and Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis: A Case Study of Green Space Infrastructure in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia
by Sahl Abdullah Waheeb, Bilel Zerouali, Ahmed Elbeltagi, Mamdooh Alwetaishi, Yong Jie Wong, Nadjem Bailek, Ahmad Ameen AlSaggaf, Sahar I. M. Abd Elrahman, Celso Augusto Guimarães Santos and Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Majrashi
Water 2023, 15(17), 3031; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173031 - 23 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
Ecotourism in Saudi Arabia (KSA) is gaining significant attention due to the country’s diverse natural landscapes, rich biodiversity, and efforts to preserve and display its environmental treasures. This study presents a comprehensive assessment of urban green space (UGS) suitability in the Taif region [...] Read more.
Ecotourism in Saudi Arabia (KSA) is gaining significant attention due to the country’s diverse natural landscapes, rich biodiversity, and efforts to preserve and display its environmental treasures. This study presents a comprehensive assessment of urban green space (UGS) suitability in the Taif region of Saudi Arabia using a geographic information system (GIS) combined with a multiple-criteria decision-analysis-based analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The integration of various morphologic, topographic, climatic, and land use/land change (LULC) maps provided a robust framework for evaluating the suitability of UGSs. In the framework of this study, ten criteria were used to elaborate on UGS suitability. The results indicate that distance to water, distance to road, rainfall, and LULC were the most influential criteria in determining UGS suitability. Distance to road emerged as the most significant criterion, emphasizing the importance of accessibility and visibility for attracting the public to green spaces. The Taif region demonstrated fair suitability for UGS development across 56.4% of its total area. However, large areas of barren land in the central and northeastern parts were rendered unsuitable for UGS development, while the southwestern part showed higher percentages of good and excellent suitability. This study highlights the importance of considering the visibility and awareness aspects of UGS planning, as it serves as a visual reminder of the value of nature in urban settings. The results obtained by this research may help managers and decision makers with future planning for GI areas in the Taif region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers of Urban Water Management 2023)
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21 pages, 4732 KiB  
Article
Porous Asphalt Mixture with Improved Fatigue Resistance and Stormwater Pollutant Reduction in Urban Road Pavement
by Gabriela Hammes and Liseane Padilha Thives
Water 2023, 15(16), 2962; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162962 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
One alternative measure to minimise the stormwater runoff volume and its pollutants and reduce impervious areas is to use permeable pavement. However, due to weak mechanical performance under heavy-load traffic related to fatigue resistance, porous mixtures and permeable pavements have restricted applications, i.e., [...] Read more.
One alternative measure to minimise the stormwater runoff volume and its pollutants and reduce impervious areas is to use permeable pavement. However, due to weak mechanical performance under heavy-load traffic related to fatigue resistance, porous mixtures and permeable pavements have restricted applications, i.e., parking lots and low-traffic roads. This work aims to evaluate the fatigue resistance of a porous asphalt mixture produced with highly modified asphalt (HiMA) and its potential contribution to reducing stormwater runoff and pollutants. In order to estimate the capability of runoff pollutants and stormwater flood reduction, a case study was performed on an urban road. A permeable pavement was designed using the porous mixture as a surface layer. The mixture volumetric parameters and asphalt content were established using the Marshall method, considering the void content, interconnected voids, permeability, Cantabro test, and moisture damage test evaluation. The resilient modulus and fatigue resistance tests were performed on a diametral compression device. The mixture design resulted in an asphalt content of 5.1% and a void content of 21.5%. The resilient modulus was 2764 MPa, and the porous mixture obtained excellent fatigue performance, allowing its application in diverse traffic conditions. The porous mixture efficiency infiltration capacity was 90%, and some runoff pollutants could be reduced after being filtered by the pavement surface, contributing to minimizing environmental contamination. This work filled part of a gap in predicting porous mixtures’ fatigue performance, collaborating to popularise and expand its use for various purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers of Urban Water Management 2023)
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13 pages, 487 KiB  
Article
Water Disconnection and Vital Flow Policies: International Practices in Medium- and High-Income Countries
by Rui Cunha Marques, Pedro Simões, Inês Machete and Thalita Fagundes
Water 2023, 15(5), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050935 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2048
Abstract
Water access is recognized as a human right by the United Nations since 2010. However, even when piped water is available, the economic crisis has limited poorer households to afford those services on a regular basis. Users become debtors as utilities face growing [...] Read more.
Water access is recognized as a human right by the United Nations since 2010. However, even when piped water is available, the economic crisis has limited poorer households to afford those services on a regular basis. Users become debtors as utilities face growing service costs and shrinking national public funds, pushing tariffs as the main source of revenue for cost recovery. The COVID-19 pandemic lit up affordability issues and health consequences of disconnection policies. Countries worldwide banned water shutoffs during the last year, ensuring water and wastewater service access for all citizens. Although disconnection is a way to reduce the number of debtors, it is, at the same time, considered a threat to human rights statements. This study gathered information on water subsidies, disconnection and vital flow policies applied among several medium- and high-income countries, in order to analyze how utilities have dealt with default rates and if there is any difference between the approaches between medium- and high-income countries. Through case studies, this paper also aims to inspire other practitioners facing the same issues. Based on the eleven case studies presented here, we concluded that high-income countries use assistance programs over water disconnection policies when compared to medium-income ones. Water shutoffs are explicitly forbidden in the United Kingdom, Australia, and France. Although a humane alternative, water flow restrictors have limited application, especially considering the technical issues involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers of Urban Water Management 2023)
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Review

Jump to: Research

33 pages, 7732 KiB  
Review
Addressing Local Water Security through Green Infrastructure Implementation: A Review of Urban Plans in Monterrey, Mexico, and Brussels, Belgium
by Mina Khodadad, Ismael Aguilar-Barajas, Leopoldo Eduardo Cárdenas-Barrón, Aldo Iván Ramírez-Orozco, Mohsen Sanei and Ahmed Z. Khan
Water 2024, 16(5), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050727 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Green infrastructure (GI) is increasingly linked to urban water management and can contribute to achieving water security in communities. This research uses a variation-finding comparative approach to recognize how far GI solutions are currently used to address water security in the urban developments [...] Read more.
Green infrastructure (GI) is increasingly linked to urban water management and can contribute to achieving water security in communities. This research uses a variation-finding comparative approach to recognize how far GI solutions are currently used to address water security in the urban developments of Monterrey City, Mexico, and Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium. A comparative content analysis of seven related urban development/sectoral plans is conducted using ATLAS.ti 9 software. The results depict the overall distribution of GI implementations, their typologies and spatial scales, water-security aspects that are addressed by GI, and the related definitions in the plans. In general, our analysis does not present a promising situation for the Monterrey case, although it reveals that policymakers have started to use GI in urban plans to address water security. Considering Brussels’ conditions, although GI solutions are much more frequent and advanced than in Monterrey plans, the region cannot be considered a frontrunner of GI policies. Comparing these two remarkably diverse areas is beneficial to illuminate universal aspects of planning, as the method provides an opportunity to gain insight from a multi-city perspective, whether developed or developing, showing the potential areas to advance urban policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers of Urban Water Management 2023)
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18 pages, 2134 KiB  
Review
Trees in Sponge Cities—A Systematic Review of Trees as a Component of Blue-Green Infrastructure, Vegetation Engineering Principles, and Stormwater Management
by Michael Richter, Kirya Heinemann, Nadine Meiser and Wolfgang Dickhaut
Water 2024, 16(5), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050655 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1319
Abstract
Combining street trees with stormwater management measures can, in some circumstances, both increase tree vitality and reduce the risk of flooding by directing stormwater into tree pits. Using systematic review methods, this study aimed to provide an overview of the vegetation engineering systems [...] Read more.
Combining street trees with stormwater management measures can, in some circumstances, both increase tree vitality and reduce the risk of flooding by directing stormwater into tree pits. Using systematic review methods, this study aimed to provide an overview of the vegetation engineering systems being researched and applied that combine tree planting with urban stormwater management. We also sought to identify the positive as well as possible negative impacts on urban hydrology and tree health. It has been shown that diverting rainwater from impervious surfaces into tree pits has considerable potential for stormwater management and for improving tree health by reducing drought stress in urban trees. Worldwide approaches to optimizing tree pits for rainwater infiltration and water supply are promising. Different systems and substrate types have been tested, and street trees generally show good vitality, although systematic long-term monitoring of tree vitality has rarely been undertaken. There is still a need for research into temporary water storage for dry periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers of Urban Water Management 2023)
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30 pages, 4682 KiB  
Review
Overview of the (Smart) Stormwater Management around the Baltic Sea
by Kristjan Suits, Ivar Annus, Nils Kändler, Tobias Karlsson, Antonius Van Maris, Antti Kaseva, Nika Kotoviča and Gunaratna Kuttuva Rajarao
Water 2023, 15(8), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081623 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3420
Abstract
In this review paper, we investigate the management of the quality of stormwater in the Baltic Sea region. Current stormwater management practices, standards, and legislation do not accurately depict stormwater quality, resulting in an underestimation of its environmental impact. The digitalization and harmonization [...] Read more.
In this review paper, we investigate the management of the quality of stormwater in the Baltic Sea region. Current stormwater management practices, standards, and legislation do not accurately depict stormwater quality, resulting in an underestimation of its environmental impact. The digitalization and harmonization of stormwater management through the implementation of e-monitoring (online or continuous monitoring) allow for the collection of data. This data can be used to improve stormwater quality and quantity management, thereby reducing the environmental harm induced by anthropogenic activities. Based on the literature review, supporting tables and matrices are proposed to assist decision-makers and other interested parties in developing and implementing “smart” stormwater management solutions. In this article, we demonstrate that such systems can enhance stormwater management and system performance by leveraging data-driven operation and maintenance. Another advantage of the approach is that it contributes to a healthier urban environment and ecosystem well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers of Urban Water Management 2023)
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