Special Issue "Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 13907

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jean-Luc Probst
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Functional Ecology and Environment, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), University of Toulouse, campus ENSAT, Auzeville Tolosane, France
Interests: biogeochemistry; catchment hydrology; river transports; weathering; erosion; carbon cycle; major elements; nutrients; suspended matters; trace elements; rare earth elements; pesticides; stable isotopes; critical zone
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Prof. Dr. Richard C. Smardon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Studies and Landscape Architecture, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, 416 Marshall Hall, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
Interests: landscape planning; sustainability; water resource management; urban ecosystems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jianzhong Lu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
Interests: remote sensing of hydrology; watershed modeling; hydrologic cycle; climate change impacts; ecosystem modelling; hydrodynamic model; water quality; watershed management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue comprises selected papers from the Proceedings of the 5th International Electronic Conference on Water Science (ECWS-5), held from 16 to 30 November 2020 on sciforum.net, an online platform for hosting scholarly e-conferences and discussion groups.

The ECWS-5 was dedicated to Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene (WEA), with attention focused on the water cycle in the ecosphere and its interactions with the different compartments during the Anthropocene. The Earth’s most recent geologic time period is human-influenced, based on overwhelming regional as well as global evidence that atmospheric, pedospheric, geologic, hydrologic, biospheric, and other earth-system compartments and processes are now altered by humans, including a broad range of anthropogenic activities and climatic changes. The ecosphere can be considered to be a global ecosystem integrating all living organisms and their inorganic environments. During the Anthropocene, the ecosphere can be viewed as a global socio-ecosystem that includes the Critical Zone, ecosystems, human societies, and their interactions with the environment. Different aspects of the interactions between water and the ecosphere in the context of global changes were considered at this conference, including water quantity, quality, biology, ecology, sociology, economy, and law.

The ECWS-5 offered a wide range of topics, most of which were related to this WEA scientific domain:

  • water interactions with the different compartments of the Critical Zone;
  • water resources management and ecosphere resilience and adaptation;
  • water and ecosystem functioning and services;
  • water and socio-ecosystems;
  • integrated modeling of the interactions between water and the ecosphere;
  • new sensors, new methods and technologies, and new approaches.

Dr. Jean-Luc Probst
Prof. Dr. Richard C. Smardon
Prof. Dr. Jianzhong Lu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water
  • ecosphere
  • Anthropocene
  • critical zone
  • socio-ecosystems
  • anthropogenic activities
  • climate changes
  • management
  • resilience
  • ecosystem services
  • integrated modelling
  • new technologies

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Multi-Indices Assessment of Origin and Controlling Factors of Trace Metals in River Sediments from a Semi-Arid Carbonated Basin (the Sebou Basin, Morocco)
Water 2021, 13(22), 3203; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223203 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 577
Abstract
River water quality is particularly of concern in semi-arid countries with limited water resources. Increasing anthropogenic activities can lead to the accumulation of trace metals (TM) in bottom sediments, which is a specific storage compartment. The present study aimed to investigate the geochemistry [...] Read more.
River water quality is particularly of concern in semi-arid countries with limited water resources. Increasing anthropogenic activities can lead to the accumulation of trace metals (TM) in bottom sediments, which is a specific storage compartment. The present study aimed to investigate the geochemistry of trace metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) and of some physico-chemical parameters in bottom sediments from the Sebou basin, which represents 1/3 of the surface water resources of Morocco. The order of abundance of the metals was Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > Co > As > Cd. A major fingerprint of weathering on metal concentration, and point and non-point anthropogenic sources were highlighted. The origin and intensity of the contamination were determined using a combination of geochemical indicators. The contamination was on the whole moderate, with Cr, Zn, Cu, and Pb as the most enriched metals, especially at the A1, S3, and S4 stations located downstream of Fez city, well known for its intensive industrial and tannery activities. A multi-variate analysis evidenced the strong link between natural elements such as Co with clays and Fe oxides, and As with Ca, whereas Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, partly originating from anthropogenic activities (industrial and domestic waste, agricultural inputs), were linked to phosphorus, oxides, carbonates, and/or POC, indicating their anthropic source and/or control by sediment compounds. Cadmium, Pb, and Cu were the most available metals. Finally, in addition to Cd, Pb and Zn were identified as hazardous metals in sediments as evidenced by the positive relationship between the proportion of the labile fraction and the enrichment factor revealing anthropogenic inputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Article
Mining Transition and Hydropower Energy in Greece—Sustainable Governance of Water Resources Management in a Post-Lignite Era: The Case of Western Macedonia, Greece
Water 2021, 13(14), 1878; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141878 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 861
Abstract
The present study explores the process of Greece’s current decarbonisation transition and its energy policy regarding the country’s two coal-mining areas. Using the Region of Western Macedonia as a case study, we aimed at providing a holistic approach—as until now only few attempts [...] Read more.
The present study explores the process of Greece’s current decarbonisation transition and its energy policy regarding the country’s two coal-mining areas. Using the Region of Western Macedonia as a case study, we aimed at providing a holistic approach—as until now only few attempts have been made to systematise the ‘Just Transition Plans’ in European Union (EU)—for raising awareness on issues related to water resource management in post-lignite areas and analysing the use of hydropower in Greece. Our research draws on a flexible method approach, serving as a tool to identify gaps in current knowledge and practices, based on two stages—first the analysis of existing literature, reviews, and sources from government’s core strategies, as well as policy and decision-making papers, and then formulating research questions by synthesising relevant data. In Greece, both ‘Just Transition Development Plan of Lignite Areas’ and hydropower production practices overlook water resources management. By summarising our findings and identifying gaps that remain in current approaches, this work indicates future directions by suggesting processes necessary for addressing the complex issue of adoption of sustainable water resources management measures in post-lignite eras in accordance with EU’s water policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Article
Stream Hydrochemical Response to Flood Events in a Multi-Lithological Karstic Catchment from the Pyrenees Mountains (SW France)
Water 2021, 13(13), 1818; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131818 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2688
Abstract
Hydrological variations hold a significant influence over the water chemistry in the karstic critical zone. In this context, the karstic Baget Catchment (BC) has been monitored at a high resolution over two years at the outlet in order to set up a typology [...] Read more.
Hydrological variations hold a significant influence over the water chemistry in the karstic critical zone. In this context, the karstic Baget Catchment (BC) has been monitored at a high resolution over two years at the outlet in order to set up a typology of the flood events. The objective was to assess the multiple streamwater physico-chemical patterns in response to hydrological variations, streamflow component (quick-response, subsurface, and baseflow) and lithological contributions, and biogeochemical processes. The karstic catchment exhibited an impulsive response to flood events in relation to the typical structural and morphological characteristics of the karst. In addition, this response was constrained by the magnitude of the rainfall and the preceding hydroclimatic conditions. The variability of the dissolved load in streamflow was closely associated with the characteristics of the weathered rocks and the hydrological conditions throughout the year. Two simple indicators allow to characterize the concentration–discharge relationships with different hysteresis patterns on a set of floods with various intensities and shapes of the hydrograph and under different hydrological conditions before the flood. Almost all elements exhibited either clockwise loops or more complex behaviors, suggesting a higher overall concentration when the major water contribution comes from the quick-response flow (karst and surface runoff fraction). Besides, the epikarst flushing under dry conditions led counterclockwise hysteresis patterns for calcium (Ca2+) and bicarbonate (HCO3) which revealed an overall chemostatic behavior as a result of carbonate dissolution in the karst. On the contrary, sulfate (SO42−) exhibited the widest relative variation during flooding and showed a significant sensitivity to the dilution process with increasing discharge. For medium flood episodes (Qmax < 4.4 m3·s−1), an overall concentration increase or chemostatic behavior could be observed during the rising limb of the hydrograph. On the opposite, under extreme flood episodes (Qmax > 8.3 m3·s−1) occurring after several rain events, a dilution pattern was noted for all elements originating from rock weathering. Finally, high-frequency sampling during storm events improved the understanding of the factors controlling the hydrochemical dynamic in karstic catchments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Article
Hydro-Energy Suitability of Rivers Regarding Their Hydrological and Hydrogeological Characteristics
Water 2021, 13(13), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131777 - 27 Jun 2021
Viewed by 814
Abstract
The production of electric energy from rivers by using mini, as well as micro hydroelectric power plants, is a very promising solution, especially in rural and isolated areas. Numerous waterways in Croatia and their hydrological and hydrogeological diversity present an opportunity, but also [...] Read more.
The production of electric energy from rivers by using mini, as well as micro hydroelectric power plants, is a very promising solution, especially in rural and isolated areas. Numerous waterways in Croatia and their hydrological and hydrogeological diversity present an opportunity, but also a challenge, for the construction of hydroelectric power plants. Due to the complexity of the water courses’ hydrology, as well as hydrogeological characteristics, it is very hard to determine an appropriate flow pattern (amount), which will be used as an input value for the sizing of hydroelectric power plants. Such analysis will be provided for real case studies in Croatia with special regard to present geological media—media with intergranular porosity (Bednja River), karst media (Gornja Dobra River), and flysch media (Mirna River). Considering different geological media increases the possibility of using the presented methodology on other locations in Croatia, as well in the world. It has been shown that the analyzed rivers definitely have potential for electric energy production, regarding the potential and kinetic river energy. The presented analysis is scientifically original, but also shows the procedure for the determination of the hydro-energy potential of the rivers, as well as for the sizing on the hydropower plants. Hydrology and hydrogeology analyses rounds out the usual hydro-energy analysis, which is in most cases based on basic statistical parameter analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Article
Role of Pond Sediments for Trapping Pesticides in an Agricultural Catchment (Auradé, SW France): Distribution and Controlling Factors
Water 2021, 13(13), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131734 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
In agricultural areas, ponds are suitable wetland environments to dissipate and reduce the occurrence of pesticides in aquatic environments. However, their impact at a catchment scale is still poorly understood. This study aims to determine how these organic contaminants were trapped in a [...] Read more.
In agricultural areas, ponds are suitable wetland environments to dissipate and reduce the occurrence of pesticides in aquatic environments. However, their impact at a catchment scale is still poorly understood. This study aims to determine how these organic contaminants were trapped in a pond located in an agricultural critical zone from SW France (Auradé catchment). The spatial distribution of pesticide concentrations and their different controlling factors were investigated in waters and sediments collected during two distinct seasons. The results highlighted (i) the link between the presence of the molecules and the agricultural practices upstream, (ii) the influence of hydrological/seasonal conditions, especially on hydrophobic molecule accumulation such as tebuconazole, (iii) the key role of clay content in sediments on the control of moderately hydrophilic pesticides (metolachlor and boscalid), but also the unexpected role of coarse particles for boscalid; and (iv) the influence of sediment depth on pesticide storage. Nevertheless, other physico-chemical parameters, such as mineralogical composition of sediment, needed to be considered to explain the pesticide patterns. This study brings a new hypothesis to be investigated in the future about pesticide behaviour in such pond environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Water Body Changes and Their Influencing Factors in the Seasonal Lakes of the Poyang Lake Region
Water 2021, 13(11), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111539 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China, an internationally important wetland and the largest migratory bird habitat in Asia. There are numerous seasonal lakes in the Poyang Lake region, and these lakes create a complex and diverse wetland landscape and serve [...] Read more.
Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China, an internationally important wetland and the largest migratory bird habitat in Asia. There are numerous seasonal lakes in the Poyang Lake region, and these lakes create a complex and diverse wetland landscape and serve as the main activity area for migratory birds. Seasonal lakes have significant effects on hydrological and ecological processes and are highly susceptible to various changes, but research on seasonal lakes is relatively limited. Based on long-term remote sensing images, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of seasonal lakes and their influencing factors and ecological effects. The conclusions were as follows: the average water area of seasonal lakes showed a unimodal change during the year, reaching a maximum in July and a minimum in January. The interannual water area fluctuated greatly, and the overall water area showed a small downward trend. In terms of spatial variation, the seasonal lakes were connected with the main lake in the wet season and separated from the main lake in the dry season. Among the natural factors, the influences of temperature, evaporation, and rainfall on the water area of the seasonal lakes were successively reduced. In addition, the incoming water from the Yangtze River had an important influence. Among the human factors, the traditional fishing method “enclosing sublakes in autumn” had the greatest impact on the water area in a specific period, followed by the indirect impact of the Three Gorges Project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Article
Changes in Water Environment in Erhai Lake and Its Influencing Factors
Water 2021, 13(10), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101362 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
In recent years, the rapid development of the population, agriculture, and tourism around Erhai Lake has caused increasing environmental problems, which have seriously affected the ecological status of the lake. This study analyzed changes in water volume and quality in Erhai Lake, based [...] Read more.
In recent years, the rapid development of the population, agriculture, and tourism around Erhai Lake has caused increasing environmental problems, which have seriously affected the ecological status of the lake. This study analyzed changes in water volume and quality in Erhai Lake, based on statistical data from 2000 to 2019, combined with climate, land-use type, and socioeconomic data, as well as the influencing factors of water environmental changes in the Erhai Lake basin. The main conclusions include: the water storage of Erhai Lake increased by 3.8 × 106 m3 year−1, from 2000 to 2019. The monthly variation in water volume showed a trend of first decreasing and then increasing, in which it increased from August to December and decreased from January to July. The change in water volume was mainly affected by climate factors. From 2000 to 2019, the nitrogen concentration in Erhai Lake showed an increasing trend, and the changes in water quality were closely related to human activities. In the northern part of the basin, agricultural nonpoint source pollution was the main factor affecting water quality, while in the southern part of the basin, economic development, accelerated urbanization, and tourism were the main factors affecting water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Article
A Comprehensive Study of the Impact of Large-Scale Landscape Pattern Changes on the Watershed Ecosystem
Water 2021, 13(10), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101361 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 712
Abstract
The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWD) is the world’s largest inter-basin water diversion project, and the Danjiangkou Reservoir is a water source of the middle route project of the SNWD. Dynamic monitoring of ecological environment changes in Danjiangkou Water source area can provide [...] Read more.
The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWD) is the world’s largest inter-basin water diversion project, and the Danjiangkou Reservoir is a water source of the middle route project of the SNWD. Dynamic monitoring of ecological environment changes in Danjiangkou Water source area can provide theoretical support for reservoir water storage security and ecosystem protection. In this study, the water storage of Danjiangkou reservoir was estimated and its dynamic change was analyzed. On this basis, the changes of landscape pattern and ecosystem services value caused by the SNWD project were analyzed. The results show that the reservoir storage presented an obvious growth trend from 2000 to 2019, especially after the middle route of the SNWD was opened in 2014. After the implementation of the SNWD project, the vegetation degradation in Danjiangkou reservoir area was obvious, which is mainly related to the expansion of construction land. The ecosystem service value of the Danjiangkou Reservoir was mainly determined by the water conservation supply value and climate regulation value. After the implementation of the SNWD project, the values of water conservation and supply, climate regulation, and hydropower generation showed an increasing trend, while the values of fixing carbon and releasing oxygen, and organic matter production showed a decreasing trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Article
Predicting Tropical Monsoon Hydrology Using CFSR and CMADS Data over the Cau River Basin in Vietnam
Water 2021, 13(9), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091314 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
To improve knowledge of this matter, the potential application of two gridded meteorological products (GMPs), the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model (CMADS) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), are compared for the first time with data from ground-based meteorological [...] Read more.
To improve knowledge of this matter, the potential application of two gridded meteorological products (GMPs), the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model (CMADS) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), are compared for the first time with data from ground-based meteorological stations over 6 years, from 2008 to 2013, over the Cau River basin (CRB), northern Vietnam. Statistical indicators and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model are employed to investigate the hydrological performances of the GMPs against the data of 17 rain gauges distributed across the CRB. The results show that there are strong correlations between the temperature reanalysis products in both CMADS and CFSR and those obtained from the ground-based observations (the correlation coefficients range from 0.92 to 0.97). The CFSR data overestimate precipitation (percentage bias approximately 99%) at both daily and monthly scales, whereas the CMADS product performs better, with obvious differences (compared to the ground-based observations) in high-terrain areas. Regarding the simulated river flows, CFSR-SWAT produced “unsatisfactory”, while CMADS-SWAT (R2 > 0.76 and NSE > 0.78) performs better than CFSR-SWAT on the monthly scale. This assessment of the applicative potential of GMPs, especially CMADS, may further provide an additional rapid alternative for water resource research and management in basins with similar hydro-meteorological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Article
A New Algorithm for Monitoring Backflow from River to Lake (BRL) Using Satellite Images: A Case of Poyang Lake, China
Water 2021, 13(9), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091166 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
Backflow from river to lake (BRL) usually happens in inland lakes and affects water exchange, matter migration, and variations in the water quality and eco-environment. However, at present, discharge data derived from hydrological stations are the only way to monitor BRL, and the [...] Read more.
Backflow from river to lake (BRL) usually happens in inland lakes and affects water exchange, matter migration, and variations in the water quality and eco-environment. However, at present, discharge data derived from hydrological stations are the only way to monitor BRL, and the influence scope of BRL has not been monitored through hydrological stations. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm to monitor BRL using satellite images of Poyang Lake (the largest freshwater lake in China). The following results were obtained: (1) According to the difference in suspended sediment from rivers and lakes, an algorithm using the total suspended sediment (TSS), which was used as a tracer, was designed for monitoring BRL in Poyang Lake. (2) An innovative extraction method for the mutation line using the TSS was developed to analyze BRL via satellite images. A gradient variation method was developed to extract the mutation line accurately. (3) The satellites with daily acquisition or higher-frequency resolution images (e.g., Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) were satisfactory for monitoring the characteristics of BRL. The MODIS-derived band combination Rrs(645) − Rrs(859))/(Rrs(555) − Rrs(859) yielded a higher fitting accuracy (R2 = 0.858, RMSE = 10.25 mg/L) derived from an exponential model, which was helpful to highlighting the mutation line. (4) The important parameters of BRL, such as the beginning time, the duration, the end time, and the influence scope, were quantitatively determined by judging the movement of the mutation line. This algorithm was applied to quickly and effectively extract the information of two instances of BRL in Poyang Lake in July 2000 and July to August 2007, and the results were accurate and reasonable. This algorithm can save a great deal on monitoring costs. A BRL monitoring algorithm using remote sensing is an efficient government measure supplement to address the limitations of hydrological stations. These results provide technological support for lake management and can serve as a valuable reference for water bodies similar to Poyang Lake worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Article
Implications of Experiment Set-Ups for Residential Water End-Use Classification
Water 2021, 13(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13020236 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
With an increasing need for secured water supply, a better understanding of the water consumption behavior is beneficial. This can be achieved through end-use classification, i.e., identifying end-uses such as toilets, showers or dishwashers from water consumption data. Previously, both supervised and unsupervised [...] Read more.
With an increasing need for secured water supply, a better understanding of the water consumption behavior is beneficial. This can be achieved through end-use classification, i.e., identifying end-uses such as toilets, showers or dishwashers from water consumption data. Previously, both supervised and unsupervised machine learning (ML) techniques are employed, demonstrating accurate classification results on particular datasets. However, a comprehensive comparison of ML techniques on a common dataset is still missing. Hence, in this study, we are aiming at a quantitative evaluation of various ML techniques on a common dataset. For this purpose, a stochastic water consumption simulation tool with high capability to model the real-world water consumption pattern is applied to generate residential data. Subsequently, unsupervised clustering methods, such as dynamic time warping, k-means, DBSCAN, OPTICS and Hough transform, are compared to supervised methods based on SVM. The quantitative results demonstrate that supervised approaches are capable to classify common residential end-uses (toilet, shower, faucet, dishwasher, washing machine, bathtub and mixed water-uses) with accuracies up to 0.99, whereas unsupervised methods fail to detect those consumption categories. In conclusion, clustering techniques alone are not suitable to separate end-use categories fully automatically. Hence, accurate labels are essential for the end-use classification of water events, where crowdsourcing and citizen science approaches pose feasible solutions for this purpose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Review

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Review
Nature-Based Solutions and Real-Time Control: Challenges and Opportunities
Water 2021, 13(5), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050651 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Nature-based solutions (NBS) as green infrastructures to urban drainage are an effective mitigation strategy both in terms of quantity and quality of runoff. Real-time control (RTC) can complement both flood mitigation and improvement of water quality by controlling elements of the drainage and [...] Read more.
Nature-based solutions (NBS) as green infrastructures to urban drainage are an effective mitigation strategy both in terms of quantity and quality of runoff. Real-time control (RTC) can complement both flood mitigation and improvement of water quality by controlling elements of the drainage and sewage system. This study assessed the improvement opportunities with RTC of three NBS-related techniques commonly applied in urban drainage with different spatial scales: green roof, bioretention and detention basin and the remaining challenges to integrate both methods. Additionally, our investigations showed that the main difficulties reported involve the planning and monitoring stages of the RTC system. All of the studied devices can benefit from RTC. It is possible to observe that, despite the good results reported in the literature, the application of RTC to NBS studies on urban drainage are very recent. There are several opportunities that can be explored to optimize the performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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