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Water 2018, 10(8), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081083

Determination of Micropollutants in Water Samples from Swimming Pool Systems

Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract

The present study investigated the occurrence of selected micropollutants, including emerging contaminants from a group of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water samples from swimming pool systems. The study area was selected based on the lack of available information regarding suspected contamination of swimming pool water by PPCPs. The variety and concentration of chemical compounds in these aquatic systems can be quite diversified, presenting a challenge in terms of both purification and quality control. Determination of PPCPs requires very sensitive analytical methods that make it possible to confirm the presence of tested compounds in a complex organic extract. In this field, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can be used. With this system, selected ion monitoring can be performed, which reduces the detection limits of the investigated analyte. This paper aims to present an analytical method and strategy that can be adapted to obtain information on the composition of water in swimming pool systems. The sample preparation methodology, including Solid Phase Extraction, has been developed for the trace determination of two pharmaceuticals—caffeine, carbamazepine—and one sunscreen constituent—benzophenone-3—in swimming pool water samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: GC-MS; Solid Phase Extraction (SPE); micropollutants; swimming pools systems; swimming pool water; pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) GC-MS; Solid Phase Extraction (SPE); micropollutants; swimming pools systems; swimming pool water; pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lempart, A.; Kudlek, E.; Dudziak, M. Determination of Micropollutants in Water Samples from Swimming Pool Systems. Water 2018, 10, 1083.

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