Yellow River Basin Management under Pressure: Present State, Restoration and Protection II

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 38696

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Guest Editor
School of Water Conservancy and Transportation, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
Interests: human–water harmony; climate change adaptation; integrated water resource management; interconnected river system network; high-quality development for Yellow River; water environment protection
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Water Resources, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China
Interests: urban hydrology; urban flood prevention; hydrological cycle simulation; climate change; safety and security of water resources
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
Interests: water management; mountain hydrology; vadose zone; hydrologic modeling; snow
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ecological protection and high-quality development in the basin of the Yellow River, which is known as China's "Mother River" and "the cradle of Chinese civilization", have been receiving increasing attention. In the last decade, a substantial number of studies have investigated the management and protection of the Yellow River Basin, especially the restoration of the Yellow River basin under pressure. In 2021, the Special Issue “Yellow River Basin Management under Pressure: Present State, Restoration and Protection” in the journal Water (MDPI) was published, aiming to help improve ecological protection and achieve high-quality development. Eleven original research papers in the first volume of this Special Issue shed light on diverse aspects of the management of the Yellow River Basin, including the potential routes for the restoration and protection of the Yellow River basin, the characteristics of Yellow River under a changing environment, and the harmonious regulation of the human–water relationship et al.

To continuously promote research on this important topic, we are pleased to invite you to contribute your interesting work to the second volume of the Special Issue, “Yellow River Basin Management under Pressure: Present State, Restoration and Protection II”. This Special Issue addresses advances in the current state, challenges, and suggestions related to Yellow River basin management and sustainable development under pressure. Review papers and case studies related to water management, water security and water shortage, as well as restoration and protection in the Yellow River basin, are highly welcome.

Prof. Dr. Qiting Zuo
Prof. Dr. Xiangyi Ding
Dr. Guotao Cui
Dr. Wei Zhang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Yellow River basin
  • current state and challenges
  • changing environment and pressure
  • ecological environment restoration and protection
  • water security
  • water conservation
  • water management
  • human–water harmony
  • high-quality development
  • systematic management measures

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Editorial

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8 pages, 188 KiB  
Editorial
Yellow River Basin Management under Pressure: Present State, Restoration and Protection II: Lessons from a Special Issue
by Qiting Zuo, Xiangyi Ding, Guotao Cui and Wei Zhang
Water 2024, 16(7), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16070999 - 29 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
This Special Issue is the second edition following the publication of the first Issue, “Yellow River Basin Management under Pressure: Present State, Restoration and Protection”, in 2021 [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

25 pages, 14866 KiB  
Article
Evolution Trend of Depth to Groundwater and Agricultural Water-Saving Measure Threshold under Its Constraints: A Case Study in Helan Irrigated Areas, Northwest China
by Cui Chang, Guiyu Yang, Shuoyang Li and Hao Wang
Water 2024, 16(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020220 - 9 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
Water conservation is imperative for alleviating water shortages and fostering the establishment of a water-saving society. However, the implementation of water-saving measures caused an increase in the depth to groundwater, resulting in ecological issues. Therefore, reasonable water saving should consider the appropriate depth [...] Read more.
Water conservation is imperative for alleviating water shortages and fostering the establishment of a water-saving society. However, the implementation of water-saving measures caused an increase in the depth to groundwater, resulting in ecological issues. Therefore, reasonable water saving should consider the appropriate depth to groundwater and its evolution trend. This study focuses on the Helan irrigation area in Ningxia as the research subject, aiming to establish thresholds for agricultural water-saving measures while considering constraints by depth to groundwater. The evolution trend of depth to groundwater from 1995 to 2018 was analyzed using the k-Shape cluster and complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) methods. Then, the thresholds of agricultural water-saving measures involved comparing groundwater numerical simulation results for water-saving scenarios, with the control area of ecological groundwater table depth and water shortage rate serving as the evaluation indices. The thresholds for implementing agricultural water-saving measures are as follows: the canal water utilization coefficient is set at 0.62; the proportion of water-efficient irrigation areas to effective irrigation areas should be 40% in the Yellow River irrigation area and 90% in the pumps-up Yellow River irrigation area; additionally, a reduction of 75% in the rice planting area is targeted. Full article
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25 pages, 11492 KiB  
Article
Influence of Natural and Social Economic Factors on Landscape Pattern Indices—The Case of the Yellow River Basin in Henan Province
by Suming Ren, Heng Zhao, Honglu Zhang, Fuqiang Wang and Huan Yang
Water 2023, 15(23), 4174; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234174 - 2 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
The Yellow River Basin holds significance as a vital ecological shield and economic hub within China. Adapting land utilization practices and optimizing landscape patterns are of paramount significance in preserving the ecological equilibrium of the Yellow River Basin while fostering high-quality economic development. [...] Read more.
The Yellow River Basin holds significance as a vital ecological shield and economic hub within China. Adapting land utilization practices and optimizing landscape patterns are of paramount significance in preserving the ecological equilibrium of the Yellow River Basin while fostering high-quality economic development. In this study, we selected the Yellow River Basin in Henan Province as our research area. We use a land use transition matrix and FRAGSTATS 4.2 software to analyze changes in land use and landscape patterns within the study area from 1990 to 2020. Furthermore, Geographical Detector is employed to explore the impact of different natural and social economic factors that have influenced the progress of the landscape surface pattern in the study area. Finally, to identify the zonal aggregation effects of primary components in connection with landscaping feature indices at the city dimension, we use bivariate local spatial autocorrelation. The results are as follows: (1) In terms of land use change characteristics, the area of cultivated land, grassland, shrubs, and bare land shows a decreasing tendency, the area of construction land and forest land shows an increasing tendency, and the water area fluctuates and changes. Most of the cultivated land is shifted to construction land, followed by forest land, construction land, and cultivated land mainly transferred from grassland. (2) At the level of type in terms of shifting landscape patterns, cultivated land, forest land, water, and construction land have a more complex landscape shape, reduced fragmentation, and better natural connectivity. At the overall level, the overall landscape pattern indices are relatively stable, with more patch types and a more balanced distribution. (3) The findings regarding influencing factors reveal that the primary industry output value, population, secondary industry output value, and temperature are the principal driving forces behind the progress of the landscape surface pattern. The main drivers have changed over time in different regions. As indicated by the findings from bivariate local spatial autocorrelation analysis, at the city scale, the leading cause of landscape fragmentation in Luoyang is the primary industry output value, while in Xinxiang, landscape fragmentation is primarily driven by the secondary industry output value and temperature. In this study, we introduce the bivariate local spatial autocorrelation method to analyze the clustering effects of key influencing factors and landscape patterns at the city scale. This is crucial for the harmonized growth of land use planning and the urban economy in the Yellow River Basin. Full article
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21 pages, 4287 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Regional Water Ecological Economic System Sustainability Based on Emergy Water Ecological Footprint Theory—Taking the Yellow River Basin as an Example
by Zening Wu, Xiangyu Chen and Danyang Di
Water 2023, 15(17), 3137; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173137 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 922
Abstract
In the article, on the basis of quantifying the emergy water ecological footprint, a sustainability evaluation system for the overall water ecological economic system of the basin and each province (region) was proposed. And using the subjective and objective combination of the Analytic [...] Read more.
In the article, on the basis of quantifying the emergy water ecological footprint, a sustainability evaluation system for the overall water ecological economic system of the basin and each province (region) was proposed. And using the subjective and objective combination of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Entropy Weight Method (EWM) to determine the weight of the indicator system, a TOPSIS model for sustainability evaluation was constructed. And taking the Yellow River Basin as an example, the results indicate that (1) Throughout the entire basin, the sustainability of the water ecological economic system showed a fluctuating upward trend year by year during the study period, from 0.37 to 0.51. (2) In each province (region), the sustainability of the water ecological economic system had gathered in space. The overall sustainability level of the upstream Sichuan, Qinghai and Gansu provinces is high, always at level (I). The overall sustainability level of the midstream Ningxia and Neimenggu was low, always at level (IV). The overall sustainability level of the downstream Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan and Shandong provinces is high, rising gradually over time, from level (III) to level (II) or (I). Against the backdrop of the rapid development of the economy and society, the contradiction between economic and social development, ecological environment protection, and sustainable utilization of water resources is becoming increasingly severe, which has become a key factor restricting the sustainable development of the ecological economic system in Yellow River Basin. Multidimensional comprehensive evaluation of the sustainability level of the regional water ecological economic system is a prerequisite for identifying sustainable development issues in the Yellow River Basin, and also the basis for formulating targeted policies for sustainable utilization of regional water resources and high-quality economic development. Full article
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18 pages, 11454 KiB  
Article
Influence of Multi-Cross Structures on the Flood Discharge Capacity of Mountain Rivers in the Yellow River Basin
by Jianyong Hu, Hui Shen, Jinxin Zhang, Zhenzhu Meng, Yuzhou Zhang and Wei Han
Water 2023, 15(15), 2719; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152719 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 933
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of cross structures on flood occurrences in mountainous rivers. The governing equations of open channel flow were formulated based on the Saint-Venant equations. The open channel was segmented, and a node equation was established at each section’s connection [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of cross structures on flood occurrences in mountainous rivers. The governing equations of open channel flow were formulated based on the Saint-Venant equations. The open channel was segmented, and a node equation was established at each section’s connection point. An overflow model of bridges and weir dams was also developed. The physical model of the open channel was simplified and modeled using actual building data and model calculation requirements. The study found that the primary impact of weirs and bridges on the open channel was the backwater effect on the water level. The influence of these structures on the water level in the Huang Stream urban section in the Yellow River Basin was assessed under various working conditions. The results showed that deleting the #1 weir could reduce the maximum backwater height by 1.14 m, and deleting the #2 weir could reduce it by 1.09 m. While reducing the weir height significantly decreased the backwater range and height, it did not enhance the river’s flood discharge capacity. The Huang Stream contains 17 bridges, 13 of which could potentially affect flood discharge. The eight flat slab bridges in the submerged outflow state had a significant impact on flood discharge, with a maximum water level change of 0.51 m. Conversely, the three single-hole flat slab bridges in the free outflow state downstream had a negligible impact on flood discharge. The study found that bridges had a greater influence on flood discharge capacity than weirs. This research provides valuable insights for the reconstruction of cross structures in mountainous rivers and for managing flood discharge capacity and flood control. Full article
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14 pages, 9067 KiB  
Article
Recognition and Prediction of Collaborative Response Characteristics of Runoff and Permafrost to Climate Changes in the Headwaters of the Yellow River
by Xinze Han, Aili Sun, Xue Meng, Yongshan Liang, Yanqing Shen, Yu Bai, Boyuan Wang, Haojie Meng and Ruifei He
Water 2023, 15(13), 2347; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132347 - 25 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1022
Abstract
As a response to climate changes, permafrost has deteriorated and the hydrologic process has undergone significant alterations in high-cold regions. The response mechanism still remains unknown. The characteristic contribution was calculated using the random forest (RF) algorithm, AdaBoost algorithm, and gradient-boosted decision tree [...] Read more.
As a response to climate changes, permafrost has deteriorated and the hydrologic process has undergone significant alterations in high-cold regions. The response mechanism still remains unknown. The characteristic contribution was calculated using the random forest (RF) algorithm, AdaBoost algorithm, and gradient-boosted decision tree (GBDT) algorithm. A comprehensive evaluation model was constructed to evaluate the contribution of climate changes to the headwaters of the Yellow River and the influence of permafrost degradation as well as climate-permafrost cooperation on runoff changes. The selected characteristic vectors were chosen as datasets for the support vector machine (SVM) and RF algorithms. A model was constructed for the prediction of permafrost degradation and runoff changes based on climate data. Results demonstrated that climate variables influencing the mean depth-to-permafrost table (DPT) were ranked according to their contributions: air temperature > evapotranspiration > wind speed > relative humidity (RHU) > sunshine duration > precipitation. The descending rank of climate and permafrost variables according to their contributions to runoff was the following: precipitation > sunshine duration > permafrost coverage > evapotranspiration > relative humidity (RHU) > mean DPT > wind speed > maximum DPT > air temperature. The model demonstrated good prediction results. The outputs can provide scientific references in applications related to water resources and the protection of ecologically vulnerable areas in high-cold regions. Full article
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20 pages, 5456 KiB  
Article
Changes in Water and Sediment Processes in the Yellow River and Their Responses to Ecological Protection during the Last Six Decades
by Suiji Wang and Xumin Wang
Water 2023, 15(12), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122285 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
The variation of river hydrologic process can reflect the impact of not only natural factors, but also human activities. The purpose of this study is to reveal the change in the hydrologic regime of the Yellow River and its response to ecological protection. [...] Read more.
The variation of river hydrologic process can reflect the impact of not only natural factors, but also human activities. The purpose of this study is to reveal the change in the hydrologic regime of the Yellow River and its response to ecological protection. Based on the daily water and sediment observation data of representative gauging stations of the Yellow River, we analyzed the variation of the annual and monthly runoff and suspended sediment load (SSL), as well as monthly mean runoff, suspended sediment transport rate (SSTR), sediment inflow coefficient, and hydrological regime in a decadal average of the gauging stations during the period of 1960–2019. The results showed that the variation of annual runoff and SSL, as well as the monthly mean runoff and SSTR in a decadal average, had a significant decreasing trend in the 1960s–1990s, which was mainly in response to the gradual implementation of ecological protection measures such as afforestation, terrace construction, check dam construction, etc., in the basin. In 2000s and 2010s, the annual runoff increased, while the SSL increased slightly. This was a response to the implementation of new river management measures such as ensuring the ecological water demand of the lower reaches and scouring the riverbed by manually regulated water discharged from the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. At the same time, the monthly mean runoff and SSTR for the flood season (July–October) decreased remarkably while the process curve of the monthly mean discharge and sediment concentration changed from a clockwise loop to a counterclockwise loop in the river reach below the Xiaolangdi dam. This was a comprehensive response to the environmental protection measures in the Yellow River basin, in which the construction and operation of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir played a key role. This study can provide reference for river basin management. Full article
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17 pages, 7601 KiB  
Article
Gaussian Process Regression and Cooperation Search Algorithm for Forecasting Nonstationary Runoff Time Series
by Sen Wang, Jintai Gong, Haoyu Gao, Wenjie Liu and Zhongkai Feng
Water 2023, 15(11), 2111; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112111 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
In the hydrology field, hydrological forecasting is regarded as one of the most challenging engineering tasks, as runoff has significant spatial–temporal variability under the influences of multiple physical factors from both climate events and human activities. As a well-known artificial intelligence tool, Gaussian [...] Read more.
In the hydrology field, hydrological forecasting is regarded as one of the most challenging engineering tasks, as runoff has significant spatial–temporal variability under the influences of multiple physical factors from both climate events and human activities. As a well-known artificial intelligence tool, Gaussian process regression (GPR) possesses satisfying generalization performance but often suffers from local convergence and sensitivity to initial conditions in practice. To enhance its performance, this paper investigates the effectiveness of a hybrid GPR and cooperation search algorithm (CSA) model for forecasting nonstationary hydrological data series. The CSA approach avoids the premature convergence defect in GPR by effectively determining suitable parameter combinations in the problem space. Several traditional machine learning models are established to evaluate the validity of the proposed GPR-CSA method in three real-world hydrological stations of China. In the modeling process, statistical characteristics and expert knowledge are used to select input variables from the observed runoff data at previous periods. Different experimental results show that the developed GPR-CSA model can accurately predict nonlinear runoff and outperforms the developed traditional models in terms of various statistical indicators. Hence, a CSA-trained GPR model can provide satisfying training efficiency and robust simulation performance for runoff forecasting. Full article
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15 pages, 3892 KiB  
Article
The Spatio-Temporal Dynamic Patterns of Shallow Groundwater Level and Salinity: The Yellow River Delta, China
by Xiaomei Fan, Tong Min and Xiaojie Dai
Water 2023, 15(7), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071426 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1873
Abstract
Shallow groundwater in coastal aquifers is a highly dynamic and complex system with a high risk of seawater intrusion. Analyzing the spatio-temporal dynamic patterns of groundwater can help to manage the groundwater resource and prevent it from degradation. Based on the groundwater level [...] Read more.
Shallow groundwater in coastal aquifers is a highly dynamic and complex system with a high risk of seawater intrusion. Analyzing the spatio-temporal dynamic patterns of groundwater can help to manage the groundwater resource and prevent it from degradation. Based on the groundwater level (GWL) and electrical conductivity (EC) monitoring data of 18 observation wells in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) from 2004 to 2010, this research analyses the groundwater dynamics using a robust seasonal trend decomposition technique (STL) and spatial interpolation method to detect the groundwater spatio-temporal dynamic patterns of groundwater level and salinity. Combined with hydro-climatic data, the Pearson correlation method and the Mann-Kendall (MK) trend analysis were used to further reveal the impacts that induce their trends and seasonal variations. Our analyses show that the risk of seawater intrusion into local shallow aquifers in this region is high, with the mean groundwater level over 42% of the region lower than the local sea level, and the mean groundwater EC over 96% of the region met the standards for seawater intrusion. In addition, the trends of groundwater level generally declined by 0.01~0.45 m/a and salinity increased by 1.153~25.608 μs/cm.a, which are consistent with the trend of precipitation decline. The seasonal dynamics of groundwater level and salinity are highly correlated with the seasonal components of rainfall and evaporation. It can be concluded that the extent of seawater intrusion will increase in the future with sea level rise. The approaches used in this study proved to be effective and can certainly serve as an example for the analysis of the spatio-temporal dynamics of groundwater in other coastal regions. Full article
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21 pages, 2326 KiB  
Article
A Regional Water Resource Allocation Model Based on the Human–Water Harmony Theory in the Yellow River Basin
by Jinxin Zhang, Deshan Tang, Mei Wang, Ijaz Ahamd, Jianyong Hu, Zhenzhu Meng, Dan Liu and Suli Pan
Water 2023, 15(7), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071388 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
Considering the issues of water scarcity, water environment deterioration, and unreasonable allocation of water resources in the urban area of the Yellow River Basin, this paper introduces the human–water harmony theory to the allocation of regional water resources. Based on an analysis of [...] Read more.
Considering the issues of water scarcity, water environment deterioration, and unreasonable allocation of water resources in the urban area of the Yellow River Basin, this paper introduces the human–water harmony theory to the allocation of regional water resources. Based on an analysis of the structural characteristics of the regional water resource system, the harmonious water resource allocation (HWRA) model—which includes three sub-systems (i.e., the water service system, ecological environmental system, and economic and social system)—is established. In addition, considering the uncertain factors in the HWRA model, the inexact fuzzy multi-objective programming (IFMOP) method is used to solve the model, aiming at achieving the minimum amount of regional water scarcity, the minimum amount of sewage discharge, and the maximum total economic benefit. A case study of water resource allocation of Binzhou, a city located in the Yellow River Basin, is conducted to validate the model. The model solution results show that the water resource system in Binzhou in 2025 and 2035 could be optimized after harmonious allocation, especially in terms of the water service and ecological environmental systems. Compared with the optimal water resource allocation (OWRA) model, the HWRA model has a more scientific water supply structure, and a smaller amount of sewage discharge. The HWRA model solves the variables using an interval number, so it can flexibly and scientifically reflect the decision-making process. Full article
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20 pages, 4001 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Water Distribution in Transboundary Rivers Based on a Synthesis–Dynamic–Harmonious Approach: A Case Study of the Yellow River Basin, China
by Meng Qiu, Qiting Zuo, Qingsong Wu, Binbin Wu, Junxia Ma and Jianwei Zhang
Water 2023, 15(6), 1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061207 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1824
Abstract
It has been difficult to revise and adjust the water distribution of the Yellow River in 1987 (1987 water distribution scheme). By gathering data and studies from previous literature, this paper summarized some water distribution ideas, principles and rules in transboundary rivers. We [...] Read more.
It has been difficult to revise and adjust the water distribution of the Yellow River in 1987 (1987 water distribution scheme). By gathering data and studies from previous literature, this paper summarized some water distribution ideas, principles and rules in transboundary rivers. We proposed the “synthesis–dynamic–harmonious” water distribution method (SDH), and applied it to the actual conditions of the Yellow River basin. Through the SDH method, we calculated a new scheme for water distribution in the Yellow River and analyzed the results. The key findings of this study are summarized below. Firstly, the water distribution of transboundary rivers required the establishment of advanced water distribution ideas. Secondly, the proposed water distribution method took into account a variety of factors: with the change in distributable water volume, the same ratio changes and meets the minimum water demand and water efficiency constraints. Thirdly, the 1987, the water distribution scheme needed some adjustment. Fourthly, under the new Yellow River basin water distribution scheme (“19ZQT” water distribution scheme), Shandong, Inner Mongolia, and Henan account for 50% of the total water distribution. Sichuan accounts for only 0.3% of the total. Compared with the 1987 water distribution scheme, Hebei and Tianjin reduced the amount of water allocated by 51.2%, while Shaanxi increased it by 24.89%. In this paper, considering the changes in the total distributable water volume, the new Yellow River water distribution scheme (“19ZQT” water distribution scheme) assumed water distribution of 37 billion m3 and 30 billion m3, upon which calculations were performed. This study should provide a scientific and reasonable scheme for water distribution of transboundary rivers, and rational utilization of water resources. It should lay a solid foundation for the high-quality development of the Yellow River basin. Full article
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12 pages, 1979 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Climate Change on Natural Runoff in the Yellow River Basin of China during 1961–2020
by Zuoqiang Han, Qiting Zuo, Chunqing Wang and Rong Gan
Water 2023, 15(5), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050929 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
The change in natural runoff is highly relevant to total river flow dispatch and water resource utilization in the Yellow River Basin (YRB). Based on the annual mean temperature and total precipitation records from 70 meteorological stations from 1961–2020, the impact of climate [...] Read more.
The change in natural runoff is highly relevant to total river flow dispatch and water resource utilization in the Yellow River Basin (YRB). Based on the annual mean temperature and total precipitation records from 70 meteorological stations from 1961–2020, the impact of climate change on the natural runoff of the YRB is investigated using the Mann-Kendall (M-K) test and Bivariate Wavelet analysis methods. Results show that the annual mean temperature over the YRB increased by 0.33 °C decade−1 during 1961–2020, with a warming rate of more than 0.40 °C decade−1 observed in its northern part. The annual total precipitation increases by 10–20 mm decade−1 in the northwest YRB, while it decreases by 20–30 mm decade−1 in the southeast YRB. The result of the M-K test shows abrupt variations in temperature and natural runoff, especially in the 1980s and 1990s. The decrease in natural runoff is closely tied to the increase (decrease) in temperature (precipitation), especially for the period 1993–2020. The bivariate wavelet coherence analysis further suggests that the decrease in the natural runoff, which has persisted over the past 60 years, is primarily driven by precipitation reduction rather than regional warming. In the stage of rapid warming, the inter-decadal influence of precipitation on natural runoff gradually changes to the influence of inter-annual fluctuation. The finding contributes to providing an important scientific basis for evaluating the optimal allocation of water resources in arid and semi-arid areas against the background of climate change. Full article
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19 pages, 15119 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Human Health Risks Associated with Groundwater Contamination and Groundwater Pollution Prediction in a Landfill and Surrounding Area in Kaifeng City, China
by Xiaoming Mao, Shengyan Zhang, Shuhong Wang, Tengchao Li, Shujie Hu and Xiaoqing Zhou
Water 2023, 15(4), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040723 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
Landfill accumulation can cause its leachate to seep into groundwater, which can lower the quality of local groundwater. Exploring the risks of groundwater contamination to human health in the area around a landfill can offer a clear understanding of the current situation of [...] Read more.
Landfill accumulation can cause its leachate to seep into groundwater, which can lower the quality of local groundwater. Exploring the risks of groundwater contamination to human health in the area around a landfill can offer a clear understanding of the current situation of regional groundwater and provide a theoretical basis for groundwater remediation and governance. By taking a landfill in Kaifeng City, China as the research object, this study explored the chemical types and sources of groundwater in the study area, used the entropy-weighted water quality index (EWQI) to evaluate the groundwater quality and assessed human health risks in the study area. The results show that the groundwater in the study area is neutral (7.14 ≤ pH ≤ 7.86), and the water chemical type is HCO3—Ca·Na. The EWQI results indicated that the overall water quality in the study area ranges from 48.4 to 250.26, which is above the medium level, and that the local water quality is poor. The deterioration of groundwater quality in the study area is mainly influenced by NH4+-N, Mn, As, F and Pb. According to the human health risk assessment model, the non-carcinogenic risk to humans through oral and dermal exposure can be assessed. In this paper, five ions, NH4+-N, Mn, As, F and Pb in groundwater, were selected for the analysis of groundwater in the study area to assess non-carcinogenic risk to humans through oral administration. The results showed that the hazard quotient (HQ) values for NH4+-N, Mn, As, F and Pb varied in the following ranges: 9.14 × 10−4—0.03; 0.07—0.22; 0.02–0.07; 0.16—0.23; and 0.01—0.13, respectively (all of these are less than 1, and so the potential risks to human health can be ignored). The characteristic pollutant Pb was selected as a predictor to study the influence on groundwater quality in eastern fish ponds and farmlands under continuous leakage. The leakage can be detected timeously to reduce the effects downstream by using enhanced monitoring measures. Full article
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20 pages, 8364 KiB  
Article
Flow–Solid Coupling Analysis of Ice–Concrete Collision Nonlinear Problems in the Yellow River Basin
by Li Gong, Zhouquan Dong, Chunling Jin, Zhiyuan Jia and Tengteng Yang
Water 2023, 15(4), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040643 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Yellow River ice is the most prominent and significant natural disaster in winter and spring in China. During the drift ice period, water transmission tunnels located in this area tend to be hit by water–drift ice coupling. Thus, it is an important issue [...] Read more.
Yellow River ice is the most prominent and significant natural disaster in winter and spring in China. During the drift ice period, water transmission tunnels located in this area tend to be hit by water–drift ice coupling. Thus, it is an important issue to reduce water transmission tunnel damage by drift ice, ensure the safety of operation and maintenance, and prevent engineering failure. In this paper, a numerical simulation of the collision process between ice and the tunnel is carried out by using the fluid structure coupling method and ANSYS/LS-DYNA finite element software. In addition, a model test with a geometric scale of 1:10 is carried out to verify the numerical simulation results, and the mechanical properties and damage mechanism of drift ice impacting the tunnel concrete lining in water medium are studied. The results show the following: the experimental values of maximum equivalent stress and X-directional displacement of the flow ice on the water transfer tunnel have the same trend as the simulated values, both of which show an increasing trend with an increase in flow ice velocity. It is shown that the ice material model parameters, ALE algorithm, and grid size used in this paper are able to simulate the impact of drift ice on the water transfer tunnel more accurately. With an increase in drift ice collision angle and drift ice size, the fitted curves of equivalent stress and peak displacement in X-direction all show relationships of exponential function. The peak value of displacement in the X-direction and maximum equivalent stress decrease with an increase in the curvature of the tunnel structure. It is also shown that the influence of change in drift ice size on the tunnel lining is greater than that of a change in tunnel section form. It is found that a high-pressure field will be formed due to extrusion of flowing ice, which should be fully considered in the numerical simulation. The research method and results can provide technical reference and theoretical support for prevention and control of ice jam disasters in the Yellow River Basin. Full article
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18 pages, 1216 KiB  
Article
Spatial–Temporal Dynamic Evolution and Influencing Factors of Green Efficiency of Agricultural Water Use in the Yellow River Basin, China
by Weinan Lu, Xinyi Guo, Wenxin Liu, Ruirui Du, Shuyao Chi and Boyang Zhou
Water 2023, 15(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010143 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
The progression of agricultural production, ever-increasing industrialization, population boom, and more water-concentrated lifestyles has placed a severe burden on Yellow River Basin’s existing water resources, particularly in the current century. In the context of resource and environmental constraints, improving the green efficiency of [...] Read more.
The progression of agricultural production, ever-increasing industrialization, population boom, and more water-concentrated lifestyles has placed a severe burden on Yellow River Basin’s existing water resources, particularly in the current century. In the context of resource and environmental constraints, improving the green efficiency of agricultural water use (AWGE) is an important measure for alleviating the shortage of water resources as well as meeting the intrinsic requirement to promote the green transformation and upgrading of agriculture. This study used the Super Slack-Based Measure (Super-SBM) to measure the AWGE of 87 regions in the Yellow River Basin from 2000 to 2019. Based on spatial and temporal perspectives, it applied Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) to explore the dynamic evolution and regional differences in AWGE. Then, this study used a spatial econometric model to analyze the main factors that influence AWGE in the Yellow River Basin. The results show that, firstly, the AWGE of the Yellow River Basin shows a steady upward trend from 2000 to 2019, but the differences among regions were obvious. Secondly, the AWGE showed an obvious spatial autocorrelation in the Yellow River Basin and showed significant high–high and low–low agglomeration characteristics. Thirdly, rural per capita disposable income and effective irrigation have a positive influence on AWGE, while rural labor transfer, the input intensity of agricultural machinery and water structure have a negative influence. The spatial econometric model regression results show that the influence factors of AWGE in the Yellow River Basin showed significant spatial spillover effects and spatial heterogeneity in their effect. Finally, when improving AWGE in the Yellow River Basin, plans should be formulated according to local conditions. The results of this study can provide new ideas on the study of AWGE in the Yellow River Basin and provide references for the formulation of regional agricultural water resource utilization policies as well. Full article
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15 pages, 22348 KiB  
Article
Heavy Metal in River Sediments of Huanghua City in Water Diversion Area from Yellow River, China: Contamination, Ecological Risks, and Sources
by Huaibin Wei, Yao Wang, Jing Liu and Ran Zeng
Water 2023, 15(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010058 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
Determination of heavy metal (HM) contamination, ecological risks, and sources in river sediments are important to preventing and controlling environmental pollution. This study investigated the spatial distribution, potential ecological risks, and biological toxicity of five heavy metals in river sediments of Huanghua City [...] Read more.
Determination of heavy metal (HM) contamination, ecological risks, and sources in river sediments are important to preventing and controlling environmental pollution. This study investigated the spatial distribution, potential ecological risks, and biological toxicity of five heavy metals in river sediments of Huanghua City in the water diversion area from the Yellow River, China. GIS, redundancy analysis (RDA), and the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were used to accurately quantify the pollution sources and the spatial distribution of pollution sources. The results revealed that Cu had the highest degree of natural pollution, and the source mainly comes from traffic. Residential land (RL), population density (PD), GDP, and industrial construction (IC) make high contributions to traffic pollution; the highest level of potential ecological risk was Hg, and the source mainly comes from industrial wastewater discharges. IC makes a high contribution to industrial wastewater discharges pollution; the highest effect of bio-toxic risk was As, and the source mainly comes from farmland drainage water. Agricultural production potential (APP) and water area (WA) make high contributions to farmland drainage water pollution; Zn might be of natural origin, and woodlands (WLs) make high contribution to natural origin. This result provided a new idea for the system control of sediment heavy metal pollution in Huanghua City. Full article
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19 pages, 5749 KiB  
Article
Watershed Ecological Compensation Mechanism for Mainstream and Branches Based on Stochastic Evolutionary Game: A Case of the Middle Yellow River
by Ying Liu, Enhui Jiang, Bo Qu, Yongwei Zhu and Chang Liu
Water 2022, 14(24), 4038; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244038 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
Establishment of a watershed ecological compensation mechanism between multiple subjects is an effective means to realize the collaborative governance of water pollution and maintain the security of water ecology. This paper breaks through the conventional upstream and downstream perspectives of watershed ecological compensation [...] Read more.
Establishment of a watershed ecological compensation mechanism between multiple subjects is an effective means to realize the collaborative governance of water pollution and maintain the security of water ecology. This paper breaks through the conventional upstream and downstream perspectives of watershed ecological compensation design research and combines them with uncertainty factors. The watershed ecological compensation mechanism for the mainstream and branches was established based on the evolutionary game and the random process. Then, taking the midstream of the Yellow River as an example, some constraint conditions and influencing factors were explored. Results show that: (1) The branch government (i.e., the Shanxi provincial government) is the key to establishing an ecological compensation mechanism between the river mainstream and branches. (2) The proportion of pollution transferred by other branches, the initial probability and the random factors are the main factors affecting the decision-making of branch governments (Shanxi and Shaanxi provincial governments). (3) The compensation and reward of the mainstream government to the branch government and the compensation of the branch government to the mainstream government are the main factors affecting the decision-making of mainstream and branch governments (Shanxi–Henan provincial governments, Shaanxi–Henan provincial governments). The study may provide scientific guidance for the construction of a watershed ecological compensation mechanism between mainstream and multiple branches. Full article
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27 pages, 5496 KiB  
Article
Evolution and Influencing Factors of Landscape Pattern in the Yellow River Basin (Henan Section) Due to Land Use Changes
by Haipeng Niu, Xiaoming Zhao, Dongyang Xiao, Mengmeng Liu, Ran An and Liangxin Fan
Water 2022, 14(23), 3872; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233872 - 27 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
The temporal and spatial evolution of landscape pattern is the most intuitive form of land use transition. Analyzing the change of landscape pattern and its driving factors is of great significance to land use management and water quality protection in the basin. Based [...] Read more.
The temporal and spatial evolution of landscape pattern is the most intuitive form of land use transition. Analyzing the change of landscape pattern and its driving factors is of great significance to land use management and water quality protection in the basin. Based on the land use data obtained from the remote sensing image interpretation of the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020, the landscape pattern evolution characteristics of the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) were quantitatively studied using the methods of multi-angle land use transfer matrix, land use information atlas, and landscape pattern index, and the influencing factors of landscape pattern evolution of the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) were revealed using the geographic detectors (a new statistical method to measure the explanatory power of independent variables to dependent variables mainly by analyzing the overall differences among various types of geographical spaces). The results show that: (1) From 1990 to 2020, the mutual transformation of land use types in the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) was frequent, and the transformation tracks were diversified. Among them, the outflow behavior of land use types is mainly manifested in the transformation from cultivated land to construction land, and the inflow behavior of land use types is mainly manifested in the transformation from grassland and water to cultivated land. (2) In the information map of land use change in the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) from 1990 to 2020, the stable type had the widest distribution range, accounting for 94.60% of the total area of the study area, with two main change patterns: “cultivated land-cultivated land-cultivated land-cultivated land” and “woodland-woodland-woodland-woodland”, which indicates that the landscape pattern of the basin dominated by cultivated land and woodland has not changed fundamentally. The four land use change structure types, repeated change, early change, intermediate change and continuous change, account for a relatively small proportion and are concentrated in the vicinity of the Yellow River. (3) At the landscape level, the watershed generally shows the trend of decreasing landscape fragmentation, increasing landscape heterogeneity and constantly balancing landscape patch types. At the level of patch type, the landscape dominance of cultivated land decreases, while that of construction land increases. The occupation of construction land is the main reason for the fragmentation and homogenization of cultivated land. (4) From the perspective of landscape scale and patch type scale, through the geographical exploration of various natural factors and socio-economic factors that potentially affect the landscape pattern evolution, it is found that the spatial differences of natural factors such as slope, elevation, temperature, and precipitation can better reflect the spatial heterogeneity of the landscape pattern in the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) than those of socio-economic factors such as GDP and population density, and the interaction of any two driving factors has a greater influence on the spatial distribution characteristics of landscape pattern than any single factor, indicating that the formation of spatial heterogeneity in the Yellow River Basin (Henan section) is the result of the interaction of various influencing factors. The results of this study can provide ideas for exploring the trend and influencing mechanism of landscape pattern change in the basin, and have important reference significance for ecological environment management, ecosystem protection, and land use planning in the Yellow River Basin (Henan section). Full article
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16 pages, 1649 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Impact of Industrial Restructuring on Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Scenario Simulation in the Yellow River Basin
by Jianhua Liu, Tianle Shi and Liangchao Huang
Water 2022, 14(23), 3833; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233833 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Based on a detailed analysis of the impact mechanism of industrial restructuring on carbon dioxide emissions in the Yellow River Basin, this paper first calculated the carbon dioxide emission data of 57 prefecture-level cities in the Yellow River Basin from 2009 to 2019 [...] Read more.
Based on a detailed analysis of the impact mechanism of industrial restructuring on carbon dioxide emissions in the Yellow River Basin, this paper first calculated the carbon dioxide emission data of 57 prefecture-level cities in the Yellow River Basin from 2009 to 2019 and constructed indicators from two dimensions: the advancement and the rationalization of the industrial structure. Then, the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) model was used to empirically analyze the influencing factors of industrial structure adjustments on carbon dioxide emissions in the Yellow River Basin. Consequently, changing carbon dioxide emission trends in the Yellow River Basin under various scenarios were predicted. The research observed the following: (1) the eastern part of the Shandong Peninsula Urban Agglomeration and the Energy Golden Triangle have higher carbon dioxide emissions; (2) the advancement of industrial structures in the Yellow River Basin has a better emission reduction effect than the rationalization of industrial structures; (3) increased foreign investment will lead to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions in the Yellow River Basin, and a “Pollution Refuge Effect” will emerge; (4) accelerated industrial transformations and upgrades, high-quality economic development, and a moderate population growth rate are consistent with future development trends. Full article
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15 pages, 5517 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Variation and Influence Factors of Vegetation Cover in the Yellow River Basin (1982–2021) Based on GIMMS NDVI and MOD13A1
by Yi Cheng, Lijuan Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xueyin Li, Haiying Wang and Xu Xi
Water 2022, 14(20), 3274; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14203274 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
Depicting the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation cover in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) and delineating the influences of climate change and human activities on the dynamics have been of significant importance for understanding the surface earth systems in general and also for formulating [...] Read more.
Depicting the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation cover in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) and delineating the influences of climate change and human activities on the dynamics have been of significant importance for understanding the surface earth systems in general and also for formulating ecological protection plans of the YRB in particular. This study uses the GIMMS NDVI dataset from 1982 to 2015 and the MOD13A1 NDVI dataset from 2000 to 2021 to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of vegetation cover in the YRB for the period from 1982 to 2021 with an attempt to reveal the influencing factors. The spatial distribution and temporal variation characteristics of vegetation cover are analyzed by maximum value composite, Theil-Sen median trend analysis, and Mann–Kendall test. Combined with the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation in the same period, influencing factors of vegetation cover in the YRB are discussed by using binary linear regression analysis and residual analysis. Results show that: (1) the multi-year average NDVI values increase from the northwest to the southeast and that the annual mean values of the vegetation covers fluctuate relatively greatly along an increasing trend with a growth rate of 0.019/(10a). Understandably, the monthly mean NDVI values show a single-peak distribution pattern, with August being the peak time (0.4936). (2) 77.35% of the studied areas are characterized by exhibiting an increasing trend of vegetation cover during the study period (i.e., 1982–2021). (3) Vegetation cover of the YRB is affected by the combined effects of climate change and human activities, with human activities being more significant in the observed amelioration of vegetation cover. Full article
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21 pages, 4216 KiB  
Article
Solutions to Difficult Problems Caused by the Complexity of Human–Water Relationship in the Yellow River Basin: Based on the Perspective of Human–Water Relationship Discipline
by Qiting Zuo, Zhizhuo Zhang, Junxia Ma and Jiawei Li
Water 2022, 14(18), 2868; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182868 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
The human–water relationship in the Yellow River Basin is extremely complex, and the human–water relationship discipline is a powerful tool to solve difficult problems caused by the complexity. This study firstly analyzes the historical evolution of the human–water relationship in the Yellow River [...] Read more.
The human–water relationship in the Yellow River Basin is extremely complex, and the human–water relationship discipline is a powerful tool to solve difficult problems caused by the complexity. This study firstly analyzes the historical evolution of the human–water relationship in the Yellow River Basin. Secondly, we summarize some representative problems in dealing with the human–water relationship. Then, on the basis of discussing the main contents of the human–water relationship discipline, the possible solutions to the difficult problems are discussed. Taking the Yellow River water distribution dilemma as an example, we carry out a detailed application. Finally, the possibility of applying human–water relationship discipline to complex basin research is analyzed, and the future research prospects of the discipline are put forward. Results reveal that: (1) River diversion and unreasonable human activities are the main driving factors for the ecological evolution of the Yellow River Basin. In addition, the basin is currently in the “Protective coordination stage”. (2) The complexity of the human–water relationship is the root of many difficult problems, and forming a sound disciplinary system of human–water relationship discipline is the key to breaking through these difficult problems. (3) The Yellow River water distribution scheme based on human–water relationship discipline is consistent with the current water use pattern of the basin. (4) The theory and method system of human–water relationship discipline is also feasible and universal for other complex basins. Full article
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