Yellow River Basin Management under Pressure: Present State, Restoration and Protection

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 July 2022) | Viewed by 39029

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Guest Editor
School of Water Conservancy and Transportation, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
Interests: human–water harmony; climate change adaptation; integrated water resource management; interconnected river system network; high-quality development for Yellow River; water environment protection
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Department of Water Resources, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China
Interests: urban hydrology; urban flood prevention; hydrological cycle simulation; climate change; safety and security of water resources
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
Interests: water management; mountain hydrology; vadose zone; hydrologic modeling; snow
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ecological protection and high-quality development in the basin of the Yellow River, which is known as China's "Mother River" and "the cradle of Chinese civilization", have been receiving increasing attention because they play an important role in China's economic and social development and its cultural heritage. Under ongoing climate change and intense human activities, the Yellow River basin is facing crucial challenges, e.g., flooding, water security, water resources shortage, water pollution, and ecological environment degradation, which seriously affect the sustainable development of regional economy and society. Meanwhile, significant differences in key characteristics across the upper, middle, and lower reaches call for joint management efforts, including integrated management, water conservancy, and ecological environment restoration. This Special Issue focuses on the current state, challenges, and suggestions relating to Yellow River basin management and sustainable development under pressure, aiming to help improve ecological protection and achieve high-quality development. We invite submissions in, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Current state and characteristics of Yellow River basin management;
  • Opportunities, challenges, and countermeasures of Yellow River management;
  • Influence of changing environment on the characteristic of Yellow River;
  • Impacts of changing environment on water security and water resources shortage;
  • Restoration and protection in the Yellow River basin under pressure;
  • Harmonious regulation of human–water relationship;
  • Integrated management under changing environment.

Prof. Dr. Qiting Zuo
Prof. Dr. Xiangyi Ding
Dr. Guotao Cui
Dr. Wei Zhang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Yellow River basin
  • current state and challenges
  • changing environment and pressure
  • ecological environment restoration and protection
  • water security
  • water saving
  • water management
  • human–water harmony
  • high-quality development
  • systematic management measures

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 166 KiB  
Editorial
Yellow River Basin Management under Pressure. The Present State, Restoration and Protection: Lessons from a Special Issue
by Qiting Zuo, Xiangyi Ding, Guotao Cui and Wei Zhang
Water 2022, 14(19), 3127; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193127 - 4 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Ecological protection and high-quality development in the basin of the Yellow River, known as China’s “Mother River” and “the cradle of Chinese civilization”, have been receiving increasing attention because of the important role they play in China’s economic and social development, and its [...] Read more.
Ecological protection and high-quality development in the basin of the Yellow River, known as China’s “Mother River” and “the cradle of Chinese civilization”, have been receiving increasing attention because of the important role they play in China’s economic and social development, and its cultural heritage [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

14 pages, 17823 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Aggregation Characteristics of Early Settlements in the Zhengzhou Ancient Yellow River Distributary Area
by Jiandong Li, Yating Song, Wei Zhang and Jiajia Zhu
Water 2022, 14(19), 2961; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14192961 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Zhengzhou is located at the dividing point of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, which is the core area of the origin of early Chinese civilization. Studying the influence of the ancient Yellow River distributary on the aggregation of early [...] Read more.
Zhengzhou is located at the dividing point of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, which is the core area of the origin of early Chinese civilization. Studying the influence of the ancient Yellow River distributary on the aggregation of early sites is conducive to understanding the interaction between the water environment and early humans. It will provide strong support for the systematic protection and overall display and utilization of heritage. This research is based on the data of the ancient Yellow River distributary, lakes and swamps, and early settlements. This research adopted a GIS spatial quantitative analysis method to identify early settlements. The early sites in the distributary area of the ancient Yellow River were identified from the aspects of kernel density and cluster complexity. The study analyzed the influence of the evolution of lakes and swamps on the aggregation of sites, and the distance relationship between different levels of settlements and lakes and swamps. The results show that: (1) From the Peiligang period to the Xia and Shang Dynasties, early settlements aggregated in multi-center bands along the west ancient Yellow River distributary. Moreover, the Xingyang–Guangwu trough area was an aggregation area with a large quantity and high degree of complexity. (2) From the Yangshao period to the Xia and Shang Dynasties, the settlement presented the characteristics of distributions around lakes and swamps. From a spatial perspective, the distribution of a centric zone around the Xingyang–Guangwu trough lake and swamp in the west moved to the Xingze lake in the east. Full article
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17 pages, 716 KiB  
Article
Environmental Regulation, Local Government Competition, and High-Quality Development—Based on Panel Data of 78 Prefecture-Level Cities in the Yellow River Basin of China
by Yifei Zhang, Yiwei Wang and Ye Jiang
Water 2022, 14(17), 2672; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172672 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
As one of the national strategies of China, the ecological protection of the Yellow River basin (YRB) is vital for the promotion of the high-quality development (HQD) of the regional economy. This paper uses the data of prefecture-level cities in the YRB from [...] Read more.
As one of the national strategies of China, the ecological protection of the Yellow River basin (YRB) is vital for the promotion of the high-quality development (HQD) of the regional economy. This paper uses the data of prefecture-level cities in the YRB from 2004–2019 to analyze the effect of environmental regulation and local government competition on HQD. The findings show the following: (1) Environmental regulation can significantly promote HQD in the YRB, and local government competition can significantly reduce HQD. The interaction effect shows that the promotion effect of environmental regulation on HQD weakens with the intensification of competition between local governments. (2) A heterogeneity analysis shows that environmental regulation has a more significant positive impact on HQD for the lower reaches of the YRB. (3) Using a threshold effect test, it is found that the impact of environmental regulation on the HQD presents a significant nonlinear positive effect with an increase in local government competition. When the local government competition represented by the level of economic catch-up exceeds the threshold value of 3.037, this positive effect decreases significantly. Full article
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16 pages, 18316 KiB  
Article
Spatial and Temporal Evolution and Human–Land Relationship at Early Historic Sites in the Middle Reaches of the Yellow River in the Sanhe Region Based on GIS Technology
by Mingcan Gao, Hongyi Lyu, Xiaolin Yang and Zhe Liu
Water 2022, 14(17), 2666; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172666 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1753
Abstract
The Sanhe region in the middle reaches of the Yellow River is an important area for the origin and development of early civilization in China. Many early sites, from the Paleolithic to the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties, remain in the region, all [...] Read more.
The Sanhe region in the middle reaches of the Yellow River is an important area for the origin and development of early civilization in China. Many early sites, from the Paleolithic to the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties, remain in the region, all of which are important material carriers to record the historical process from the emergence of human beings to the formation of early civilization. In this study, all of the early archaeological sites in the research area were collected and loaded into the GIS platform. With the help of kernel density estimation, adjacent index analysis, standard deviation ellipse and other tools, the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of these sites were explored, and the correlation between the distribution of early sites and geographical factors was explored through coupling analysis with the geographical environment. The results show that: (1) the evolution of the spatial distribution characteristics of early sites in the time dimension can reflect the development process of early civilization; (2) elevation, slope, aspect, topographic relief, hydrology and other factors are closely related to the distribution characteristics of early sites in the Sanhe region, and the correlation between site distribution and geographical factors is also different in different periods; (3) under the combined effects of elevation, slope, aspect, topographic relief and hydrological factors, the early sites show the existing spatial–temporal distribution characteristics. It is hoped that this study can provide reference ideas for the origin and development of early civilization in the future, as well as the discovery, protection and utilization of early sites. Full article
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16 pages, 3124 KiB  
Article
Multiscale Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Soil Erosion and Its Influencing Factors in the Yellow River Basin
by Zuotang Yin, Jun Chang and Yu Huang
Water 2022, 14(17), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172658 - 28 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
Soil erosion is an important ecological and environmental problem in the Yellow River Basin (YRB), which restricts the sustainable development of the YRB. Based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and Optimal Parameters-based Geographical Detector (OPGD), this study discusses the multiscale [...] Read more.
Soil erosion is an important ecological and environmental problem in the Yellow River Basin (YRB), which restricts the sustainable development of the YRB. Based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and Optimal Parameters-based Geographical Detector (OPGD), this study discusses the multiscale spatiotemporal characteristics of soil erosion and its influencing factors in the YRB. The results show that: (1) The average values of soil-erosion modulus of the YRB in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 was 1877.69, 1641.59, 1485.25, 844.84, and 832.07 t·km−2·a−1, respectively, and the areas with severe soil erosion are mainly concentrated in the three provinces of Gansu, Shanxi and Shaanxi, showing a belt-like trend in the northeast-southwest as a whole. (2) From 2000 to 2020, the q value of soil erosion influencing factors in the YRB showed a downward trend. From the YRB scale to the county scale, the q value of the influencing factors showed an increasing trend. Among them, fractional vegetation cover (FVC), landform type, and LU/LC have strong explanatory power for soil erosion in the YRB. FVC explains about 15% of soil erosion, and the interaction between FVC and landform explains up to 35% of soil erosion. (3) The ability of human activities (LU/LC, FVC) to influence soil erosion is increasing, and this feature is more pronounced at small scales. The conclusion of this study can be summarized as managers should pay attention to the role of human activities in the YRB for soil erosion, especially at small scales, in order to formulate lower-cost and targeted soil and water conservation measures. Full article
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13 pages, 2589 KiB  
Article
Analysis on the Return Period of “7.20” Rainstorm in the Xiaohua Section of the Yellow River in 2021
by Shuangyan Jin, Shaomeng Guo and Wenbo Huo
Water 2022, 14(15), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152444 - 7 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
The “7.20” rainstorm and flood disaster in 2021 occurred in Zhengzhou and adjacent areas of Henan province. According to the Maximum Rainfall Data of Different Periods and the “7.20” rainstorm data of the section from Xiaolangdi to Huayuankou of the Yellow River in [...] Read more.
The “7.20” rainstorm and flood disaster in 2021 occurred in Zhengzhou and adjacent areas of Henan province. According to the Maximum Rainfall Data of Different Periods and the “7.20” rainstorm data of the section from Xiaolangdi to Huayuankou of the Yellow River in 2021, i.e., thirteen kinds of automatic monitoring rainfall data in minutes and six kinds of manual monitoring rainfall data in hours, the rainfall frequency curves of two representative periods of ten reference stations are established using Pearson-III distribution. The return periods of “7.20” rainstorms with maximum 24 h greater than 300 mm and maximum 6 h greater than 100 mm are calculated. The results show that the influence of “7.20” rainstorms on the rainfall return period is obvious. For the ten reference stations, all the maximum 24 h rainfall of “7.20” rainstorms ranked in the first of the series. When establishing the frequency curve, if this value is considered, the largest return period occurs at Sishui station, with a return period of 486 years. Otherwise, the return period of Sishui, Mangling, Minggao, and Xicun stations will exceed 10,000 years. Among ten reference stations, the largest proportion of the maximum 6 h rainfall between “7.20” rainstorms and historical series is Minggao station. Taking Minggao station as an example, the return period is about 200 years when considering the “7.20” value to establish the frequency curve, otherwise it is about 3000 years. The results can provide technical support for the analysis of the rainstorm return period and the flood control operation in the lower Yellow River. Full article
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16 pages, 2789 KiB  
Article
Research on Water Rights Allocation of Coordinated Development on Water–Ecology–Energy–Food
by Wenge Zhang, Yifan He and Huijuan Yin
Water 2022, 14(13), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132140 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
Water rights trading is an important way to solve the problem of water shortage by market mechanism. The allocation of water rights among ecological water, energy water, and grain planting water are the basis of the regional water rights trade. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Water rights trading is an important way to solve the problem of water shortage by market mechanism. The allocation of water rights among ecological water, energy water, and grain planting water are the basis of the regional water rights trade. In this paper, the concept of coordinated development of water–ecology–energy–food is proposed. We build a water rights allocation model with fairness, efficiency, and coordinated development as the goal, to achieve water security for various industries. Taking Yinchuan city as an example, the results showed that compared with the current water rights the water rights of life increased by 1.07%, the water rights of ecology increased by 1.85%, the water rights of energy industry decreased by 1.09%, the water rights of food planting decreased by 3.27%, the water rights of other agriculture increased by 0.83%, and the water rights of the general industry increased by 0.65%. After the allocation of water rights, the cooperativity of water–ecology–energy–food increased by 7.56%, and the total value of water resources in various industries increased by 2.31 × 108 CNY. A new water rights allocation model is developed in this paper, which can provide a reference for the allocation of water rights among regional industries. Full article
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17 pages, 7915 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Causes of Changing Groundwater Quality in the Boundary Line of the Middle and Lower Yellow River (Right Bank)
by Xiaoxia Tong, Hui Tang, Rong Gan, Zitao Li, Xinlin He and Shuqian Gu
Water 2022, 14(12), 1846; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121846 - 8 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
The alluvial plain in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River is an important agricultural production base that affects groundwater quality. Groundwater quality in the region is related to the residential and production uses of water by local residents. Samples of [...] Read more.
The alluvial plain in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River is an important agricultural production base that affects groundwater quality. Groundwater quality in the region is related to the residential and production uses of water by local residents. Samples of shallow groundwater and river water were collected from the right bank of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River to determine the evolution and causes of hydrochemical characteristics, and the relationship between the hydrochemical evolution of river water and groundwater was explored. The results showed that the shallow groundwater in the area received lateral recharge from the Yellow River water. The closer to the Yellow River the groundwater was, the higher the SO42−, Cl, and Na+ concentrations and the lower the HCO3 and Mg2+ concentrations were. Agriculture and aquaculture has influenced and complicated the hydrochemical types of shallow groundwater in recent decades. The groundwater in the area was jointly affected by water–rock interactions and evaporation concentrations; a strong cation exchange effect was detected. Arsenic exceeded the limit in some shallow groundwater, which was mainly distributed in the Yellow River alluvial plain and caused by the reductive sedimentary environment of the Yellow River alluvial plain. The “three nitrogen”, NH4+-N, NO2-N, and NO3-N, demonstrated sporadic local excesses in shallow groundwater, which were related to human activities, such as aquaculture. Full article
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17 pages, 5519 KiB  
Article
Occurrence and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Wuliangsuhai Lake, Yellow River Basin, China
by Jialu Li, Qiting Zuo, Feng Feng and Hongtao Jia
Water 2022, 14(8), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081264 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2338
Abstract
As one of the eight largest freshwater lakes in China, Wuliangsuhai Lake is an extremely rare large lake with biodiversity and environmental protection functions in one of the world’s arid or semi-arid areas and it plays a pivotal role in protecting the ecological [...] Read more.
As one of the eight largest freshwater lakes in China, Wuliangsuhai Lake is an extremely rare large lake with biodiversity and environmental protection functions in one of the world’s arid or semi-arid areas and it plays a pivotal role in protecting the ecological security of the Yellow River Basin. Heavy metals in sediment interstitial water, surface sediments, and sediment cores of Wuliangsuhai Lake were investigated and analyzed, and the pollution degree evaluated based on multiple assessment methods. The bioavailability of heavy metals of the surface sediments was evaluated by calculating the ratio of chemical fractions of heavy metals. The toxicity assessment of sediment interstitial water indicated that Ni, Zn, As, and Cd would not be toxic to aquatic ecosystems, however, Hg and Cr in some regions may cause acute toxicity to the benthos. The ecological assessment results of the surface sediments indicated that some areas of the lake are heavily polluted and the main polluting elements are Cd and Hg. Cd has the highest bioavailability because of its high exchangeable fraction ratio. In addition, exogenous pollution accumulated within 20 cm of the sediment cores, and then, with the increasing of the depth, the pollution degree and ecological risk decreased. Full article
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13 pages, 13878 KiB  
Article
Study on Ecological Water Demand and Ecological Water Supplement in Wuliangsuhai Lake
by Fang Wan, Fei Zhang, Xiaokang Zheng and Lingfeng Xiao
Water 2022, 14(8), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081262 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
Wuliangsuhai Lake is the largest shore lake in the upper reaches of the Yellow River and has become an important ecological barrier and habitat for birds in northern China. In recent years, pollutants and nutrient loads have been partially reduced, and the water [...] Read more.
Wuliangsuhai Lake is the largest shore lake in the upper reaches of the Yellow River and has become an important ecological barrier and habitat for birds in northern China. In recent years, pollutants and nutrient loads have been partially reduced, and the water quality in the lake area has been alleviated to a certain extent. However, the overall water treatment of Wuliangsuhai Lake is worrying and needs to be improved urgently. In this paper, according to the current situation of water quality and the goal of ecological environment protection, the ecological water demand of Wuliangsuhai Lake was estimated by using the dynamic viewpoint. The calculation of ecological water demand mainly considered: water of evaporation and leakage in the lake, and water demand of pollutant dilution. The requirements of ecological water demand in Wuliangsuhai Lake were solved in four ways: agricultural wastewater in the irrigation area; strengthening water saving in the main canal; carrying out water-saving system reform; and transporting ecological water use for washing salt to Wuliangsuhai Lake during an irrigation gap period. For Wuliangsuhai Lake in the Mengxin Plateau, which is located in a serious water shortage area, it is of great significance to protect the ecological environment by ensuring the amount of water entering the lake, maintaining the existing water surface of the lake, and giving full play to its water ecological function. Full article
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17 pages, 3878 KiB  
Article
Research on the Asymmetry of Cross-Sectional Shape and Water and Sediment Distribution in Wandering Channel
by Linjuan Xu, Enhui Jiang, Lianjun Zhao, Junhua Li, Wanjie Zhao and Mingwu Zhang
Water 2022, 14(8), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14081214 - 9 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
The construction of a river regulation project has changed the cross-sectional shape of a river and significantly impacted the evolution of the river regime. In this paper, an asymmetry index was proposed to characterize the changes in the shape of the river cross-section [...] Read more.
The construction of a river regulation project has changed the cross-sectional shape of a river and significantly impacted the evolution of the river regime. In this paper, an asymmetry index was proposed to characterize the changes in the shape of the river cross-section and the distribution of water and sediment factors. According to the transverse distribution formula of the river section and water and sediment factors, the asymmetry of the cross-sectional shape as well as water and sediment factors along with the transverse distribution in the wandering reach of the lower Yellow River before and after the construction project was calculated, respectively. The results showed that the cross-sectional shape of the river channel before and after the building was asymmetric, and the cross-sectional shape of the river channel after the construction was more asymmetric than that of the free development channel without engineering constraints; at the same time, under the action of a limited control boundary, the asymmetry of cross-section flow velocity and sediment concentration and other water and sediment factors along the transverse distribution were more prominent, the flow velocity and sediment concentration along the transverse distribution increased, the river flow was more concentrated, and the sediment transport capacity of the channel improved significantly under a large flow (5000 m3/s). This study revealed the positive effect of river regulation projects on the river regime evolution of the wandering river and provided new ideas for the study of river regime evolution. Full article
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18 pages, 14168 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of the Transportation of Cohesive Bank-Collapsed Materials in a Sharply Curved Channel
by Guosheng Duan, Haifei Liu, Dongdong Shao, Wei Yang, Zhiwei Li, Chen Wang, Shuo Chang and Yu Ding
Water 2022, 14(7), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071147 - 2 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
This study presents an integrated analysis of cohesive bank-collapsed material transportation in a high-curvature channel with a non-cohesive riverbed. A numerical model was established to simulate the erosion and transportation of collapsed materials in a 180° U-bend channel after verification. The novel aspect [...] Read more.
This study presents an integrated analysis of cohesive bank-collapsed material transportation in a high-curvature channel with a non-cohesive riverbed. A numerical model was established to simulate the erosion and transportation of collapsed materials in a 180° U-bend channel after verification. The novel aspect of this study is that the quantities of the collapsed materials that transformed into suspended and bed loads were comprehensively analyzed. The results show that finer collapsed sediments were only transformed into suspended loads after being eroded, while the coarser particles transformed into both suspended loads and bed loads. When the flow charge was 30 L/s, the quantity of collapsed materials (S1 and S2) that transported downstream was smaller, and coarser materials transformed into suspended loads with a ratio of 88.12–99.86% and bed loads with a ratio of 11.18–0.14%. When the flow charge was 55 L/s, due to the greater shear stress, the quantity of collapsed materials (S1 and S2) that transported downstream was greater, and the ratio ranged from 46.65% to 49.88% and from 50.12% to 53.35%, respectively. This research provides theoretical and practical benefits that reveal the mechanisms of channel bend evolution. Full article
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18 pages, 6077 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Regulation of the Harmonious Relationship among Water, Energy, and Food in Nine Provinces along the Yellow River
by Jiawei Li, Junxia Ma, Lei Yu and Qiting Zuo
Water 2022, 14(7), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071042 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
China has proposed “ecological conservation and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin” to a major national strategy, which puts forward higher requirements for water, energy, and food along the Yellow River (TYR). However, the water–energy–food nexus (WEF) system in TYR basin is [...] Read more.
China has proposed “ecological conservation and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin” to a major national strategy, which puts forward higher requirements for water, energy, and food along the Yellow River (TYR). However, the water–energy–food nexus (WEF) system in TYR basin is very complicated. Based on the theory and method of harmonious regulation, this paper puts forward a new WEF harmony framework (WEFH) to study the harmonious balance of WEF in TYR. WEFH cannot only evaluate the harmonious balance of WEF, but also identify the main influencing factors, and further study the harmonious regulation of WEF. For the key steps of regulation and control, we provide a variety of methods to choose from in this framework. In practice, we apply this framework to the regulation of WEF in the nine provinces along TYR. The results show that during 2005–2018, the harmony degree of WEF in the nine provinces along TYR is between 0.29 and 0.58. The harmony degree of WEF has improved over time, but there is still a lot of room for improvement. Among them, per capita water resources, hydropower generation ratio, carbon emissions, and another 12 indicators have great influence on the harmony of WEF. We have established eight control schemes for nine of these indicators. In eight control schemes, most areas have reached a moderate level of harmony degree. These results show that the framework proposed in this paper is helpful to the comprehensive management of regional WEF and provides a viable scheme for the optimization of WEF. Full article
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21 pages, 17460 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Measurement of Water Use Level Based on SBM-DEA Model and Its Matching Characteristics with Economic and Social Development: A Case Study of the Yellow River Basin, China
by Zhizhuo Zhang, Qiting Zuo, Long Jiang, Junxia Ma, Weiling Zhao and Hongbin Cao
Water 2022, 14(3), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030399 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2684
Abstract
Enhancing the level of water use and alleviating the constraints of water shortage on economic and social development are powerful supports to realize the harmonious balance of water and economic society. In this study, the data envelopment analysis (DEA) window analysis method is [...] Read more.
Enhancing the level of water use and alleviating the constraints of water shortage on economic and social development are powerful supports to realize the harmonious balance of water and economic society. In this study, the data envelopment analysis (DEA) window analysis method is applied to the study of water use level, and the SBM-DEA model (slack based measure, SBM) is combined to explore the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of composite water use index (CWUI) in nine provinces from 2012 to 2018. The Malmquist index model is used to decompose the intrinsic causes of total factor productivity (TFP) changes, and the spatial matching degree calculation method is applied to study the matching degree between CWUI and economic and social development levels (E-SDL). The results showed that: (1) the overall trend of CWUI in the nine provinces from 2012 to 2018 was increasing, with significant spatial variability in water use levels; (2) the improvement of TFP of water in the nine provinces was mainly driven by technological change (TC), and the main factor limiting the improvement of TFP of water was technical efficiency change (EC); (3) E-SDL of the nine provinces showed an increasing trend, with the spatial distribution characteristics of decreasing E-SDL of the downstream, midstream and upstream provinces in sequence; (4) the degree of matching between CWUI and E-SDL shows strong regional differences, with different types of matching. Full article
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15 pages, 4695 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of Land and Water Resources and Utilization of Cultivated Land in the Yellow River Beach Area of China
by Yadi Run, Mengdi Li, Yaochen Qin, Zhifang Shi, Qian Li and Yaoping Cui
Water 2022, 14(3), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030305 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Image analysis of the Yellow River beach area since 1987 provided land use and water body patterns to support effective agricultural and environmental management. Landsat and Sentinel-2A/B images, and data from the Third National Land Survey, were used to examine the water body [...] Read more.
Image analysis of the Yellow River beach area since 1987 provided land use and water body patterns to support effective agricultural and environmental management. Landsat and Sentinel-2A/B images, and data from the Third National Land Survey, were used to examine the water body and land use patterns. The continuous beach land since 1987 was calculated from annual vegetation and water body indexes while that of cultivated land was extracted from the Third National Land Survey. Object-Oriented Feature Extraction was used to extract staple crops. The results showed that 58.26% of the beach area was cultivated land. Continuous beach land covered an area of 1630.98 km2 and was consisted of scattered patches that were unevenly distributed between the north and south banks of the Yellow River. The staple crop types in the beach area, winter wheat and summer corn accounted for 72.37% and 68.03% of the total cultivated land. Affected by the strategy on the Yellow River basin in China, as the ecological space and protection continue to increase, this study provides basic scientific references for the correct use of cultivated land resources and protection of the balance of soil and water resources dynamic utilization and balance of cultivated land protection and ecological protection. Full article
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12 pages, 2251 KiB  
Article
Trend and Attribution Analysis of Runoff Changes in the Weihe River Basin in the Last 50 Years
by Junjie Xu, Xichao Gao, Zhiyong Yang and Tianyin Xu
Water 2022, 14(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010047 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2811
Abstract
In recent years, the Weihe River basin has experienced dramatic changes and a sharp decrease in runoff, which has constrained the sustainable development of the local society, economy, and ecology. Quantitative attribution analysis of runoff changes in the Weihe River basin can help [...] Read more.
In recent years, the Weihe River basin has experienced dramatic changes and a sharp decrease in runoff, which has constrained the sustainable development of the local society, economy, and ecology. Quantitative attribution analysis of runoff changes in the Weihe River basin can help to illustrate reasons for dramatic runoff changes and to understand its complex hydrological response. In this paper, the trends of hydrological elements in the Weihe River basin from 1970 to 2019 were systematically analyzed using the M–K analysis method, and the effects of meteorological elements and underlying surface changes on runoff were quantitatively analyzed using the Budyko theoretical framework. The results show that potential evapotranspiration and precipitation in the Weihe River basin have no significant change in 1970–2019; runoff depth has an abrupt change around 1990 and then decrease significantly. The study period is divided into the base period (1970–1989), PΙ (1990–2009), and PII (2010–2019). Compared with the base period, the elasticity coefficients (absolute values) of each element show an increasing trend in PΙ and PII. The sensitivity of runoff to these coefficients is increasing. The sensitivity of the precipitation is the highest (2.72~3.17), followed by that of the underlying surface parameter (−2.01~−2.35); the sensitivity of the potential evapotranspiration is the weakest (−1.72~−2.17). In the PΙ period, the runoff depth decreased significantly due to the combination effects of precipitation and underlying surface with the values of 6.18 mm and 13.92 mm, respectively. In the PII period, rainfall turned to an increasing trend, contributing to the increase in runoff by 11.80 mm; the further increase in underlying surface parameters was the main reason for the decrease in runoff by 22.19 mm. The significant increase in runoff by 8.54 mm because of the increased rainfall, compared with the PΙ periods. Overall, the increasing underlying surface parameter makes the largest contribution to the runoff changes while the precipitation change is also an important factor. Full article
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15 pages, 3408 KiB  
Article
Study on Water Rights Allocation of Irrigation Water Users in Irrigation Districts of the Yellow River Basin
by Xinjian Guan, Baoyong Wang, Wenge Zhang and Qiongying Du
Water 2021, 13(24), 3538; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243538 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2469
Abstract
With the increasingly serious problems of water security and water shortage in the Yellow River Basin, the establishment of a fair and efficient water rights distribution system is an important way to improve water resource utilization efficiency and achieve high-quality development. In this [...] Read more.
With the increasingly serious problems of water security and water shortage in the Yellow River Basin, the establishment of a fair and efficient water rights distribution system is an important way to improve water resource utilization efficiency and achieve high-quality development. In this paper, a double-level water rights allocation model of national canals–farmer households in irrigation districts is established. The Gini coefficient method is used to construct the water rights allocation model among farmer households based on the principle of fairness. Finally, the Wulanbuhe Irrigation Area in the Hetao Irrigation District is taken as an example. Results show that the allocated water rights of the national canals in the irrigation district are less than the current; for example, water rights of the Grazing team (4) canal are reduced by 73,000 m3 than before, in which water rights of farmer households 1, 2, 3, and 4 obtain compensation and 5, 6, 7, and 8 are cut by the water rights allocation model and the Gini coefficient is reduced from 0.1968 to 0.1289. The research has fully tapped the water-saving potential of irrigation districts, improved the fairness of initial water rights distribution, and can provide a scientific basis for the development of water rights allocation of irrigation water users in irrigation districts of the Yellow River Basin. Full article
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