China Water Forum 2022

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 28589

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Guest Editor
School of Water Conservancy and Transportation, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
Interests: human–water harmony; climate change adaptation; integrated water resource management; interconnected river system network; high-quality development for Yellow River; water environment protection
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College of Water Resources, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, China
Interests: ecological hydrology; wetland protection and restoration; water resources planning and management; eco-hydrological process of wetland
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China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR), Beijing, China
Interests: water cycle model; mechanism of water resources attenuation; efficient utilization of water resources; eco-hydrological process in arid area
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Guest Editor
College of Water Resources, North China University of Water Resources and Hydropower, Zhengzhou, China
Interests: water resources dynamic carrying capacity; water security under climate change; high efficient utilization of water resources; utilization of rainwater and flood resources in river basin; construction and application of water cycle model
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School of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
Interests: climate change and extreme hydrological events; urban hydrology
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Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Interests: satellite remote sensing; hydrological modeling; climate and land use change
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School of Water Conservancy Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
Interests: distributed hydrological model; effects of climate change on hydrological processes; uncertainties of hydrological models; baseflow separation
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School of Geography and Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China
Interests: hydrological modelling; water budget assessment; precipitation merging technologies and products based on multiple remote sensing
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Affected by global climate change and rapid socio-economic development, China faces serious water security issues, especially in terms of water shortages, flood disasters, and water-related ecological and environmental problems. These challenges related to China’s water issues have restricted the country’s social and economic development, highly valued by the world. Therefore, water issues in China are complex and need to be addressed urgently. This requires comprehensive research across different disciplines.

Focusing on discussing China's water issues, we have carried out a series of academic exchanges for a long time. The well known “China Water Forum”, launched in 2003 and held annually, focuses on discussing solutions to China's water issues. By 2022, the forum has been successfully held for 19 sessions. “Water Science Development Forum”, launched in 2007 and held annually, focuses on promoting the multidisciplinary integration of other disciplines with water science research. By 2021, the forum has been successfully held for 15 sessions. “Water Science Lectures”, launched in 2021, is an open, shared and non-profit public welfare lecture. A report will be arranged for each lecture, lectured and presided by invited famous researchers.

The Editorial Department of Water Journal cooperates with “China Water Forum”, “Water Science Development Forum”, and “Water Science Lectures” to set up a series of columns. At least one column is planned each year currently. The column established in 2022 is “China Water Forum 2022”. We welcome scholars and graduate students participating in the abovementioned conferences, as well as scholars who study water issues of China, to submit full texts of their unpublished manuscripts. The received papers will be professionally peer reviewed and recommended for publication by the editorial board.

Four volumes (working Group):

We invite submissions in, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Climate change and hydrology. Director: Dunxian She, Rong Gan
  • Water problems and human–water relationship control. Director: Zengliang Luo, Qiting Zuo
  • Water environment and  ecology. Director: Fuqiang Wang, Jiaqi Zhai
  • Water information technology and modeling. Director: Lei Zou, Xiuyu Zhang

Prof. Dr. Qiting Zuo
Prof. Dr. Fuqiang Wang
Prof. Dr. Jiaqi Zhai
Dr. Xiuyu Zhang
Dr. Dunxian She
Dr. Lei Zou
Dr. Rong Gan
Prof. Dr. Zengliang Luo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change and hydrological evolution
  • water resources evaluation, planning and management
  • flood, drought and water security
  • human-water relationship and comprehensive control
  • ecohydrology and water environment protection
  • groundwater resources and environment
  • water information technology and modernization construction
  • layout and demonstration of major water conservancy projects
  • water policy and water control strategy

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
A Summary of China’s Water Security Status and Issues from a Special Issue
by Qiting Zuo, Fuqiang Wang, Jiaqi Zhai, Xiuyu Zhang, Dunxian She, Lei Zou, Rong Gan and Zengliang Luo
Water 2023, 15(8), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081628 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Affected by global climate change and rapid socio-economic development, China faces serious water security issues, especially in terms of water shortages, flood disasters, and water-related ecological and environmental problems [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

16 pages, 4152 KiB  
Article
Determination of Exploitable Coefficient of Coral Island Freshwater Lens Considering the Integrated Effects of Lens Growth and Contraction
by Ran Wang, Longcang Shu, Rongrong Zhang and Zihan Ling
Water 2023, 15(5), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050890 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Groundwater on small coral islands (so-called freshwater lens) is an important water resource for residents and local ecosystems. However, an overexploitation of it may induce a contamination by saltwater. In this paper, we strive to determine the exploitable coefficient of the freshwater lens [...] Read more.
Groundwater on small coral islands (so-called freshwater lens) is an important water resource for residents and local ecosystems. However, an overexploitation of it may induce a contamination by saltwater. In this paper, we strive to determine the exploitable coefficient of the freshwater lens considering the integrated effects of lens growth and contraction and examine the impacts of well layout schemes on the evolution of the freshwater lens. For this purpose, a numerical model is setup to simulate the saltwater upconing and recovery process under pumping conditions during different evolution stages. Our results show that long-term and higher intensity pumping activities are suggested to be conducted at the latter stage of the lens evolution. Meanwhile, the seasonal contraction of the freshwater lens caused by the seasonal variation in rainfall is characterized by a quicker response of center thickness than maximum thickness of the lens, which further impacts the pumping intensity. The results also indicate that the exploitable coefficient (ρ) of the freshwater lens in small coral island is generally smaller than that in inland areas, ranging from 0.09 to 0.37 under different well layout schemes. Additionally, it is also affected by the uncertainty of hydrogeological parameters. Finally, a safe exploitable coefficient is proposed under the most unfavorable parameter combination for the studied island. The study has important implications for the protection and sustainable exploitation of subsurface freshwater resources on island. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)
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18 pages, 15927 KiB  
Article
Predicting Groundwater Level Based on Machine Learning: A Case Study of the Hebei Plain
by Zhenjiang Wu, Chuiyu Lu, Qingyan Sun, Wen Lu, Xin He, Tao Qin, Lingjia Yan and Chu Wu
Water 2023, 15(4), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040823 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4234
Abstract
In recent years, the groundwater level (GWL) and its dynamic changes in the Hebei Plain have gained increasing interest. The GWL serves as a crucial indicator of the health of groundwater resources, and accurately predicting the GWL is vital to prevent its overexploitation [...] Read more.
In recent years, the groundwater level (GWL) and its dynamic changes in the Hebei Plain have gained increasing interest. The GWL serves as a crucial indicator of the health of groundwater resources, and accurately predicting the GWL is vital to prevent its overexploitation and the loss of water quality and land subsidence. Here, we utilized data-driven models, such as the support vector machine, long-short term memory, multi-layer perceptron, and gated recurrent unit models, to predict GWL. Additionally, data from six GWL monitoring stations from 2018 to 2020, covering dynamical fluctuations, increases, and decreases in GWL, were used. Further, the first 70% and remaining 30% of the time-series data were used to train and test the model, respectively. Each model was quantitatively evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of determination (R2), and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and they were qualitatively evaluated using time-series line plots, scatter plots, and Taylor diagrams. A comparison of the models revealed that the RMSE, R2, and NSE of the GRU model in the training and testing periods were better than those of the other models at most groundwater monitoring stations. In conclusion, the GRU model performed best and could support dynamic predictions of GWL in the Hebei Plain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)
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24 pages, 1615 KiB  
Article
Carbon Dioxide Emission Equivalent Analysis of Water Resource Behaviors: Determination and Application of CEEA Function Table
by Qiting Zuo, Zhizhuo Zhang, Junxia Ma, Chenguang Zhao and Xi Qin
Water 2023, 15(3), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030431 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3558
Abstract
To achieve the global temperature control target under the background of climate warming, it is necessary to establish a systematic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission accounting method system in the field of water resources as soon as possible. In this study, the [...] Read more.
To achieve the global temperature control target under the background of climate warming, it is necessary to establish a systematic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission accounting method system in the field of water resources as soon as possible. In this study, the carbon dioxide emission equivalent analysis (CEEA) method for different water resource behaviors (WRBs) is proposed from four dimensions of development, allocation, utilization, and protection, and a function table of CEEA (FT-CEEA) for WRBs is constructed. The FT-CEEA includes CEEA formulae for 16 aspects in four categories of water resource development, allocation, utilization, and protection. The CEEA method is applied to 31 provinces in China. The results reveal that: (1) There are significant spatial differences in the carbon dioxide emission equivalent (CEE) of WRBs in different provinces of China under the influence of various factors such as water supply structure and natural conditions. (2) Reservoir storage, tap water allocation, and wastewater treatment are the main contributors to CEE in the categories of water resource development, allocation, and protection behaviors, respectively. (3) The water resource utilization behavior category has the most significant CO2 emission and absorption effects, and industrial and domestic water utilization behaviors are the main sources of emission effects. (4) The overall CO2 emission effect of WRBs is greater than the absorption effect. Measures such as increasing the proportion of hydroelectric power generation, improving ecological water security capacity, and strengthening the level of wastewater treatment and reclaimed water reuse are effective ways to promote the goal of carbon neutrality in the field of water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)
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12 pages, 3073 KiB  
Article
Ecological Water Demand Estimations for Desert Terminal Lake Survival under Inland River Water Diversion Regulation
by Jinqiang Lu, Lingqi Li, Enhui Jiang, Rong Gan, Chang Liu and Ya Deng
Water 2023, 15(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010066 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
Desert terminal lakes are important signals to discern ecological degradation crises, particularly in arid areas where an artificial project of ecological water diversion has designated a quota of river water to prevent lake body shrinkage and protect the ecosystem. Knowledge of the minimum [...] Read more.
Desert terminal lakes are important signals to discern ecological degradation crises, particularly in arid areas where an artificial project of ecological water diversion has designated a quota of river water to prevent lake body shrinkage and protect the ecosystem. Knowledge of the minimum ecological water demand (EWD) is thus necessary to ensure the basic health of lake ecosystems. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution of water boundaries using Landsat satellites data via remote sensing technology from 2002 to 2017 in East Juyan Lake, an inland desert terminal lake of the Heihe River in northwest China. The minimum lake water demand was determined using two estimation methods: the lake-evaporation-oriented EWD method and the minimum water level method. In the latter method, both lake topography (using water-level area curves) and biological survival demands (using bighead carps as indicators) were considered to derive the minimum lake EWD. Water diversion to the lake over the past 15 years has increased the lake’s area, but there are still marked intra-annual seasonal variations. The annual minimum lake water demand was suggested to be 54 × 106 m3/year by comparing the different methods; however, it was not satisfied, and the lake survival was endangered when the occurrence frequency of the annual runoff in the Zhengyixia hydrological station exceeded 65%. This study offered promising directions for inland lake water resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)
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25 pages, 4146 KiB  
Article
System Simulation and Prediction of the Green Development Level of the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group
by Yuxin Liang, Liping Zhang, Mengsi Leng, Yi Xiao and Jun Xia
Water 2022, 14(23), 3947; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233947 - 4 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1919
Abstract
Green development is a low-carbon, sustainable model for the achievement of the harmonious development of the economy and nature. Nowadays, the problems of resource scarcity and environmental pollution in the process of economic development are pressing, and the promotion of green development is [...] Read more.
Green development is a low-carbon, sustainable model for the achievement of the harmonious development of the economy and nature. Nowadays, the problems of resource scarcity and environmental pollution in the process of economic development are pressing, and the promotion of green development is the general trend. As one of the three growth poles of China’s Yangtze River economic belt, the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group is an important platform to lead toward green development in the western region of China. Based on the understanding of the connotation of green development, this study established a green development-level evaluation system, including 19 indicators in three dimensions: target level, criterion level, and indicator level, and used the entropy weight method to measure the green development level of the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group. In view of the dynamic nature of the green development process, this study constructed a system dynamics model of the green development level of the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group and simulated and compared it between 2022 and 2050 under five shared socio-economic pathway (SSP) scenarios so as to provide a reference basis for future development. The results show that the overall green development level of the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group is on an upward trend, with the highest green development level under the SSP1 path and the lowest under the SSP3 path, and the lagging distance tends to increase further. In the next 30 years, the Chengdu-Chongqing City Group should initially follow SSP2 as the basis for development and then gradually perform a transition to SSP1 by 2035 to achieve real sustainable development, after which it should continue to develop according to the SSP1 path until 2050. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)
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12 pages, 3361 KiB  
Article
A Dam Construction Event Recorded by High-Resolution Sedimentary Grain Size in an Outflow-Controlled Lake (Hulun Lake, China)
by Hongbin Gao, Rui Zhang, Gang Wang, Yanru Fan, Xinfeng Zhu, Junfeng Wu and Li Wu
Water 2022, 14(23), 3878; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233878 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
The distribution of sediment grain size can record past environmental conditions and human activity. In this study, radioisotope of 210Pb and 137Cs and a grain size of a 41 cm core in Hulun Lake were applied to reconstruct the high-resolution sedimentation [...] Read more.
The distribution of sediment grain size can record past environmental conditions and human activity. In this study, radioisotope of 210Pb and 137Cs and a grain size of a 41 cm core in Hulun Lake were applied to reconstruct the high-resolution sedimentation history. The profiles of the grain size of the lake sediments show that silt (4–63 µm) was the largest contribution with an average content of 84.05%, and the second largest contribution was sand (>63 µm) with an average content of 15.68%. The median grain size and the mean grain size in the whole sediment core was 22.39 μm and 36.85 μm, respectively. Correlations of the sedimentological variables with instrumental measurements were also analyzed. The peak–trough value of the mean grain size of the sediments in Hulun Lake can reflect the magnitude of rainfall intensity and river discharge. The clay and silt contents at a depth of approximately 32–38 cm was different from other depths throughout the core, which showed continuous maxima with an average content of 0.35% and 94.08%. These changes in grain size correspond to the period of dam construction in 1963–1970. Therefore, the sediment grain size of Hulun Lake effectively recorded the dam-building activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)
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22 pages, 2939 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Adaptive Utilization Capacity of Water Resources and Analysis of Driving Element: A Case Study of Tarim River Basin
by Xing Li, Qiting Zuo, Jiaqi Zhai, Yong Zhao, Yong Wang and Shuying Han
Water 2022, 14(23), 3820; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233820 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
The research on the adaptive utilization of water resources (AUWR) is of great significance to improve the coordinated development among water resources, economic society, and ecological environment in complex environments, and to promote the development of adaptive utilization of regional water resources. Based [...] Read more.
The research on the adaptive utilization of water resources (AUWR) is of great significance to improve the coordinated development among water resources, economic society, and ecological environment in complex environments, and to promote the development of adaptive utilization of regional water resources. Based on the calculation method of harmony theory and the calculation method of the comprehensive co-evolution model, this paper obtains the harmony degree and adaptive utilization capacity of water resources (AUCWR) of each subsystem in the Tarim River Basin (TRB), analyzes the main factors affecting the AUCWR, and finally compares the two methods. The results show that: (1) From 2004 to 2018, the AUCWR in the TRB has gradually improved (harmony theory method: from 0.43 in 2004 to 0.56 in 2018, with a growth rate of 30.23%; comprehensive co-evolution model method: from 0.37 in 2004 to 0.62 in 2018, with a significant increase of 67.57%) and (2) From the perspective of indicators, indicators such as per capita GDP, the proportion of non-agricultural output value in GDP, and per capita net income of rural residents have a greater impact on the AUCWR in the TRB. Using different calculation methods to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the AUCWR in the TRB has important guiding significance for the future development and utilization of water resources, economic and social development, and ecological environment protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)
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15 pages, 3359 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter of Sediments in Urban Streams Using EEMs–PARAFAC and Absorption Spectroscopy: A Case Study in Wuhan, China
by Hui Zhang, Zufan Liu, Jing Xu, Jun Yang, Xiang Zhang and Shiyong Tao
Water 2022, 14(19), 3181; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193181 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
Urbanization has notably changed the characteristics and functions of watershed ecosystems worldwide, influencing the characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) of sediments in urban streams. In this study, the biogeochemical characteristics of 42 water samples and the [...] Read more.
Urbanization has notably changed the characteristics and functions of watershed ecosystems worldwide, influencing the characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) of sediments in urban streams. In this study, the biogeochemical characteristics of 42 water samples and the optical absorption and excitation–emission matrix spectra (EEMs) of 14 sediment samples collected from 14 urban streams in Wuhan were systematically examined. In addition, five water samples and one sediment sample were collected in Mulan Lake as a reference for non-urban areas. The a254 values of sediments in urban streams ranged widely (25.7–197.6 m−1), and the mean (116.32 ± 60.5 m−1) was significantly higher than the reference (51.52 m−1), indicating clear individual differences and a higher concentration of CDOM. Two humus-like components and one tryptophan-like component were effectively identified by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The fluorescence index (FI)/biological index (BIX) of DOM of sediments in urban streams was mostly within 1.4–1.7/0.8–1.0, indicating a compound of both allochthonous and autochthonous sources. Compared with the reference, lower FI and BIX and higher humification index (HIX) revealed a higher allochthonous input and humification degree of DOM of sediments in urban streams. Spearman’s correlation analysis and redundancy analysis demonstrated that heavy metals and other water quality parameters had a considerable impact on CDOM concentrations and DOM components. This study could support the use of DOM as an effective tool to monitor the water environment and provide insights into future water pollution management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)
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14 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Runoff Component Variation Mechanisms in the Cold Region of Northeastern China under Climate Change
by Shuiqing Liu, Zuhao Zhou, Jiajia Liu, Jia Li, Pengxiang Wang, Cuimei Li, Xinmin Xie, Yangwen Jia and Hao Wang
Water 2022, 14(19), 3170; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193170 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Climate change alters hydrological processes in cold regions. However, the mechanisms of runoff component variation remain obscure. We implemented a WEP-N model to estimate monthly runoff in the Songhua River Basin (SRB) between 1956 and 2018. All flow simulations were accurate (NSE > [...] Read more.
Climate change alters hydrological processes in cold regions. However, the mechanisms of runoff component variation remain obscure. We implemented a WEP-N model to estimate monthly runoff in the Songhua River Basin (SRB) between 1956 and 2018. All flow simulations were accurate (NSE > 0.75 and RE < 5%). The annual runoff was attenuated in 1998, and the hydrological series (1956–2018) was divided into base and change periods in that year. Relative to the BS (base scenario), annual production flow reduction was −28.2% under climate change and water use. A multifactor attribution analysis showed that climate change and water use contributed 77.0% and 23.0% to annual runoff reduction, respectively. Decreases in annual surface and base flow explained 62.1% and 35.7% of annual production flow reduction, respectively. The base flow increased by 8.5% and 6.5% during the freezing and thawing periods, respectively. Relative to the BS, groundwater recharge increased by 9.2% and 4.1% during the freezing and thawing periods, respectively, under climate change conditions. Climate change was the dominant factor attenuating production flow. The change in production flow occurred mainly during the non-freeze-thaw period. The decrease in total production flow in the SRB was caused mainly by the decrease in the surface flow, where the reduction in base flow accounted for a relatively small proportion. Production flow attenuation aggravated water shortages. The utilization rate of groundwater resources is far below the internationally recognized alarm line. Therefore, attention should be directed towards certain areas of the SRB and other regions with minimal groundwater exploitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)
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13 pages, 2739 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Regional Water-Saving Level Based on Support Vector Machine Optimized by Genetic Algorithm
by Wenge Zhang, Shengling Hou, Huijuan Yin, Lingqi Li and Kai Wu
Water 2022, 14(17), 2615; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14172615 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
The evaluation of regional water-saving level can provide scientific theoretical support for steadily promoting the implementation of a national water-saving priority strategy. Referring to the water consumption statistics of 31 provinces (except Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) in China in 2018, 14 easily [...] Read more.
The evaluation of regional water-saving level can provide scientific theoretical support for steadily promoting the implementation of a national water-saving priority strategy. Referring to the water consumption statistics of 31 provinces (except Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) in China in 2018, 14 easily accessible and comprehensive indexes were selected to establish an index system of regional water-saving level and a water-saving level evaluation model based on support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm (GA-SVM) was constructed to analyze the national regional water-saving level from different perspectives. The results showed that the water-saving level in China presented a spatial distribution characteristic with Beijing City, Henan Province and Zhejiang Province as the center and gradually decreased outward. From the perspective of regionalization, the water-saving level in North China, Central China and Southeast China was higher, while the water-saving level in Northwest China, Southwest China and Northeast China need to be improved. Therefore, the national water-saving level is generally at a medium level and effective water-saving work and water-saving schemes should be carried out according to different regions and industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)
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20 pages, 3125 KiB  
Article
Integrated Evaluation of Rivers Based upon the River Happiness Index (RHI): Happy Rivers in China
by Qianqian Ju, Changshun Liu and Shan Jiang
Water 2022, 14(16), 2568; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14162568 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
How to better harmonize the relationship between humans and rivers is a global issue of widespread concern at home and abroad, and science-based and integrated evaluation of rivers themselves is crucial to river management. Based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and according to [...] Read more.
How to better harmonize the relationship between humans and rivers is a global issue of widespread concern at home and abroad, and science-based and integrated evaluation of rivers themselves is crucial to river management. Based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and according to the World Happiness Report and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, this paper argues that a happy river is a river that can maintain its own health, support high-quality economic and social development in the river basin and the region, reflect harmony between humans and water, and give people in the river basin a high sense of security and the ability to gain and satisfaction. This paper also analyzes happy rivers at five levels, including water security, water resources, water environment, water ecology, and water culture, and develops the River Happiness Index (RHI) and its indicator system, as well as assesses the overall river happiness in China’s 10 first-grade water resource zones. The results show that China’s RHI is at a medium level, with flood control capacity at a near-good level. On the grounds of the RHI evaluation results, the paper puts forward targeted measures for river basin governance, and provides a systematic solution to national river protection and governance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue China Water Forum 2022)
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