Mycoviruses

A topical collection in Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This collection belongs to the section "Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa".

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Editor


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
1. Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London, UK
2. Department of Clinical, Pharmaceutical and Biological Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
Interests: mycoviruses; mycovirus infection; mycovirus population studies; mycovirus evolution; mycovirus–fungus interactions; bacterial gene expression; RNA damage and repair; oxidative stress; antibiotics resistance; CRISPR-Cas
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am very pleased to invite you to contribute to the ‘Mycoviruses’ Topical Collection in Viruses. This Topical Collection aims to provide an opportunity for fungal virologists to publish their research work in the form of original research articles, short communications and timely reviews and to share their thoughts via commentaries. I am looking forward to hearing from you.

Dr. Ioly Kotta-Loizou
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycoviruses
  • population studies
  • mycovirus evolution
  • mycovirus-host interactions
  • RNA silencing

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (37 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019

1 pages, 124 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Hough et al. Fungal Viruses Unveiled: A Comprehensive Review of Mycoviruses. Viruses 2023, 15, 1202
by Bianca Hough, Emma Steenkamp, Brenda Wingfield and David Read
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040632 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 205
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
14 pages, 1938 KiB  
Brief Report
Characterization of Mycoviruses in Armillaria ostoyae and A. cepistipes in the Czech Republic
by Lucie Walterová, Leticia Botella, Ondřej Hejna, Marcos de la Peña, Tomáš Tonka and Vladislav Čurn
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040610 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Members of the genus Armillaria are widespread forest pathogens against which effective protection has not yet been developed. Due to their longevity and the creation of large-scale cloning of Armillaria individuals, the use of mycoviruses as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against these pathogens could [...] Read more.
Members of the genus Armillaria are widespread forest pathogens against which effective protection has not yet been developed. Due to their longevity and the creation of large-scale cloning of Armillaria individuals, the use of mycoviruses as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against these pathogens could be an effective alternative. This work describes the detection and characterization of viruses in Armillaria spp. collected in the Czech Republic through the application of stranded total RNA sequencing. A total of five single-stranded RNA viruses were detected in Armillaria ostoyae and A. cepistipes, including viruses of the family Tymoviridae and four viruses belonging to the recently described “ambivirus” group with a circular ambisense genome arrangement. Both hammerhead (HHRz) and hairpin (HpRz) ribozymes were detected in all the ambiviricot sequences. Armillaria viruses were compared through phylogenetic analysis and confirmed their specific host by direct RT-PCR. One virus appears to infect both Armillaria species, suggesting the occurrence of interspecies transmission in nature. Full article
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15 pages, 7073 KiB  
Article
Fusarium sacchari hypovirus 1, a Member of Hypoviridae with Virulence Attenuation Capacity in Phytopathogenic Fusarium Species
by Qiujuan Zhou, Ziting Yao, Xueying Cao, Yuejia Chen, Chengwu Zou and Baoshan Chen
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040608 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 477
Abstract
In a survey of mycoviruses in Fusarium species that cause sugarcane Pokkah boeng disease, twelve Fusarium strains from three Fusarium species (F. sacchari, F. andiyazi, and F. solani) were found to contain Fusarium sacchari hypovirus 1 (FsHV1), which we [...] Read more.
In a survey of mycoviruses in Fusarium species that cause sugarcane Pokkah boeng disease, twelve Fusarium strains from three Fusarium species (F. sacchari, F. andiyazi, and F. solani) were found to contain Fusarium sacchari hypovirus 1 (FsHV1), which we reported previously. The genomes of these variants range from 13,966 to 13,983 nucleotides, with 98.6% to 99.9% nucleotide sequence identity and 98.70% to 99.9% protein sequence similarity. Phylogenetic analysis placed these FsHV1 variants within the Alphahypovirus cluster of Hypoviridae. Intriguingly, no clear correlation was found between the geographic origin and host specificity of these viral variants. Additionally, six out of the twelve variants displayed segmental deletions of 1.5 to 1.8 kilobases, suggesting the existence of defective viral dsRNA. The presence of defective viral dsRNA led to a two-thirds reduction in the dsRNA of the wild-type viral genome, yet a tenfold increase in the total viral dsRNA content. To standardize virulence across natural strains, all FsHV1 strains were transferred into a single, virus-free Fusarium recipient strain, FZ06-VF, via mycelial fusion. Strains of Fusarium carrying FsHV1 exhibited suppressed pigment synthesis, diminished microspore production, and a marked decrease in virulence. Inoculation tests revealed varying capacities among different FsHV1 variants to modulate fungal virulence, with the strain harboring the FsHV1-FSA1 showing the lowest virulence, with a disease severity index (DSI) of 3.33, and the FsHV1-FS1 the highest (DSI = 17.66). The identification of highly virulent FsHV1 variants holds promise for the development of biocontrol agents for Pokkah boeng management. Full article
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17 pages, 2758 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Viromes Identified in Multiple Macrofungi
by Kang Zhou, Fan Zhang and Yue Deng
Viruses 2024, 16(4), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16040597 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Macrofungi play important roles in the soil elemental cycle of terrestrial ecosystems. Fungal viruses are common in filamentous fungi, and some of them can affect the growth and development of hosts. However, the composition and evolution of macrofungal viruses are understudied. In this [...] Read more.
Macrofungi play important roles in the soil elemental cycle of terrestrial ecosystems. Fungal viruses are common in filamentous fungi, and some of them can affect the growth and development of hosts. However, the composition and evolution of macrofungal viruses are understudied. In this study, ninety strains of Trametes versicolor, Coprinellus micaceus, Amanita strobiliformis, and Trametes hirsuta were collected in China. Four mixed pools were generated by combining equal quantities of total RNA from each strain, according to the fungal species, and then subjected to RNA sequencing. The sequences were assembled, annotated, and then used for phylogenetic analysis. Twenty novel viruses or viral fragments were characterized from the four species of macrofungi. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, most of the viral contigs were classified into ten viral families or orders: Barnaviridae, Benyviridae, Botourmiaviridae, Deltaflexiviridae, Fusariviridae, Hypoviridae, Totiviridae, Mitoviridae, Mymonaviridae, and Bunyavirales. Of these, ambi-like viruses with circular genomes were widely distributed among the studied species. Furthermore, the number and overall abundance of viruses in these four species of macrofungi (Basidiomycota) were found to be much lower than those in broad-host phytopathogenic fungi (Ascomycota: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Botrytis cinerea). By employing metatranscriptomic analysis in this study, for the first time, we demonstrated the presence of multiple mycoviruses in Amanita strobiliformis, Coprinellus micaceus, Trametes hirsute, and Trametes versicolor, significantly contributing to research on mycoviruses in macrofungi. Full article
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21 pages, 1942 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the RNA Mycovirome Associated with Grapevine Fungal Pathogens: Analysis of Mycovirus Distribution and Their Genetic Variability within a Collection of Botryosphaeriaceae Isolates
by Gwenaëlle Comont, Chantal Faure, Thierry Candresse, Marie Laurens, Sophie Valière, Jérôme Lluch, Marie Lefebvre, Sébastien Gambier, Jérôme Jolivet, Marie-France Corio-Costet and Armelle Marais
Viruses 2024, 16(3), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16030392 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Botryosphaeriaceae are fungi involved in the decay of various woody species, including the grapevine, leading to significant production losses. This fungal family is largely ubiquitous, and seven species of Botryosphaeriaceae have been identified in French vineyards, with variable levels of aggressiveness, both in [...] Read more.
Botryosphaeriaceae are fungi involved in the decay of various woody species, including the grapevine, leading to significant production losses. This fungal family is largely ubiquitous, and seven species of Botryosphaeriaceae have been identified in French vineyards, with variable levels of aggressiveness, both in vitro and in planta. Mycoviruses can impact the life traits of their fungal hosts, including aggressiveness, and are one of the factors influencing fungal pathogenicity. In this study, the RNA mycovirome of fifteen Botryosphaeriaceae isolates was characterized through the high-throughput sequencing of double-stranded RNA preparations from the respective samples. Eight mycoviruses were detected, including three potential novel species in the Narnaviridae family, as well as in the proposed Mycobunyaviridae and Fusagraviridae families. A large collection of Botryosphaeriaceae isolates was screened using RT-PCR assays specific for 20 Botryosphaeriaceae-infecting mycoviruses. Among the mycoviruses detected, some appeared to be specialists within a single host species, while others infected isolates belonging to multiple Botryosphaeriaceae species. This screening allowed us to conclude that one-third of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolates were infected by at least one mycovirus, and a significant proportion of isolates (43.5%) were found to be coinfected by several viruses, with very complex RNA mycoviromes for some N. parvum isolates. Full article
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14 pages, 4492 KiB  
Article
Identification of Mycoviruses in the Pathogens of Fragrant Pear Valsa Canker from Xinjiang in China
by Chenguang Zhang, Xiaoya Zheng, Zhanjiang Tie, Hui Xi, Mai Shi, Yanjun Ma, Wenbin Chen, Yingjie Mi, Rui Yang, Sifeng Zhao and Xuekun Zhang
Viruses 2024, 16(3), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16030355 - 25 Feb 2024
Viewed by 641
Abstract
As a common disease, canker seriously affects the yield and quality of fragrant pear due to the lack of effective control measures. Some fungi have been reported to harbor rich reservoirs of viral resources, and some mycoviruses can be used as biocontrol agents [...] Read more.
As a common disease, canker seriously affects the yield and quality of fragrant pear due to the lack of effective control measures. Some fungi have been reported to harbor rich reservoirs of viral resources, and some mycoviruses can be used as biocontrol agents against plant diseases. In this study, 199 isolates were obtained from diseased branches of fragrant pear in the main production areas of Xinjiang. Among them, 134 belonged to Valsa spp., identified using morphological and molecular biological techniques, in which V. mali was the dominant species. The mycoviruses in Valsa spp. were further identified using metatranscriptomic sequencing and RT-PCR. The results revealed that a total of seven mycoviruses were identified, belonging to Botourmiaviridae, Endornaviridae, Fusariviridae, Hypoviridae, Mitoviridae, and Narnaviridae, among which Phomopsis longicolla hypovirus (PlHV) was dominant in all the sample collection regions. The Cryphonectria hypovirus 3-XJ1 (CHV3-XJ1), Botourmiaviridae sp.-XJ1 (BVsp-XJ1), and Fusariviridae sp.-XJ1 (Fvsp-XJ1) were new mycoviruses discovered within the Valsa spp. More importantly, compared with those in the virus-free Valsa spp. strain, the growth rate and virulence of the VN-5 strain co-infected with PlHV and CHV3-XJ1 were reduced by 59% and 75%, respectively, and the growth rate and virulence of the VN-34 strain infected with PlHV were reduced by 42% and 55%, respectively. On the other hand, the horizontal transmission efficiency of PlHV decreased when PlHV was co-infected with CHV3-XJ1, indicating that PlHV and CHV3-XJ1 were antagonistic. In summary, the mycoviruses in Valsa spp. were identified in Xinjiang for the first time, and three of them were newly discovered mycoviruses, with two strains yielding good results. These results will offer potential biocontrol resources for managing pear canker disease and provide a theoretical basis for the control of fruit tree Valsa canker disease. Full article
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11 pages, 650 KiB  
Review
The Interaction between Hypovirulence-Associated Chrysoviruses and Their Host Fusarium Species
by Chengwu Zou, Xueying Cao, Qiujuan Zhou and Ziting Yao
Viruses 2024, 16(2), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16020253 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 903
Abstract
Chrysoviruses are isometric virus particles (35–50 nm in diameter) with a genome composed of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA). These viruses belonged to the Chrysoviridae family, named after the first member isolated from Penicillium chrysogenum. Phylogenetic classification has divided the chrysoviruses into Alphachrysovirus and [...] Read more.
Chrysoviruses are isometric virus particles (35–50 nm in diameter) with a genome composed of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA). These viruses belonged to the Chrysoviridae family, named after the first member isolated from Penicillium chrysogenum. Phylogenetic classification has divided the chrysoviruses into Alphachrysovirus and Betachrysovirus genera. Currently, these chrysoviruses have been found to infect many fungi, including Fusarium species, and cause changes in the phenotype and decline in the pathogenicity of the host. Thus, it is a microbial resource with great biocontrol potential against Fusarium species, causing destructive plant diseases and substantial economic losses. This review provides a comprehensive overview of three chrysovirus isolates (Fusarium graminearum virus 2 (FgV2), Fusarium graminearum virus-ch9 (FgV-ch9), and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mycovirus 1 (FodV1)) reported to decline the pathogenicity of Fusarium hosts. It also summarizes the recent studies on host response regulation, host RNA interference, and chrysovirus transmission. The information provided in the review will be a reference for analyzing the interaction of Fusarium species with chrysovirus and proposing opportunities for research on the biocontrol of Fusarium diseases. Finally, we present reasons for conducting further studies on exploring the interaction between chrysoviruses and Fusarium and improving the accumulation and transmission efficiency of these chrysoviruses. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019

14 pages, 2526 KiB  
Communication
Molecular Characterization of Two Totiviruses from the Commensal Yeast Geotrichum candidum
by Mahmoud E. Khalifa and Robin M. MacDiarmid
Viruses 2023, 15(11), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15112150 - 25 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Mycoviruses can infect many of the major taxa of fungi including yeasts. Mycoviruses in the yeast fungus Geotrichum candidum are not well studied with only three G. candidum-associated viral species characterized to date, all of which belong to the Totiviridae genus Totivirus [...] Read more.
Mycoviruses can infect many of the major taxa of fungi including yeasts. Mycoviruses in the yeast fungus Geotrichum candidum are not well studied with only three G. candidum-associated viral species characterized to date, all of which belong to the Totiviridae genus Totivirus. In this study, we report the molecular characteristics of another two totiviruses co-infecting isolate Gc6 of G. candidum. The two totiviruses were tentatively named Geotrichum candidum totivirus 2 isolate Gc6 (GcTV2-Gc6) and Geotrichum candidum totivirus 4 isolate Gc6 (GcTV4-Gc6). Both viruses have the typical genome organization of totiviruses comprising two ORFs encoding capsid protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) at the N and C termini, respectively. The genomes of GcTV2-Gc6 and GcTV4-Gc6 are 4592 and 4530 bp long, respectively. Both viruses contain the—frameshifting elements and their proteins could be expressed as a single fusion protein. GcTV2-Gc6 is closely related to a totivirus isolated from the same host whereas GcTV4-Gc6 is related to insect-associated totiviruses. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that GcTV2-Gc6 and GcTV4-Gc6 belong to two different sister clades, I-A and I-B, respectively. It is interesting that all viruses identified from G. candidum belong to the genus Totivirus; however, this might be due to the lack of research reporting the characterization of mycoviruses from this fungal host. It is possible that the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism cannot actively suppress totivirus accumulation in G. candidum Gc6. Full article
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17 pages, 2270 KiB  
Article
Identification and Characterization of a Novel Hypovirus from the Phytopathogenic Fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea
by Yongqi Wen, Jinyue Qu, Honglin Zhang, Yi Yang, Rui Huang, Jili Deng, Jiayu Zhang, Yanping Xiao, Jiali Li, Meixin Zhang, Guoping Wang and Lifeng Zhai
Viruses 2023, 15(10), 2059; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15102059 - 07 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Many mycoviruses have been accurately and successfully identified in plant pathogenic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea. This study discovered three mycoviruses from a B. dothidea strain SXD111 using high-throughput sequencing technology. A novel hypovirus was tentatively named Botryosphaeria dothidea hypovirus 1 (BdHV1/SXD111). The [...] Read more.
Many mycoviruses have been accurately and successfully identified in plant pathogenic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea. This study discovered three mycoviruses from a B. dothidea strain SXD111 using high-throughput sequencing technology. A novel hypovirus was tentatively named Botryosphaeria dothidea hypovirus 1 (BdHV1/SXD111). The other two were known viruses, which we named Botryosphaeria dothidea polymycovirus 1 strain SXD111 (BdPmV1/SXD111) and Botryosphaeria dothidea partitivirus 1 strain SXD111 (BdPV1/SXD111). The genome of BdHV1/SXD111 is 11,128 nucleotides long, excluding the poly (A) tail. A papain-like cysteine protease (Pro), a UDP-glucose/sterol glucosyltransferase (UGT), an RNA-dependent RNA polyprotein (RdRp), and a helicase (Hel) were detected in the polyprotein of BdHV1/SXD111. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BdHV1/SXD111 was clustered with betahypovirus and separated from members of the other genera in the family Hypoviridae. The BdPmV1/SXD111 genome comprised five dsRNA segments with 2396, 2232, 1967, 1131, and 1060 bp lengths. Additionally, BdPV1/SXD111 harbored three dsRNA segments with 1823, 1623, and 557 bp lengths. Furthermore, the smallest dsRNA was a novel satellite component of BdPV1/SXD111. BdHV1/SXD111 could be transmitted through conidia and hyphae contact, whereas it likely has no apparent impact on the morphologies and virulence of the host fungus. Thus, this study is the first report of a betahypovirus isolated from the fungus B. dothidea. Importantly, our results significantly enhance the diversity of the B. dothidea viruses. Full article
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14 pages, 2761 KiB  
Communication
Mycoviruses in the Rust Fungus Uromyces fabae
by Janina M. Seitz, Ralf T. Voegele and Tobias I. Link
Viruses 2023, 15(8), 1692; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15081692 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 897
Abstract
Uromyces fabae, the causal agent of broad bean rust, is a major cause of yield losses in North and East Africa, China, and Australia. It has also served as an important model species for research on rust fungi. Early EST sequencing in [...] Read more.
Uromyces fabae, the causal agent of broad bean rust, is a major cause of yield losses in North and East Africa, China, and Australia. It has also served as an important model species for research on rust fungi. Early EST sequencing in U. fabae showed that viruses might be present in this species; however, no follow-up investigations were conducted. In order to identify these viruses, we performed purification of dsRNA followed by Illumina sequencing. We also used ultracentrifugation followed by negative staining electron microscopy to visualize virus particles. We identified 20 viral sequences, which we termed Ufvss. A phylogenetic analysis was performed that grouped Ufvss into totiviruses, polymycoviruses, and virgaviruse; three sequences could not be included in the phylogeny. We also found isometric particles. Our findings contribute to the knowledge of mycoviral diversity in rust fungi and point to the importance of further investigation of these viruses. Full article
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10 pages, 4432 KiB  
Communication
Tracking Mycoviruses in Public RNAseq Datasets of Malassezia: Three Original Totiviruses Revealed
by Fatima Boulanouar, Stéphane Ranque and Anthony Levasseur
Viruses 2023, 15(6), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15061368 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Mycoviruses are viruses that selectively infect and multiply in fungal cells. Malassezia is the most abundant fungus on human skin and is associated with a variety of conditions, including atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, pityriasis versicolor, and seborrheic dermatitis. Here, we conducted [...] Read more.
Mycoviruses are viruses that selectively infect and multiply in fungal cells. Malassezia is the most abundant fungus on human skin and is associated with a variety of conditions, including atopic eczema, atopic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, pityriasis versicolor, and seborrheic dermatitis. Here, we conducted mycovirome studies on 194 public transcriptomes of Malassezia (2,568,212,042 paired-end reads) screened against all available viral proteins. Transcriptomic data were assembled de novo resulting in 1,170,715 contigs and 2,995,306 open reading frames (ORFs) that were subsequently tracked for potential viral sequences. Eighty-eight virus-associated ORFs were detected in 68 contigs from 28 Sequence Read Archive (SRA) samples. Seventy-five and thirteen ORFs were retrieved from transcriptomes of Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta, respectively. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed three new mycoviruses belonging to the Totivirus genus and named Malassezia globosa-associated-totivirus 1 (MgaTV1); Malassezia restricta-associated-totivirus 1 (MraTV1) and Malassezia restricta-associated-totivirus 2 (MraTV2). These viral candidates extend our understanding of the diversity and taxonomy of mycoviruses as well as their co-evolution with their fungal hosts. These results reflected the unexpected diversity of mycoviruses hidden in public databases. In conclusion, this study sheds light on the discovery of novel mycoviruses and opens the door to study their impact on disease caused by the host fungus Malassezia and globally, their implication in clinical skin disorders. Full article
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16 pages, 7573 KiB  
Article
A Novel Mitovirus PsMV2 Facilitates the Virulence of Wheat Stripe Rust Fungus
by Yanhui Zhang, Hualong Guo, Siyu Zhou, Daipeng Chen, Gang Xu, Zhensheng Kang and Li Zheng
Viruses 2023, 15(6), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15061265 - 28 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Wheat stripe rust, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), seriously affects wheat production. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and biological characterization of a new mitovirus from P. striiformis strain GS-1, which was designated [...] Read more.
Wheat stripe rust, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), seriously affects wheat production. Here, we report the complete genome sequence and biological characterization of a new mitovirus from P. striiformis strain GS-1, which was designated as “Puccinia striiformis mitovirus 2” (PsMV2). Genome sequence analysis showed that PsMV2 is 2658 nt in length with an AU-rich of 52.3% and comprises a single ORF of 2348 nt encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PsMV2 is a new member of the genus Unuamitovirus within the family Mitoviridae. In addition, PsMV2 multiplied highly during Pst infection and it suppresses programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by Bax. Silencing of PsMV2 in Pst by barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-mediated Host Induced Gene Silencing (HIGS) reduced fungal growth and decreased pathogenicity of Pst. These results indicate PsMV2 promotes host pathogenicity in Pst. Interestingly, PsMV2 was detected among a wide range of field isolates of Pst and may have coevolved with Pst in earlier times. Taken together, our results characterized a novel mitovirus PsMV2 in wheat stripe rust fungus, which promotes the virulence of its fungal host and wide distribution in Pst which may offer new strategies for disease control. Full article
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13 pages, 2503 KiB  
Article
Temperature Effects on the Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 Accumulation and Recovery within Its Fungal Host, the Chestnut Blight Pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica
by Pedro Romon-Ochoa, Olivia Smith, Alex Lewis, Quirin Kupper, Wajeeha Shamsi, Daniel Rigling, Ana Pérez-Sierra and Lisa Ward
Viruses 2023, 15(6), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15061260 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
Biological control of Cryphonectria parasitica fungus, the causal agent of chestnut blight, by virus infection (hypovirulence) is an effective control strategy against chestnut blight in Europe and some parts of North America. The most studied mycovirus is the Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) type [...] Read more.
Biological control of Cryphonectria parasitica fungus, the causal agent of chestnut blight, by virus infection (hypovirulence) is an effective control strategy against chestnut blight in Europe and some parts of North America. The most studied mycovirus is the Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) type species of the Hypoviridae family. In this study, the CHV1 virus was studied within some highly infected British isolates of Cryphonectria parasitica, gained in the past through co-culture transmissions. The effects of six temperatures (5–30 °C, in 5 °C steps) on six infected isolates (three with viral strain E-5, and other three with viral strain L-18) and their respective negative non-infected controls, three isogenic virulent fungal isolates, were examined. Experiments were performed with the nine isolate types with three replicates on potato dextrose agar (PDA) with cellophane sheets per isolate and temperature. A recently developed rapid, specific, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) screening method was used. This enabled quantifying the concentration (nanograms per microliter or copy numbers) of the virus within each isolate repetition. The presence of the virus had a significant negative effect between 20 and 25 °C on the C. parasitica growth rate, which was anyway highly influenced by and positively correlated with the temperature. The temperature clearly determined the virus accumulation and its recovery from cold or heat, and the virus optimum temperature was estimated at 15–25 °C. Full article
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0 pages, 993 KiB  
Review
Fungal Viruses Unveiled: A Comprehensive Review of Mycoviruses
by Bianca Hough, Emma Steenkamp, Brenda Wingfield and David Read
Viruses 2023, 15(5), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15051202 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5867 | Correction
Abstract
Mycoviruses (viruses of fungi) are ubiquitous throughout the fungal kingdom and are currently classified into 23 viral families and the genus botybirnavirus by the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The primary focus of mycoviral research has been on mycoviruses that [...] Read more.
Mycoviruses (viruses of fungi) are ubiquitous throughout the fungal kingdom and are currently classified into 23 viral families and the genus botybirnavirus by the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The primary focus of mycoviral research has been on mycoviruses that infect plant pathogenic fungi, due to the ability of some to reduce the virulence of their host and thus act as potential biocontrol against these fungi. However, mycoviruses lack extracellular transmission mechanisms and rely on intercellular transmission through the hyphal anastomosis, which impedes successful transmission between different fungal strains. This review provides a comprehensive overview of mycoviruses, including their origins, host range, taxonomic classification into families, effects on their fungal counterparts, and the techniques employed in their discovery. The application of mycoviruses as biocontrol agents of plant pathogenic fungi is also discussed. Full article
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8 pages, 1565 KiB  
Communication
Virus Infection Impairs Fungal Response to Stress: Effect of Salt
by David A. Stevens, Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Marife Martinez, Robert H. A. Coutts and Gabriele Sass
Viruses 2023, 15(3), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15030718 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
Infection with Aspergillus fumigatus polymycovirus 1 (AfuPmV-1) weakens the resistance of biofilms of common A. fumigatus reference strain Af293 in intermicrobial competition with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and sensitizes A. fumigatus for antifungal effects of nikkomycin Z. We compared the sensitivity of two virus-infected [...] Read more.
Infection with Aspergillus fumigatus polymycovirus 1 (AfuPmV-1) weakens the resistance of biofilms of common A. fumigatus reference strain Af293 in intermicrobial competition with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and sensitizes A. fumigatus for antifungal effects of nikkomycin Z. We compared the sensitivity of two virus-infected (VI) and one virus-free (VF) Af293 strains to hypertonic salt. Salt stress impairs the growth of VI and VF at all times; VF control growth always exceeds VI, and VF growth in salt always exceeds VI. Since VF growth exceeds VI in the presence and absence of salt, we also examined growth in salt as a percentage of control growth. Initially, as a percentage of control, VI exceeded VF, but at 120 h VF began to exceed VI consistently even by this measure; thus, at that time the growth of VF in salt surges in relation to control growth, or, alternatively, its growth in salt persists compared to the relative inhibition of VI. In summary, virus infection impairs the response of A. fumigatus to several different stresses, including hypertonic salt. Full article
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12 pages, 4441 KiB  
Article
Characterization of a Fungal Virus Representing a Novel Genus in the Family Alphaflexiviridae
by Ting Ye, Zhongbo Lu, Han Li, Jie Duan, Du Hai, Yang Lin, Jiatao Xie, Jiasen Cheng, Bo Li, Tao Chen, Yanping Fu and Daohong Jiang
Viruses 2023, 15(2), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15020339 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an ascomycetous fungus and hosts various mycoviruses. In this study, a novel fungal alphaflexivirus with a special genomic structure, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum alphaflexivirus 1 (SsAFV1), was cloned from a hypovirulent strain, AHS31. Strain AHS31 was also co-infected with two botourmiaviruses [...] Read more.
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an ascomycetous fungus and hosts various mycoviruses. In this study, a novel fungal alphaflexivirus with a special genomic structure, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum alphaflexivirus 1 (SsAFV1), was cloned from a hypovirulent strain, AHS31. Strain AHS31 was also co-infected with two botourmiaviruses and two mitoviruses. The complete genome of SsAFV1 comprised 6939 bases with four open reading frames (ORFs), a conserved 5′-untranslated region (UTR), and a poly(A) tail in the 3′ terminal; the ORF1 and ORF3 encoded a replicase and a coat protein (CP), respectively, while the function of the proteins encoded by ORF2 and ORF4 was unknown. The virion of SsAFV1 was flexuous filamentous 480–510 nm in length and 9–10 nm in diameter. The results of the alignment and the phylogenetic analysis showed that SsAFV1 is related to allexivirus and botrexvirus, such as Garlic virus X of the genus Allexivirus and Botrytis virus X of the genus Botrevirus, both with 44% amino-acid (aa) identity of replicase. Thus, SsAFV1 is a novel virus and a new genus, Sclerotexvirus, is proposed to accommodate this novel alphaflexivirus. Full article
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13 pages, 2773 KiB  
Article
Polymycovirus Infection Sensitizes Aspergillus fumigatus for Antifungal Effects of Nikkomycin Z
by Gabriele Sass, Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Marife Martinez, David J. Larwood and David A. Stevens
Viruses 2023, 15(1), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15010197 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
Infection with Aspergillus fumigatus polymycovirus 1 (AfuPmV-1) weakens resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus common reference strain Af293 biofilms in intermicrobial competition with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We compared the sensitivity of two infected and one virus-free Af293 strains to antifungal drugs. All three were comparably [...] Read more.
Infection with Aspergillus fumigatus polymycovirus 1 (AfuPmV-1) weakens resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus common reference strain Af293 biofilms in intermicrobial competition with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We compared the sensitivity of two infected and one virus-free Af293 strains to antifungal drugs. All three were comparably sensitive to drugs affecting fungal membranes (voriconazole, amphotericin) or cell wall glucan synthesis (micafungin, caspofungin). In contrast, forming biofilms of virus-free Af293 were much more resistant than AfuPmV-1-infected Af293 to nikkomycin Z (NikZ), a drug inhibiting chitin synthase. The IC50 for NikZ on biofilms was between 3.8 and 7.5 µg/mL for virus-free Af293 and 0.94–1.88 µg/mL for infected strains. The IC50 for the virus-free A. fumigatus strain 10AF was ~2 µg/mL in most experiments. NikZ also modestly affected the planktonic growth of infected Af293 more than the virus-free strain (MIC 50%, 2 and 4 µg/mL, respectively). Virus-free Af293 biofilm showed increased metabolism, and fungus growing as biofilm or planktonically showed increased growth compared to infected; these differences do not explain the resistance of the virus-free fungus to NikZ. In summary, AfuPmV-1 infection sensitized A. fumigatus to NikZ, but did not affect response to drugs commonly used against A. fumigatus infection. Virus infection had a greater effect on NikZ inhibition of biofilm than planktonic growth. Full article
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16 pages, 3700 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the First Alternavirus Identified in Fusarium avenaceum, the Causal Agent of Potato Dry Rot
by Xiaofang Zhang, Chunyan Wu, Huihui Hua, Qingnian Cai and Xuehong Wu
Viruses 2023, 15(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15010145 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
A novel virus with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome was isolated from Fusarium avenaceum strain GS-WW-224, the causal agent of potato dry rot. The virus has been designated as Fusarium avenaceum alternavirus 1 (FaAV1). Its genome consists of two dsRNA segments, 3538 bp [...] Read more.
A novel virus with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome was isolated from Fusarium avenaceum strain GS-WW-224, the causal agent of potato dry rot. The virus has been designated as Fusarium avenaceum alternavirus 1 (FaAV1). Its genome consists of two dsRNA segments, 3538 bp (dsRNA1) and 2477 bp (dsRNA2) in length, encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a hypothetical protein (HP), respectively. The virions of FaAV1 are isometric spherical and approximately 30 nm in diameter. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences of RdRp and HP indicated that FaAV1 appears to be a new member of the proposed family Alternaviridae. No significant differences in colony morphology and spore production were observed between strains GS-WW-224 and GS-WW-224-VF, the latter strain being one in which FaAV1 was eliminated from strain GS-WW-224. Notably, however, the dry weight of mycelial biomass of GS-WW-224 was higher than that of mycelial biomass of GS-WW-224-VF. The depth and the width of lesions on potato tubers caused by GS-WW-224 were significantly greater, relative to GS-WW-224-VF, suggesting that FaAV1 confers hypervirulence to its host, F. avenaceum. Moreover, FaAV1 was successfully transmitted horizontally from GS-WW-224 to ten other species of Fusarium, and purified virions of FaAV1 were capable of transfecting wounded hyphae of the ten species of Fusarium. This is the first report of an alternavirus infecting F. avenaceum and conferring hypervirulence. Full article
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2022

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17 pages, 2703 KiB  
Article
A Botybirnavirus Isolated from Alternaria tenuissima Confers Hypervirulence and Decreased Sensitivity of Its Host Fungus to Difenoconazole
by Zhijian Liang, Huihui Hua, Chunyan Wu, Tao Zhou and Xuehong Wu
Viruses 2022, 14(10), 2093; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14102093 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Alternaria alternata botybirnavirus 1 (AaBRV1) was isolated from a strain of Alternaria alternata, causing watermelon leaf blight in our previous research. The effect of AaBRV1 on the phenotype of its host fungus, however, was not determined. In the present study, a novel [...] Read more.
Alternaria alternata botybirnavirus 1 (AaBRV1) was isolated from a strain of Alternaria alternata, causing watermelon leaf blight in our previous research. The effect of AaBRV1 on the phenotype of its host fungus, however, was not determined. In the present study, a novel strain of AaBRV1 was identified in A. tenuissima strain TJ-NH-51S-4, the causal agent of cotton Alternaria leaf spot, and designated as AaBRV1-AT1. A mycovirus AaBRV1-AT1-free strain TJ-NH-51S-4-VF was obtained by protoplast regeneration, which eliminated AaBRV1-AT1 from the mycovirus AaBRV1-AT1-infected strain TJ-NH-51S-4. Colony growth rate, spore production, and virulence of strain TJ-NH-51S-4 were greater than they were in TJ-NH-51S-4-VF, while the sensitivity of strain TJ-NH-51S-4 to difenoconazole, as measured by the EC50, was lower. AaBRV1-AT1 was capable of vertical transmission via asexual spores and horizontal transmission from strain TJ-NH-51S-4 to strain XJ-BZ-5-1hyg (another strain of A. tenuissima) through hyphal contact in pairing cultures. A total of 613 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in a comparative transcriptome analysis between TJ-NH-51S-4 and TJ-NH-51S-4-VF. Relative to strain TJ-NH-51S-4-VF, the number of up-regulated and down-regulated DEGs in strain TJ-NH-51S-4 was 286 and 327, respectively. Notably, the expression level of one DEG-encoding cytochrome P450 sterol 14α-demethylase and four DEGs encoding siderophore iron transporters were significantly up-regulated. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of hypervirulence and reduced sensitivity to difenoconazole induced by AaBRV1-AT1 infection in A. tenuissima. Full article
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19 pages, 5062 KiB  
Communication
Six Novel Mycoviruses Containing Positive Single-Stranded RNA and Double-Stranded RNA Genomes Co-Infect a Single Strain of the Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 PT
by Yuting Li, Siwei Li, Yumeng Zhao, Tao Zhou, Xuehong Wu and Can Zhao
Viruses 2022, 14(4), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040813 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
Six novel mycoviruses that collectively represent the mycovirome of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-3 PT strain ZJ-2H, which causes potato black scurf, were identified through metatranscriptome sequencing and putatively designated as Rhizoctonia solani fusarivirus 4 [RsFV4, positive single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA)], Rhizoctonia solani fusarivirus [...] Read more.
Six novel mycoviruses that collectively represent the mycovirome of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-3 PT strain ZJ-2H, which causes potato black scurf, were identified through metatranscriptome sequencing and putatively designated as Rhizoctonia solani fusarivirus 4 [RsFV4, positive single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA)], Rhizoctonia solani fusarivirus 5 (RsFV5, +ssRNA), Rhizoctonia solani mitovirus 40 (RsMV40, +ssRNA), Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 10 [RsPV10, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)], Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 11 (RsPV11, dsRNA), and Rhizoctonia solani RNA virus 11 (RsRV11, dsRNA). Whole genome sequences of RsFV4, RsMV40, RsPV10, RsPV11, and RsRV11, as well as a partial genome sequence of RsFV5, were obtained. The 3’- and 5’- untranslated regions of the five mycoviruses with complete genome sequences were folded into stable stem-loop or panhandle secondary structures. RsFV4 and RsFV5 are most closely related to Rhizoctonia solani fusarivirus 1 (RsFV1), however, the first open reading frame (ORF) of RsFV4 and RsFV5 encode a hypothetical protein that differs from the first ORF of RsFV1, which encodes a helicase. We confirmed that RsPV10 and RsPV11 assemble into the spherical virus particles (approximately 30 nm in diameter) that were extracted from strain ZJ-2H. This is the first report that +ssRNA and dsRNA viruses co-infect a single strain of R. solani AG-3 PT. Full article
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12 pages, 1761 KiB  
Article
The Characterization of a Novel Virus Discovered in the Yeast Pichia membranifaciens
by Mark D. Lee, Jack W. Creagh, Lance R. Fredericks, Angela M. Crabtree, Jagdish Suresh Patel and Paul A. Rowley
Viruses 2022, 14(3), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14030594 - 13 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2786
Abstract
Mycoviruses are widely distributed across fungi, including the yeasts of the Saccharomycotina subphylum. This manuscript reports the first double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus isolated from Pichia membranifaciens. This novel virus has been named Pichia membranifaciens virus L-A (PmV-L-A) and is a member of the [...] Read more.
Mycoviruses are widely distributed across fungi, including the yeasts of the Saccharomycotina subphylum. This manuscript reports the first double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus isolated from Pichia membranifaciens. This novel virus has been named Pichia membranifaciens virus L-A (PmV-L-A) and is a member of the Totiviridae. PmV-L-A is 4579 bp in length, with RNA secondary structures similar to the packaging, replication, and frameshift signals of totiviruses that infect Saccharomycotina yeasts. PmV-L-A was found to be part of a monophyletic group within the I-A totiviruses, implying a shared ancestry between mycoviruses isolated from the Pichiaceae and Saccharomycetaceae yeasts. Energy-minimized AlphaFold2 molecular models of the PmV-L-A Gag protein revealed structural conservation with the Gag protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A (ScV-L-A). The predicted tertiary structure of the PmV-L-A Pol and other homologs provided a possible mechanism for totivirus RNA replication due to structural similarities with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of mammalian dsRNA viruses. Insights into the structure, function, and evolution of totiviruses gained from yeasts are essential because of their emerging role in animal disease and their parallels with mammalian viruses. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2020, 2019

20 pages, 2023 KiB  
Article
Identification and Molecular Characterization of Novel Mycoviruses in Saccharomyces and Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts of Oenological Interest
by Dalila Crucitti, Marco Chiapello, Daniele Oliva, Marco Forgia, Massimo Turina, Francesco Carimi, Francesca La Bella and Davide Pacifico
Viruses 2022, 14(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14010052 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
Wine yeasts can be natural hosts for dsRNA, ssRNA viruses and retrotransposon elements. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing combined with bioinformatic analyses unveiled the virome associated to 16 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains of oenological interest. Results showed the presence [...] Read more.
Wine yeasts can be natural hosts for dsRNA, ssRNA viruses and retrotransposon elements. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing combined with bioinformatic analyses unveiled the virome associated to 16 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains of oenological interest. Results showed the presence of six viruses and two satellite dsRNAs from four different families, two of which—Partitiviridae and Mitoviridae—were not reported before in yeasts, as well as two ORFan contigs of viral origin. According to phylogenetic analysis, four new putative mycoviruses distributed in Totivirus, Cryspovirus, and Mitovirus genera were identified. The majority of commercial S. cerevisiae strains were confirmed to be the host for helper L-A type totiviruses and satellite M dsRNAs associated with the killer phenotype, both in single and mixed infections with L-BC totiviruses, and two viral sequences belonging to a new cryspovirus putative species discovered here for the first time. Moreover, single infection by a narnavirus 20S-related sequence was also found in one S. cerevisiae strain. Considering the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, Starmerella bacillaris hosted four RNAs of viral origin—two clustering in Totivirus and Mitovirus genera, and two ORFans with putative satellite behavior. This study confirmed the infection of wine yeasts by viruses associated with useful technological characteristics and demonstrated the presence of complex mixed infections with unpredictable biological effects. Full article
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15 pages, 3086 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Four Novel dsRNA Viruses Isolated from Mucor hiemalis Strains
by Tünde Kartali, Ildikó Nyilasi, Sándor Kocsubé, Roland Patai, Tamás F. Polgár, Nóra Zsindely, Gábor Nagy, László Bodai, Zoltán Lipinszki, Csaba Vágvölgyi and Tamás Papp
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112319 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2641
Abstract
We previously screened the total nucleic acid extracts of 123 Mucor strains for the presence of dsRNA molecules without further molecular analyses. Here, we characterized five novel dsRNA genomes isolated from four different Mucor hiemalis strains with next-generation sequencing (NGS), namely Mucor [...] Read more.
We previously screened the total nucleic acid extracts of 123 Mucor strains for the presence of dsRNA molecules without further molecular analyses. Here, we characterized five novel dsRNA genomes isolated from four different Mucor hiemalis strains with next-generation sequencing (NGS), namely Mucor hiemalis virus 1a (MhV1a) from WRL CN(M) 122; Mucor hiemalis virus 1b (MhV1b) from NRRL 3624; Mucor hiemalis virus 2 (MhV2) from NRRL 3616; and Mucor hiemalis virus 3 (MhV3) and Mucor hiemalis virus (MhV4) from NRRL 3617 strains. Genomes contain two open reading frames (ORF), which encode the coat protein (CP) and the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. In MhV1a and MhV1b, it is predicted to be translated as a fusion protein via -1 ribosomal frameshift, while in MhV4 via a rare +1 (or−2) ribosomal frameshift. In MhV2 and MhV3, the presence of specific UAAUG pentanucleotide motif points to the fact for coupled translation termination and reinitialization. MhV1a, MhV2, and MhV3 are part of the clade representing the genus Victorivirus, while MhV4 is seated in Totivirus genus clade. The detected VLPs in Mucor strains were from 33 to 36 nm in diameter. Hybridization analysis revealed that the dsRNA molecules of MhV1a-MhV4 hybridized to the corresponding molecules. Full article
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18 pages, 2307 KiB  
Article
Omnipresence of Partitiviruses in Rice Aggregate Sheath Spot Symptom-Associated Fungal Isolates from Paddies in Thailand
by Sokty Neang, Santiti Bincader, Sansern Rangsuwan, Pisut Keawmanee, Soriya Rin, Lakha Salaipeth, Subha Das, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Ikuo Sato, Daigo Takemoto, Chainarong Rattanakreetakul, Ratiya Pongpisutta, Masao Arakawa and Sotaro Chiba
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2269; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112269 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2722
Abstract
Partitiviruses are one of the most prevalent double-stranded RNA viruses that have been identified mostly in filamentous fungi and plants. Partitiviruses generally infect host fungi asymptomatically but infrequently exert significant effect(s) on morphology and virulence, thus being considered a potential source of biological [...] Read more.
Partitiviruses are one of the most prevalent double-stranded RNA viruses that have been identified mostly in filamentous fungi and plants. Partitiviruses generally infect host fungi asymptomatically but infrequently exert significant effect(s) on morphology and virulence, thus being considered a potential source of biological control agents against pathogenic fungi. In this study, we performed a screening for mycoviruses of a collection of Thai isolates of rice fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia oryzae-sativae, a causal agent of rice aggregated sheath spot disease. As a result, 36% of tested isolates carried potentially viral double-stranded RNAs with sizes ranging from 2 to 3 kbp. By conventional cDNA library construction and RNA-seq, we determined six new alphapartitiviruses that infected three isolates: tentatively named Rhizoctonia oryzae-sativae partitivirus 1 to 6 (RosPV1-6). Furthermore, RT-PCR detection of each virus revealed their omnipresent nature in different R. oryzae-sativae isolates. Although virus-curing of basidiomycetous fungi is generally difficult, our repeated attempts successfully obtained virus-free (for RosPV1, RosPV2, and uncharacterized partitiviruses), isogenic strain of R. oryzae-sativae TSS190442. The virus-cured strain showed slightly faster colony growth on the synthetic media and severe symptom development on the rice sheath compared to its virus-infected counterpart. Overall, this study shed light on the distribution of partitiviruses in R. oryzae-sativae in a paddy environment and exemplified a virus-curing protocol that may be applicable for other basidiomycetous fungi. Full article
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14 pages, 2828 KiB  
Article
Genome Organizations and Functional Analyses of a Novel Gammapartitivirus from Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA Strain D122
by Meiling Zhang, Zhenrui He, Xiaotong Huang, Canwei Shu and Erxun Zhou
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112254 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
Here, we describe a novel double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus designated Rhizoctonia solani dsRNA virus 5 (RsRV5) from strain D122 of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA, the causal agent of rice sheath blight. The RsRV5 genome consists of two segments of dsRNA (dsRNA-1, 1894 [...] Read more.
Here, we describe a novel double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus designated Rhizoctonia solani dsRNA virus 5 (RsRV5) from strain D122 of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA, the causal agent of rice sheath blight. The RsRV5 genome consists of two segments of dsRNA (dsRNA-1, 1894 bp and dsRNA-2, 1755 bp), each possessing a single open reading frame (ORF). Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses showed that RsRV5 is a new member of the genus Gammapartitivirus in the family Partitiviridae. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images revealed that RsRV5 has isometric viral particles with a diameter of approximately 20 nm. The mycovirus RsRV5 was successfully removed from strain D122 by using the protoplast regeneration technique, thus resulting in derivative isogenic RsRV5-cured strain D122-P being obtained. RsRV5-cured strain D122-P possessed the traits of accelerated mycelial growth rate, increased sclerotia production and enhanced pathogenicity to rice leaves compared with wild type RsRV5-infection strain D122. Transcriptome analysis showed that three genes were differentially expressed between two isogenic strains, D122 and D122-P. These findings provided new insights into the molecular mechanism of the interaction between RsRV5 and its host, D122 of R. solani AG-1 IA. Full article
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14 pages, 6786 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of the First Alternavirus Identified in Fusarium oxysporum
by Caiyi Wen, Xinru Wan, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongyan Du, Chenxing Wei, Rongrong Zhong, Han Zhang, Yan Shi, Jiatao Xie, Yanping Fu and Ying Zhao
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 2026; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13102026 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2930
Abstract
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum alternavirus 1(FoAV1) was identified as infecting Fusarium oxysporum strain BH19, which was isolated from a fusarium wilt diseased stem of Lilium brownii. The genome of FoAV1 contains four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments (dsRNA1, dsRNA 2, dsRNA [...] Read more.
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum alternavirus 1(FoAV1) was identified as infecting Fusarium oxysporum strain BH19, which was isolated from a fusarium wilt diseased stem of Lilium brownii. The genome of FoAV1 contains four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments (dsRNA1, dsRNA 2, dsRNA 3 and dsRNA 4, with lengths of 3.3, 2.6, 2.3 and 1.8 kbp, respectively). Additionally, dsRNA1 encodes RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and dsRNA2- dsRNA3- and dsRNA4-encoded hypothetical proteins (ORF2, ORF3 and ORF4), respectively. A homology BLAST search, along with multiple alignments based on RdRp, ORF2 and ORF3 sequences, identified FoAV1 as a novel member of the proposed family “Alternaviridae. Evolutionary relation analyses indicated that FoAV1 may be related to alternaviruses, thus dividing the family “Alternaviridae” members into four clades. In addition, we determined that dsRNA4 was dispensable for replication and may be a satellite-like RNA of FoAV1—and could perhaps play a role in the evolution of alternaviruses. Our results provided evidence for potential genera establishment within the proposed family “Alternaviridae”. Additionally, FoAV1 exhibited biological control of Fusarium wilt. Our results also laid the foundations for the further study of mycoviruses within the family “Alternaviridae”, and provide a potential agent for the biocontrol of diseases caused by F. oxysporum. Full article
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16 pages, 5557 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Mycovirome from the Plant-Pathogenic Fungus Cercospora beticola
by Yingxi Li, Mengke Zhou, Yizhou Yang, Qi Liu, Zongying Zhang, Chenggui Han and Ying Wang
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13101915 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora beticola is a devastating foliar disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), resulting in high yield losses worldwide. Mycoviruses are widespread fungi viruses and can be used as a potential biocontrol agent for fugal disease [...] Read more.
Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora beticola is a devastating foliar disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), resulting in high yield losses worldwide. Mycoviruses are widespread fungi viruses and can be used as a potential biocontrol agent for fugal disease management. To determine the presence of mycoviruses in C. beticola, high-throughput sequencing analysis was used to determine the diversity of mycoviruses in 139 C. beticola isolates collected from major sugar beet production areas in China. The high-throughput sequencing reads were assembled and searched against the NCBI database using BLASTn and BLASTx. The results showed that the obtained 93 contigs were derived from eight novel mycoviruses, which were grouped into 3 distinct lineages, belonging to the families Hypoviridae, Narnaviridae and Botourmiaviridae, as well as some unclassified (−)ssRNA viruses in the order Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first identification of highly diverse mycoviruses in C. beticola. The novel mycoviruses explored in this study will provide new viral materials to biocontrol Cercospora diseases. Future studies of these mycoviruses will aim to assess the roles of each mycovirus in biological function of C. beticola in the future. Full article
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14 pages, 3248 KiB  
Article
Direct Metatranscriptomic Survey of the Sunflower Microbiome and Virome
by Ziyi Wang, Achal Neupane, Jiuhuan Feng, Connor Pedersen and Shin-Yi Lee Marzano
Viruses 2021, 13(9), 1867; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13091867 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2700
Abstract
Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) are susceptible to multiple diseases in field production. In this study, we collected diseased sunflower leaves in fields located in South Dakota, USA, for virome investigation. The leaves showed visible symptoms on the foliage, indicating phomopsis and rust [...] Read more.
Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) are susceptible to multiple diseases in field production. In this study, we collected diseased sunflower leaves in fields located in South Dakota, USA, for virome investigation. The leaves showed visible symptoms on the foliage, indicating phomopsis and rust infections. To identify the viruses potentially associated with the disease diagnosed, symptomatic leaves were obtained from diseased plants. Total RNA was extracted corresponding to each disease diagnosed to generate libraries for paired-end high throughput sequencing. Short sequencing reads were assembled de novo and the contigs with similarities to viruses were identified by aligning against a custom protein database. We report the discovery of two novel mitoviruses, four novel partitiviruses, one novel victorivirus, and nine novel totiviruses based on similarities to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and capsid proteins. Contigs similar to bean yellow mosaic virus and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus were also detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of direct metatranscriptomics discovery of viruses associated with fungal infections of sunflowers bypassing culturing. These newly discovered viruses represent a natural genetic resource from which we can further develop potential biopesticide to control sunflower diseases. Full article
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14 pages, 3762 KiB  
Article
Virus Infection of Aspergillus fumigatus Compromises the Fungus in Intermicrobial Competition
by Hasan Nazik, Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Gabriele Sass, Robert H. A. Coutts and David A. Stevens
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040686 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3093
Abstract
Aspergillus and Pseudomonas compete in nature, and are the commonest bacterial and fungal pathogens in some clinical settings, such as the cystic fibrosis lung. Virus infections of fungi occur naturally. Effects on fungal physiology need delineation. A common reference Aspergillus fumigatus strain, long [...] Read more.
Aspergillus and Pseudomonas compete in nature, and are the commonest bacterial and fungal pathogens in some clinical settings, such as the cystic fibrosis lung. Virus infections of fungi occur naturally. Effects on fungal physiology need delineation. A common reference Aspergillus fumigatus strain, long studied in two (of many) laboratories, was found infected with the AfuPmV-1 virus. One isolate was cured of virus, producing a virus-free strain. Virus from the infected strain was purified and used to re-infect three subcultures of the virus-free fungus, producing six fungal strains, otherwise isogenic. They were studied in intermicrobial competition with Pseudomonasaeruginosa. Pseudomonas culture filtrates inhibited forming or preformed Aspergillus biofilm from infected strains to a greater extent, also seen when Pseudomonas volatiles were assayed on Aspergillus. Purified iron-chelating Pseudomonas molecules, known inhibitors of Aspergillus biofilm, reproduced these differences. Iron, a stimulus of Aspergillus, enhanced the virus-free fungus, compared to infected. All infected fungal strains behaved similarly in assays. We show an important consequence of virus infection, a weakening in intermicrobial competition. Viral infection may affect the outcome of bacterial–fungal competition in nature and patients. We suggest that this occurs via alteration in fungal stress responses, the mechanism best delineated here is a result of virus-induced altered Aspergillus iron metabolism. Full article
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13 pages, 1938 KiB  
Communication
Characterization of the Mycovirome of the Phytopathogenic Fungus, Neofusicoccum parvum
by Armelle Marais, Chantal Faure, Gwenaëlle Comont, Thierry Candresse, Elodie Stempien and Marie-France Corio-Costet
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030375 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Neofusicoccum parvum is a fungal plant-pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, and is considered one of the most aggressive causal agents of the grapevine trunk disease (GTD) Botryosphaeria dieback. In this study, the mycovirome of a single strain of N. parvum (COLB) [...] Read more.
Neofusicoccum parvum is a fungal plant-pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, and is considered one of the most aggressive causal agents of the grapevine trunk disease (GTD) Botryosphaeria dieback. In this study, the mycovirome of a single strain of N. parvum (COLB) was characterized by high throughput sequencing analysis of total RNA and subsequent bioinformatic analyses. Contig annotations, genome completions, and phylogenetic analyses allowed us to describe six novel mycoviruses belonging to four different viral families. The virome is composed of two victoriviruses in the family Totiviridae, one alphaendornavirus in the family Endornaviridae, two mitoviruses in the family Mitoviridae, and one narnavirus belonging to the family Narnaviridae. The presence of the co-infecting viruses was confirmed by sequencing the RT-PCR products generated from total nucleic acids extracted from COLB. This study shows that the mycovirome of a single N. parvum strain is highly diverse and distinct from that previously described in N. parvum strains isolated from grapevines. Full article
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2020

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13 pages, 4165 KiB  
Article
Four Novel Botourmiaviruses Co-Infecting an Isolate of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae
by Yang Liu, Liyan Zhang, Ahmed Esmael, Jie Duan, Xuefeng Bian, Jichun Jia, Jiatao Xie, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Daohong Jiang and Yang Lin
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121383 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2650
Abstract
Via virome sequencing, six viruses were detected from Magnaporthe oryzae strains YC81-2, including one virus in the family Tombusviridae, one virus in the family Narnaviridae and four viruses in the family Botourmiaviridae. Since the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of one botourmiavirus [...] Read more.
Via virome sequencing, six viruses were detected from Magnaporthe oryzae strains YC81-2, including one virus in the family Tombusviridae, one virus in the family Narnaviridae and four viruses in the family Botourmiaviridae. Since the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of one botourmiavirus show the highest identity (79%) with Magnaporthe oryzae ourmia-like virus 1 (MOLV1), the virus that was grouped into the genus Magoulivirus was designated as Magnaporthe oryzae botourmiavirus 2 (MOBV2). The three other novel botourmiaviruses were selected for further study. The complete nucleotide sequences of the three botourmiaviruses were determined. Sequence analysis showed that virus 1, virus 2, and virus 3 were 2598, 2385, and 2326 nts in length, respectively. The variable 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) and 5′-UTR of each virus could be folded into a stable stem-loop secondary structure. Each virus consisted of a unique ORF encoding a putative RdRp. The putative proteins with a conserved GDD motif of RdRp showed the highest sequence similarity to RdRps of viruses in the family Botourmiaviridae. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these viruses were three distinct novel botourmiaviruses, clustered into the Botourmiaviridae family but not belonging to any known genera of this family. Thus, virus 1, virus 2, and virus 3 were designated as Magnaporthe oryzae botourmiavirus 5, 6, and 7 (MOBV5, MOBV6, and MOBV7), respectively. Our results suggest that four distinct botourmiaviruses, MOBV2, MOBV5, MOBV6, and MOBV7, co-infect a single strain of Magnaporthe oryzae, and MOBV5, MOBV6, and MOBV7 are members of three unclassified genera in the family Botourmiaviridae. Full article
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13 pages, 2232 KiB  
Communication
Description of a Novel Mycovirus in the Phytopathogen Fusarium culmorum and a Related EVE in the Yeast Lipomyces starkeyi
by Mathieu Mahillon, Gustavo Romay, Charlotte Liénard, Anne Legrève and Claude Bragard
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050523 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2829
Abstract
A new mycovirus was found in the Fusarium culmorum strain A104-1 originally sampled on wheat in Belgium. This novel virus, for which the name Fusarium culmorum virus 1 (FcV1) is suggested, is phylogenetically related to members of the previously proposed family ‘’Unirnaviridae’’. FcV1 [...] Read more.
A new mycovirus was found in the Fusarium culmorum strain A104-1 originally sampled on wheat in Belgium. This novel virus, for which the name Fusarium culmorum virus 1 (FcV1) is suggested, is phylogenetically related to members of the previously proposed family ‘’Unirnaviridae’’. FcV1 has a monopartite dsRNA genome of 2898 bp that harbors two large non-overlapping ORFs. A typical -1 slippery motif is found at the end of ORF1, advocating that ORF2 is translated by programmed ribosomal frameshifting. While ORF2 exhibits a conserved replicase domain, ORF1 encodes for an undetermined protein. Interestingly, a hypothetically transcribed gene similar to unirnaviruses ORF1 was found in the genome of Lipomyces starkeyi, presumably resulting from a viral endogenization in this yeast. Conidial isolation and chemical treatment were unsuccessful to obtain a virus-free isogenic line of the fungal host, highlighting a high retention rate for FcV1 but hindering its biological characterization. In parallel, attempt to horizontally transfer FcV1 to another strain of F. culmorum by dual culture failed. Eventually, a screening of other strains of the same fungal species suggests the presence of FcV1 in two other strains from Europe. Full article
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20 pages, 4464 KiB  
Article
ORF Ι of Mycovirus SsNSRV-1 is Associated with Debilitating Symptoms of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
by Zhixiao Gao, Junyan Wu, Daohong Jiang, Jiatao Xie, Jiasen Cheng and Yang Lin
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040456 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3863
Abstract
We previously identified Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), the first (−) ssRNA mycovirus, associated with hypovirulence of its fungal host Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, functional analysis of Open Reading Frame Ι (ORF Ι) of SsNSRV-1 was performed. The [...] Read more.
We previously identified Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), the first (−) ssRNA mycovirus, associated with hypovirulence of its fungal host Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, functional analysis of Open Reading Frame Ι (ORF Ι) of SsNSRV-1 was performed. The integration and expression of ORF Ι led to defects in hyphal tips, vegetative growth, and virulence of the mutant strains of S. sclerotiorum. Further, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) responding to the expression of ORF Ι were identified by transcriptome analysis. In all, 686 DEGs consisted of 267 up-regulated genes and 419 down-regulated genes. DEGs reprogramed by ORF Ι were relevant to secretory proteins, pathogenicity, transcription, transmembrane transport, protein biosynthesis, modification, and metabolism. Alternative splicing was also detected in all mutant strains, but not in hypovirulent strain AH98, which was co-infected by SsNSRV-1 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV-1). Thus, the integrity of SsNSRV-1 genome may be necessary to protect viral mRNA from splicing and inactivation by the host. Taken together, the results suggested that protein ORF Ι could regulate the transcription, translation, and modification of host genes in order to facilitate viral proliferation and reduce the virulence of the host. Therefore, ORF Ι may be a potential gene used for the prevention of S. sclerotiorum. Full article
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10 pages, 2387 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of a Novel Strain of Fusarium graminearum Virus 1 Infecting Fusarium graminearum
by Lihang Zhang, Xiaoguang Chen, Pallab Bhattacharjee, Yue Shi, Lihua Guo and Shuangchao Wang
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030357 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4002
Abstract
Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) have attracted more attention for their possible hypovirulence (attenuation of fungal virulence) trait, which may be developed as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most discovered mycoviruses are asymptomatic in their hosts. In most cases, mycovirus hypovirulent factors [...] Read more.
Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) have attracted more attention for their possible hypovirulence (attenuation of fungal virulence) trait, which may be developed as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most discovered mycoviruses are asymptomatic in their hosts. In most cases, mycovirus hypovirulent factors have not been explored clearly. In this study, we characterized a ssRNA mycovirus in Fusarium graminearum strain HB56-9. The complete nucleotide genome was obtained by combining random sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full genome was 6621-nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail. The mycovirus was quite interesting because it shared 95.91% nucleotide identities with previously reported Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain DK21 (FgV1-DK21), while the colony morphology of their fungal hosts on PDA plates were very different. The novel virus was named Fusarium graminearum virus 1 Chinese isolate (FgV1-ch). Like FgV1-DK21, FgV1-ch also contains four putative open reading frames (ORFs), including one long and three short ORFs. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that FgV1-ch is clustered into a proposed family Fusariviridae. FgV1-ch, unlike FgV1-DK21, had mild or no effects on host mycelial growth, spore production and virulence. The nucleotide differences between FgV1-ch and FgV1-DK21 will help to elucidate the hypovirulence determinants during mycovirus–host interaction. Full article
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14 pages, 2928 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Incidence of the First Member of the Genus Mitovirus Identified in the Phytopathogenic Species Fusarium oxysporum
by Almudena Torres-Trenas and Encarnación Pérez-Artés
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030279 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3350
Abstract
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mitovirus 1 (FodMV1) has been identified infecting a strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi from Colombia. The genome of FodMV1 is 2313 nt long, and comprises a 172-nt 5’-UTR, a 2025-nt single ORF [...] Read more.
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mitovirus 1 (FodMV1) has been identified infecting a strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi from Colombia. The genome of FodMV1 is 2313 nt long, and comprises a 172-nt 5’-UTR, a 2025-nt single ORF encoding an RdRp of 675 amino acid residues, and a 113-nt 3´-UTR. Homology BlastX searches identifies FodMV1 as a novel member of the genus Mitovirus in the family Narnaviridae. As the rest of mitoviruses, the genome of FodMV1 presents a high percentage of A+U (58.8%) and contains a number of UGA codons that encode the amino acid tryptophan rather than acting as stop codons as in the universal genetic code. Another common feature with other mitoviruses is that the 5′- and 3′-UTR regions of FodMV1 can be folded into potentially stable stem-loop structures. Result from phylogenetic analysis place FodMV1 in a different clade than the rest of mitoviruses described in other Fusarium spp. Incidence of FodMV1-infections in the collection of F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi isolates analyzed is relatively high. Of particular interest is the fact that FodMV1 has been detected infecting isolates from two geographical areas as distant as Spain and Colombia. Full article
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10 pages, 2082 KiB  
Communication
Molecular Characterization of a Novel Ourmia-Like Virus Infecting Phoma matteucciicola
by Jia Zhou, Yuhua Wang, Xiaofei Liang, Changping Xie, Wenbo Liu, Weiguo Miao, Zhensheng Kang and Li Zheng
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020231 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3323
Abstract
Here, we report a novel (+) ssRNA mycovirus, Phoma matteucciicola ourmia-like virus 1 (PmOLV1), isolated from Phoma matteucciicola strain LG915-1. The genome of PmOLV1 was 2603 nucleotides long and contained a single open reading frame (ORF), which could be translated into a product [...] Read more.
Here, we report a novel (+) ssRNA mycovirus, Phoma matteucciicola ourmia-like virus 1 (PmOLV1), isolated from Phoma matteucciicola strain LG915-1. The genome of PmOLV1 was 2603 nucleotides long and contained a single open reading frame (ORF), which could be translated into a product of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codons. Cellular fractionation assay indicated that PmOLV1 RNAs are likely more enriched in mitochondria than in cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PmOLV1 is a new member of the genus Penoulivirus (recently proposed) within the family Botourmiaviridae. Full article
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2019

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15 pages, 25873 KiB  
Article
Chrysoviruses Inhabited Symbiotic Fungi of Lichens
by Karel Petrzik, Igor Koloniuk, Hana Sehadová and Tatiana Sarkisova
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121120 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4441
Abstract
A lichen body is formed most often from green alga cells trapped in a net of ascomycetous fungi and accompanied by endolichenic or parasitic fungi, other algae, and symbiotic or free-living bacteria. The lichen’s microcosmos is inhabited by mites, insects, and other animals [...] Read more.
A lichen body is formed most often from green alga cells trapped in a net of ascomycetous fungi and accompanied by endolichenic or parasitic fungi, other algae, and symbiotic or free-living bacteria. The lichen’s microcosmos is inhabited by mites, insects, and other animals for which the lichen is a source of food or a place to live. Novel, four-segmented dsRNA viruses were detected in saxicolous Chrysothrix chlorina and Lepraria incana lichens. Comparison of encoded genome proteins revealed classification of the viruses to the genus Alphachrysovirus and a relationship to chrysoviruses from filamentous ascomycetous fungi. We propose the names Chrysothrix chrysovirus 1 (CcCV1) and Lepraria chrysovirus 1 (LiCV1) as acronyms for these viruses. Surprisingly, observation of Chrysothrix chlorina hybridization with fluorescent-labelled virus probe by confocal microscope revealed that the CcCV1 virus is not present in the lichen body-forming fungus but in accompanying endolichenic Penicillium citreosulfuratum fungus. These are the first descriptions of mycoviruses from a lichen environment. Full article
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