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Viruses 2019, 11(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020114

The Two Prevalent Genotypes of an Emerging Infectious Disease, Deformed Wing Virus, Cause Equally Low Pupal Mortality and Equally High Wing Deformities in Host Honey Bees

1
General Zoology, Institute for Biology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Hoher Weg 8, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
2
Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Can Tho City 94709, Vietnam
3
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
4
Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, University of Applied Sciences, Wiesenstrasse 14, 35390 Gießen, Germany
5
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Charlotte Auerbach Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Abstract

Deformed wing virus (DWV) is an emerging infectious disease of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) that is considered a major cause of elevated losses of honey bee colonies. DWV comprises two widespread genotypes: the originally described genotype A, and genotype B. In adult honey bees, DWV-B has been shown to be more virulent than DWV-A. However, their comparative effects on earlier host developmental stages are unknown. Here, we experimentally inoculated honey bee pupae and tested for the relative impact of DWV-A versus DWV-B on mortality and wing deformities in eclosing adults. DWV-A and DWV-B caused similar, and only slightly elevated, pupal mortality (mean 18% greater mortality than control). Both genotypes caused similarly high wing deformities in eclosing adults (mean 60% greater wing deformities than control). Viral titer was high in all of the experimentally inoculated eclosing adults, and was independent of wing deformities, suggesting that the phenotype ‘deformed wings’ is not directly related to viral titer or viral genotype. These viral traits favor the emergence of both genotypes of DWV by not limiting the reproduction of its vector, the ectoparasitic Varroa destructor mite, in infected pupae, and thereby facilitating the spread of DWV in honey bees infested by the mite. View Full-Text
Keywords: pathology; virulence; positive single-strand RNA virus; DWV; genotype A; genotype B; Apis rhadbovirus-1; Apis mellifera pathology; virulence; positive single-strand RNA virus; DWV; genotype A; genotype B; Apis rhadbovirus-1; Apis mellifera
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tehel, A.; Vu, Q.; Bigot, D.; Gogol-Döring, A.; Koch, P.; Jenkins, C.; Doublet, V.; Theodorou, P.; Paxton, R. The Two Prevalent Genotypes of an Emerging Infectious Disease, Deformed Wing Virus, Cause Equally Low Pupal Mortality and Equally High Wing Deformities in Host Honey Bees. Viruses 2019, 11, 114.

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