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Special Issue "Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Filippo Rossi

Section of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Animal Sciences, Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Catholic University, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39 0523599286
Interests: mycotoxins; food safety; food evaluation; food and health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are one of the most relevant threats to human health. They represent the most important class of chemical hazards recorded in the European Rapid Alert System on Feed and Food (RASFF). In 2017, 43.4% of the alerts concerning a potential threat to human health from chemical contaminants were due to mycotoxins.

Besides the old toxic compounds of fungal origin, such as: aflatoxins, DON, fumonisins, ochratoxins, zearalenon etc., new mycotoxins are coming into the spotlight: enniatins, beauvericin, sterigmatocystin, citrinin, etc. In addition, the old mycotoxins are showing new toxic properties.

The reduction of mycotoxin contamination in the food chain can be obtained through actions that start from seeding and end with feed and food processing. Crop variety, amount of fertilizer, and use of pesticide are agronomic techniques that can modify the susceptibility of crops to fungal attack, and consequently the production of mycotoxins in the field.

Genetic improvements to crops and biotechnology are useful tools for reducing mycotoxin contamination in crops. The fight against toxins of fungal origin can also be continued during storage and food processing, where the adoption of new technologies can sharply reduce the levels of mycotoxins. In the field of animal nutrition, new opportunities to reduce the carry-over of these toxins are disclosed by the use of sequestering agents, and also by vaccination against mycotoxins.

In recent years, dietary exposure to mycotoxins has been linked to chronic inflammation or to cancer in organs different from those already known to be a target of mycotoxins. In addition, the new foods and new dietary patterns introduced by people moving from Africa or Asia to Western countries make it necessary to update the risk assessment deriving from mycotoxin exposure through food consumption.

The aim of this Issue is to provide an update on the prevalence of mycotoxin contamination in feeds and foods, the effects of mycotoxins on human health, and the reduction of mycotoxin contamination in raw materials and processed foods. The reduction of mycotoxin carry-over in food from animal sources will also be covered. One chapter will deal with the potential role of biotechnology as a tool to reduce the hazards associated with mycotoxins in the food chain.

Dr. Filippo Rossi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • cancer
  • chronic inflammation
  • mycotoxins detoxification
  • biotechnology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Azoxystrobin on Mycotoxins and Related Fungi in Italian Paddy Rice
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
The efficacy of azoxystrobin was evaluated in the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi and relative mycotoxins in Italian paddy rice during the growing season in the field. Three experimental fields were considered and the applied experimental design was a strip plot with three replicates; [...] Read more.
The efficacy of azoxystrobin was evaluated in the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi and relative mycotoxins in Italian paddy rice during the growing season in the field. Three experimental fields were considered and the applied experimental design was a strip plot with three replicates; rice samples were collected at four different growing stages. The efficacy of the fungicide treatment on rice fungal population was demonstrated with around 20% less total fungal incidence in sprayed samples compared to untreated ones; the same decrease was noted also in Fusarium spp. species but not in Aspergillus versicolor. Of the mycotoxins considered, ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFBs) were never detected, deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 46% of samples at levels always lower than 100 µg/kg, while sterigmatocystin (STC) occurred in all the paddy rice samples collected after flowering, with a maximum value of 15.5 µg/kg. Treatment with azoxystrobin was not effective in reducing DON contamination, but it had an important and significant effect on STC content, showing a decrease of 67% in the sprayed samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Mycotoxins and Phytoestrogens in Plant-Based Fish Feed and Exposed Fish
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
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Abstract
New protein sources in fish feed require the assessment of the carry-over potential of contaminants and anti-nutrients from feed ingredients into the fish, and the assessment of possible health risks for consumers. Presently, plant materials including wheat and legumes make up the largest [...] Read more.
New protein sources in fish feed require the assessment of the carry-over potential of contaminants and anti-nutrients from feed ingredients into the fish, and the assessment of possible health risks for consumers. Presently, plant materials including wheat and legumes make up the largest part of aquafeeds, so evaluation of the transfer capabilities of typical toxic metabolites from plant-infesting fungi and of vegetable phytoestrogens into fish products is of great importance. With the aim of facilitating surveillance of relevant mycotoxins and isoflavones, we have developed and validated a multi-analyte LC-HRMS/MS method that can be used to ensure compliance to set maximum levels in feed and fish. The method performance characteristics were determined, showing high specificity for all 25 targeted analytes, which included 19 mycotoxins and three isoflavones and their corresponding aglycons with sufficient to excellent sensitivities and uniform analytical linearity in different matrices. Depending on the availability of matching stable isotope-labelled derivates or similar-structure homologues, calibration curves were generated either by using internal standards or by matrix-matched external standards. Precision and recovery data were in the accepted range, although they varied between the different analytes. This new method was considered as fit-for-purpose and applied for the analysis of customised fish feed containing wheat gluten, soy, or pea protein concentrate as well as salmon and zebrafish fed on diets with these ingredients for a period of up to eight weeks. Only mycotoxin enniatin B, at a level near the limit of detection, and low levels of isoflavones were detected in the feed, demonstrating the effectiveness of maximum level recommendations and modern feed processing technologies in the Norwegian aquaculture industry. Consequently, carry-over into fish muscle was not observed, confirming that fillets from plant-fed salmon were safe for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Fumonisins: Impact on Agriculture, Food, and Human Health and their Management Strategies
Received: 4 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
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Abstract
The fumonisins producing fungi, Fusarium spp., are ubiquitous in nature and contaminate several food matrices that pose detrimental health hazards on humans as well as on animals. This has necessitated profound research for the control and management of the toxins to guarantee better [...] Read more.
The fumonisins producing fungi, Fusarium spp., are ubiquitous in nature and contaminate several food matrices that pose detrimental health hazards on humans as well as on animals. This has necessitated profound research for the control and management of the toxins to guarantee better health of consumers. This review highlights the chemistry and biosynthesis process of the fumonisins, their occurrence, effect on agriculture and food, along with their associated health issues. In addition, the focus has been put on the detection and management of fumonisins to ensure safe and healthy food. The main focus of the review is to provide insights to the readers regarding their health-associated food consumption and possible outbreaks. Furthermore, the consumers’ knowledge and an attempt will ensure food safety and security and the farmers’ knowledge for healthy agricultural practices, processing, and management, important to reduce the mycotoxin outbreaks due to fumonisins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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