Special Issue "Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Filippo Rossi
Website
Guest Editor
Section of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Animal Sciences, Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Catholic University, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy
Interests: mycotoxins; food safety; food evaluation; food and health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are one of the most relevant threats to human health. They represent the most important class of chemical hazards recorded in the European Rapid Alert System on Feed and Food (RASFF). In 2017, 43.4% of the alerts concerning a potential threat to human health from chemical contaminants were due to mycotoxins.

Besides the old toxic compounds of fungal origin, such as: aflatoxins, DON, fumonisins, ochratoxins, zearalenon etc., new mycotoxins are coming into the spotlight: enniatins, beauvericin, sterigmatocystin, citrinin, etc. In addition, the old mycotoxins are showing new toxic properties.

The reduction of mycotoxin contamination in the food chain can be obtained through actions that start from seeding and end with feed and food processing. Crop variety, amount of fertilizer, and use of pesticide are agronomic techniques that can modify the susceptibility of crops to fungal attack, and consequently the production of mycotoxins in the field.

Genetic improvements to crops and biotechnology are useful tools for reducing mycotoxin contamination in crops. The fight against toxins of fungal origin can also be continued during storage and food processing, where the adoption of new technologies can sharply reduce the levels of mycotoxins. In the field of animal nutrition, new opportunities to reduce the carry-over of these toxins are disclosed by the use of sequestering agents, and also by vaccination against mycotoxins.

In recent years, dietary exposure to mycotoxins has been linked to chronic inflammation or to cancer in organs different from those already known to be a target of mycotoxins. In addition, the new foods and new dietary patterns introduced by people moving from Africa or Asia to Western countries make it necessary to update the risk assessment deriving from mycotoxin exposure through food consumption.

The aim of this Issue is to provide an update on the prevalence of mycotoxin contamination in feeds and foods, the effects of mycotoxins on human health, and the reduction of mycotoxin contamination in raw materials and processed foods. The reduction of mycotoxin carry-over in food from animal sources will also be covered. One chapter will deal with the potential role of biotechnology as a tool to reduce the hazards associated with mycotoxins in the food chain.

Dr. Filippo Rossi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • cancer
  • chronic inflammation
  • mycotoxins detoxification
  • biotechnology

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Removal of Small Kernels Reduces the Content of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Oat Grain
Toxins 2020, 12(5), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12050346 - 23 May 2020
Abstract
Cereal grain contaminated by Fusarium mycotoxins is undesirable in food and feed because of the harmful health effects of the mycotoxins in humans and animals. Reduction of mycotoxin content in grain by cleaning and size sorting has mainly been studied in wheat. We [...] Read more.
Cereal grain contaminated by Fusarium mycotoxins is undesirable in food and feed because of the harmful health effects of the mycotoxins in humans and animals. Reduction of mycotoxin content in grain by cleaning and size sorting has mainly been studied in wheat. We investigated whether the removal of small kernels by size sorting could be a method to reduce the content of mycotoxins in oat grain. Samples from 24 Norwegian mycotoxin-contaminated grain lots (14 from 2015 and 10 from 2018) were sorted by a laboratory sieve (sieve size 2.2 mm) into large and small kernel fractions and, in addition to unsorted grain samples, analyzed with LC-MS-MS for quantification of 10 mycotoxins. By removing the small kernel fraction (on average 15% and 21% of the weight of the samples from the two years, respectively), the mean concentrations of HT-2+T-2 toxins were reduced by 56% (from 745 to 328 µg/kg) in the 2015 samples and by 32% (from 178 to 121 µg/kg) in the 2018 samples. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was reduced by 24% (from 191 to 145 µg/kg) in the 2018 samples, and enniatin B (EnnB) by 44% (from 1059 to 594 µg/kg) in the 2015 samples. Despite low levels, our analyses showed a trend towards reduced content of DON, ADON, NIV, EnnA, EnnA1, EnnB1 and BEA after removing the small kernel fraction in samples from 2015. For several of the mycotoxins, the concentrations were considerably higher in the small kernel fraction compared to unsorted grain. Our results demonstrate that the level of mycotoxins in unprocessed oat grain can be reduced by removing small kernels. We assume that our study is the first report on the effect of size sorting on the content of enniatins (Enns), NIV and BEA in oat grains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Open AccessArticle
Aflatoxin M1 Determination in Infant Formulae Distributed in Monterrey, Mexico
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020100 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in infant formulae commercialized in the metropolitan area of Monterrey (Nuevo León, Mexico) was determined by using immunoaffinity column clean-up followed by HPLC determination with fluorimetric detection. For this, 55 infant formula powders were [...] Read more.
The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in infant formulae commercialized in the metropolitan area of Monterrey (Nuevo León, Mexico) was determined by using immunoaffinity column clean-up followed by HPLC determination with fluorimetric detection. For this, 55 infant formula powders were classified in two groups, starter (49 samples) and follow-on (6 samples) formulae. Eleven of the evaluated samples (20%) presented values above the permissible limit set by the European Union for infant formulae (25 ng/L), ranging from 40 to 450 ng/L. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for AFM1 was determined employing the average body weight (bw) of the groups of age in the ranges of 0–6 and 6–12 months, and 1–2 years. The results evidenced high intake values, ranging from 1.56 to 14 ng/kg bw/day, depending on the group. Finally, with the EDI value, the carcinogenic risk index was determined, presenting a high risk for all the evaluated groups. Based on these results, it is a necessary extra effort by the regulatory agencies to reduce the AFM1 presence in infant formulae consumed in Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
Open AccessArticle
Phytotoxic Responses of Soybean (Glycine max L.) to Botryodiplodin, a Toxin Produced by the Charcoal Rot Disease Fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina
Toxins 2020, 12(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12010025 - 01 Jan 2020
Abstract
Toxins have been proposed to facilitate fungal root infection by creating regions of readily-penetrated necrotic tissue when applied externally to intact roots. Isolates of the charcoal rot disease fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina, from soybean plants in Mississippi produced a phytotoxic toxin, (−)-botryodiplodin, but [...] Read more.
Toxins have been proposed to facilitate fungal root infection by creating regions of readily-penetrated necrotic tissue when applied externally to intact roots. Isolates of the charcoal rot disease fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina, from soybean plants in Mississippi produced a phytotoxic toxin, (−)-botryodiplodin, but no detectable phaseolinone, a toxin previously proposed to play a role in the root infection mechanism. This study was undertaken to determine if (−)-botryodiplodin induces toxic responses of the types that could facilitate root infection. (±)-Botryodiplodin prepared by chemical synthesis caused phytotoxic effects identical to those observed with (−)-botryodiplodin preparations from M. phaseolina culture filtrates, consistent with fungus-induced phytotoxicity being due to (−)-botryodiplodin, not phaseolinone or other unknown impurities. Soybean leaf disc cultures of Saline cultivar were more susceptible to (±)-botryodiplodin phytotoxicity than were cultures of two charcoal rot-resistant genotypes, DS97-84-1 and DT97-4290. (±)-Botryodiplodin caused similar phytotoxicity in actively growing duckweed (Lemna pausicostata) plantlet cultures, but at much lower concentrations. In soybean seedlings growing in hydroponic culture, (±)-botryodiplodin added to culture medium inhibited lateral and tap root growth, and caused loss of root caps and normal root tip cellular structure. Thus, botryodiplodin applied externally to undisturbed soybean roots induced phytotoxic responses of types expected to facilitate fungal root infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Open AccessArticle
Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Fumonisin B1 and B2 Mycotoxins in Maize-Based Food Products in Hungary
Toxins 2019, 11(12), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11120709 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fumonisins are toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. Their toxicity was evaluated, and health-based guidance values established on the basis of both Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. This [...] Read more.
Fumonisins are toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. Their toxicity was evaluated, and health-based guidance values established on the basis of both Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. This study presents the results of fumonisin analyses in different maize- and rice-based food products in Hungary and the potential health risk arising from their dietary intake. In total, 326 samples were measured in 2017 and 2018 to determine fumonisins B1 and B2 levels. Three-day dietary record data were collected from 4992 consumers, in 2009. For each food category, the average concentration values were multiplied by the relevant individual consumption data, and the results were compared to the reference values. With respect to the maximum limits, one maize flour, two maize grits, and two samples of other maize-based, snack-like products had total fumonisin content minimally exceeding the EU regulatory limit. The mean daily intake for all maize-product consumers was 0.045–0.120 µg/kg bw/day. The high intake (95 percentile) ranged between 0.182 and 0.396 µg/kg bw/day, well below the 1 µg/kg bw/day tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by EFSA. While the intake calculations resulted in comforting results, maize-based products may indeed be contaminated by fumonisins. Therefore, frequent monitoring of fumonisins’ levels and evaluation of their intakes using the best available data are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Open AccessArticle
Species Composition and Toxigenic Potential of Fusarium Isolates Causing Fruit Rot of Sweet Pepper in China
Toxins 2019, 11(12), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11120690 - 24 Nov 2019
Abstract
Apart from causing serious yield losses, various kinds of mycotoxins may be accumulated in plant tissues infected by Fusarium strains. Fusarium mycotoxin contamination is one of the most important concerns in the food safety field nowadays. However, limited information on the causal agents, [...] Read more.
Apart from causing serious yield losses, various kinds of mycotoxins may be accumulated in plant tissues infected by Fusarium strains. Fusarium mycotoxin contamination is one of the most important concerns in the food safety field nowadays. However, limited information on the causal agents, etiology, and mycotoxin production of this disease is available on pepper in China. This research was conducted to identify the Fusarium species causing pepper fruit rot and analyze their toxigenic potential in China. Forty-two Fusarium strains obtained from diseased pepper from six provinces were identified as F. equiseti (27 strains), F. solani (10 strains), F. fujikuroi (five strains). This is the first report of F. equiseti, F. solani and F. fujikuroi associated with pepper fruit rot in China, which revealed that the population structure of Fusarium species in this study was quite different from those surveyed in other countries, such as Canada and Belgium. The mycotoxin production capabilities were assessed using a well-established liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method. Out of the thirty-six target mycotoxins, fumonisins B1 and B2, fusaric acid, beauvericin, moniliformin, and nivalenol were detected in pepper tissues. Furthermore, some mycotoxins were found in non-colonized parts of sweet pepper fruit, implying migration from colonized to non-colonized parts of pepper tissues, which implied the risk of mycotoxin contamination in non-infected parts of food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Open AccessArticle
Toxin Production in Soybean (Glycine max L.) Plants with Charcoal Rot Disease and by Macrophomina phaseolina, the Fungus that Causes the Disease
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110645 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Charcoal rot disease, caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, results in major economic losses in soybean production in southern USA. M. phaseolina has been proposed to use the toxin (-)-botryodiplodin in its root infection mechanism to create a necrotic zone in root [...] Read more.
Charcoal rot disease, caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, results in major economic losses in soybean production in southern USA. M. phaseolina has been proposed to use the toxin (-)-botryodiplodin in its root infection mechanism to create a necrotic zone in root tissue through which fungal hyphae can readily enter the plant. The majority (51.4%) of M. phaseolina isolates from plants with charcoal rot disease produced a wide range of (-)-botryodiplodin concentrations in a culture medium (0.14–6.11 µg/mL), 37.8% produced traces below the limit of quantification (0.01 µg/mL), and 10.8% produced no detectable (-)-botryodiplodin. Some culture media with traces or no (-)-botryodiplodin were nevertheless strongly phytotoxic in soybean leaf disc cultures, consistent with the production of another unidentified toxin(s). Widely ranging (-)-botryodiplodin levels (traces to 3.14 µg/g) were also observed in the roots, but not in the aerial parts, of soybean plants naturally infected with charcoal rot disease. This is the first report of (-)-botryodiplodin in plant tissues naturally infected with charcoal rot disease. No phaseolinone was detected in M. phaseolina culture media or naturally infected soybean tissues. These results are consistent with (-)-botryodiplodin playing a role in the pathology of some, but not all, M. phaseolina isolates from soybeans with charcoal rot disease in southern USA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Open AccessArticle
Aflatoxin B1 Conversion by Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larval Enzyme Extracts
Toxins 2019, 11(9), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11090532 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel protein source for food and feed. Previous research has found that insects, including BSFL, are capable of metabolically converting aflatoxin B1 (AFB [...] Read more.
The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel protein source for food and feed. Previous research has found that insects, including BSFL, are capable of metabolically converting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but recovery of total AFB1 is less than 20% when accounting for its conversion to most known metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the conversion of AFB1 by S9 extracts of BSFL reared on substrates with or without AFB1. Liver S9 of Aroclor-induced rats was used as a reference. To investigate whether cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the conversion of AFB1, the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was tested in a number of treatments. The results showed that approximately 60% of AFB1 was converted to aflatoxicol and aflatoxin P1. The remaining 40% of AFB1 was not converted. Cytochrome P450s were indeed responsible for metabolic conversion of AFB1 into AFP1, and a cytoplasmic reductase was most likely responsible for conversion of AFB1 into aflatoxicol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Open AccessArticle
Ergochromes: Heretofore Neglected Side of Ergot Toxicity
Toxins 2019, 11(8), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11080439 - 25 Jul 2019
Abstract
Ergot, fungal genus Claviceps, are worldwide distributed grass pathogens known for their production of toxic ergot alkaloids (EAs) and the great agricultural impact they have on both cereal crop and farm animal production. EAs are traditionally considered as the only factor responsible [...] Read more.
Ergot, fungal genus Claviceps, are worldwide distributed grass pathogens known for their production of toxic ergot alkaloids (EAs) and the great agricultural impact they have on both cereal crop and farm animal production. EAs are traditionally considered as the only factor responsible for ergot toxicity. Using broad sampling covering 13 ergot species infecting wild or agricultural grasses (including cereals) across Europe, USA, New Zealand, and South Africa we showed that the content of ergochrome pigments were comparable to the content of EAs in sclerotia. While secalonic acids A–C (SAs), the main ergot ergochromes (ECs), are well known toxins, our study is the first to address the question about their contribution to overall ergot toxicity. Based on our and published data, the importance of SAs in acute intoxication seems to be negligible, but the effect of chronic exposure needs to be evaluated. Nevertheless, they have biological activities at doses corresponding to quantities found in natural conditions. Our study highlights the need for a re-evaluation of ergot toxicity mechanisms and further studies of SAs’ impact on livestock production and food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Azoxystrobin on Mycotoxins and Related Fungi in Italian Paddy Rice
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060310 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The efficacy of azoxystrobin was evaluated in the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi and relative mycotoxins in Italian paddy rice during the growing season in the field. Three experimental fields were considered and the applied experimental design was a strip plot with three replicates; [...] Read more.
The efficacy of azoxystrobin was evaluated in the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi and relative mycotoxins in Italian paddy rice during the growing season in the field. Three experimental fields were considered and the applied experimental design was a strip plot with three replicates; rice samples were collected at four different growing stages. The efficacy of the fungicide treatment on rice fungal population was demonstrated with around 20% less total fungal incidence in sprayed samples compared to untreated ones; the same decrease was noted also in Fusarium spp. species but not in Aspergillus versicolor. Of the mycotoxins considered, ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFBs) were never detected, deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 46% of samples at levels always lower than 100 µg/kg, while sterigmatocystin (STC) occurred in all the paddy rice samples collected after flowering, with a maximum value of 15.5 µg/kg. Treatment with azoxystrobin was not effective in reducing DON contamination, but it had an important and significant effect on STC content, showing a decrease of 67% in the sprayed samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Mycotoxins and Phytoestrogens in Plant-Based Fish Feed and Exposed Fish
Toxins 2019, 11(4), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040222 - 13 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
New protein sources in fish feed require the assessment of the carry-over potential of contaminants and anti-nutrients from feed ingredients into the fish, and the assessment of possible health risks for consumers. Presently, plant materials including wheat and legumes make up the largest [...] Read more.
New protein sources in fish feed require the assessment of the carry-over potential of contaminants and anti-nutrients from feed ingredients into the fish, and the assessment of possible health risks for consumers. Presently, plant materials including wheat and legumes make up the largest part of aquafeeds, so evaluation of the transfer capabilities of typical toxic metabolites from plant-infesting fungi and of vegetable phytoestrogens into fish products is of great importance. With the aim of facilitating surveillance of relevant mycotoxins and isoflavones, we have developed and validated a multi-analyte LC-HRMS/MS method that can be used to ensure compliance to set maximum levels in feed and fish. The method performance characteristics were determined, showing high specificity for all 25 targeted analytes, which included 19 mycotoxins and three isoflavones and their corresponding aglycons with sufficient to excellent sensitivities and uniform analytical linearity in different matrices. Depending on the availability of matching stable isotope-labelled derivates or similar-structure homologues, calibration curves were generated either by using internal standards or by matrix-matched external standards. Precision and recovery data were in the accepted range, although they varied between the different analytes. This new method was considered as fit-for-purpose and applied for the analysis of customised fish feed containing wheat gluten, soy, or pea protein concentrate as well as salmon and zebrafish fed on diets with these ingredients for a period of up to eight weeks. Only mycotoxin enniatin B, at a level near the limit of detection, and low levels of isoflavones were detected in the feed, demonstrating the effectiveness of maximum level recommendations and modern feed processing technologies in the Norwegian aquaculture industry. Consequently, carry-over into fish muscle was not observed, confirming that fillets from plant-fed salmon were safe for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Co-Occurrence and Combinatory Effects of Alternaria Mycotoxins and Other Xenobiotics of Food Origin: Current Scenario and Future Perspectives
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110640 - 03 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Mycotoxins are low-molecular weight compounds produced by diverse genera of molds that may contaminate food and feed threatening the health of humans and animals. Recent findings underline the importance of studying the combined occurrence of multiple mycotoxins and the relevance of assessing the [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are low-molecular weight compounds produced by diverse genera of molds that may contaminate food and feed threatening the health of humans and animals. Recent findings underline the importance of studying the combined occurrence of multiple mycotoxins and the relevance of assessing the toxicity their simultaneous exposure may cause in living organisms. In this context, for the first time, this work has critically reviewed the most relevant data concerning the occurrence and toxicity of mycotoxins produced by Alternaria spp., which are among the most important emerging risks to be assessed in food safety, alone or in combination with other mycotoxins and bioactive food constituents. According to the literature covered, multiple Alternaria mycotoxins may often occur simultaneously in contaminated food, along with several other mycotoxins and food bioactives inherently present in the studied matrices. Although the toxicity of combinations naturally found in food has been rarely assessed experimentally, the data collected so far, clearly point out that chemical mixtures may differ in their toxicity compared to the effect of toxins tested individually. The data presented here may provide a solid foothold to better support the risk assessment of Alternaria mycotoxins highlighting the actual role of chemical mixtures on influencing their toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Open AccessReview
Fumonisins: Impact on Agriculture, Food, and Human Health and their Management Strategies
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060328 - 07 Jun 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
The fumonisins producing fungi, Fusarium spp., are ubiquitous in nature and contaminate several food matrices that pose detrimental health hazards on humans as well as on animals. This has necessitated profound research for the control and management of the toxins to guarantee better [...] Read more.
The fumonisins producing fungi, Fusarium spp., are ubiquitous in nature and contaminate several food matrices that pose detrimental health hazards on humans as well as on animals. This has necessitated profound research for the control and management of the toxins to guarantee better health of consumers. This review highlights the chemistry and biosynthesis process of the fumonisins, their occurrence, effect on agriculture and food, along with their associated health issues. In addition, the focus has been put on the detection and management of fumonisins to ensure safe and healthy food. The main focus of the review is to provide insights to the readers regarding their health-associated food consumption and possible outbreaks. Furthermore, the consumers’ knowledge and an attempt will ensure food safety and security and the farmers’ knowledge for healthy agricultural practices, processing, and management, important to reduce the mycotoxin outbreaks due to fumonisins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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Other

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Open AccessPerspective
Aflatoxin Binders in Foods for Human Consumption—Can This be Promoted Safely and Ethically?
Toxins 2019, 11(7), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11070410 - 14 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Aflatoxins continue to be a food safety problem globally, especially in developing regions. A significant amount of effort and resources have been invested in an attempt to control aflatoxins. However, these efforts have not substantially decreased the prevalence nor the dietary exposure to [...] Read more.
Aflatoxins continue to be a food safety problem globally, especially in developing regions. A significant amount of effort and resources have been invested in an attempt to control aflatoxins. However, these efforts have not substantially decreased the prevalence nor the dietary exposure to aflatoxins in developing countries. One approach to aflatoxin control is the use of binding agents in foods, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been studied extensively for this purpose. However, when assessing the results comprehensively and reviewing the practicality and ethics of use, risks are evident, and concerns arise. In conclusion, our review suggests that there are too many issues with using LAB for aflatoxin binding for it to be safely promoted. Arguably, using binders in human food might even worsen food safety in the longer term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
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