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Toxin Production in Soybean (Glycine max L.) Plants with Charcoal Rot Disease and by Macrophomina phaseolina, the Fungus that Causes the Disease

1
Biological Control of Pests Research Unit, US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
2
Crop Genetics Research Unit, US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
3
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum–University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy
4
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110645
Received: 13 September 2019 / Revised: 26 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 6 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
Charcoal rot disease, caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, results in major economic losses in soybean production in southern USA. M. phaseolina has been proposed to use the toxin (-)-botryodiplodin in its root infection mechanism to create a necrotic zone in root tissue through which fungal hyphae can readily enter the plant. The majority (51.4%) of M. phaseolina isolates from plants with charcoal rot disease produced a wide range of (-)-botryodiplodin concentrations in a culture medium (0.14–6.11 µg/mL), 37.8% produced traces below the limit of quantification (0.01 µg/mL), and 10.8% produced no detectable (-)-botryodiplodin. Some culture media with traces or no (-)-botryodiplodin were nevertheless strongly phytotoxic in soybean leaf disc cultures, consistent with the production of another unidentified toxin(s). Widely ranging (-)-botryodiplodin levels (traces to 3.14 µg/g) were also observed in the roots, but not in the aerial parts, of soybean plants naturally infected with charcoal rot disease. This is the first report of (-)-botryodiplodin in plant tissues naturally infected with charcoal rot disease. No phaseolinone was detected in M. phaseolina culture media or naturally infected soybean tissues. These results are consistent with (-)-botryodiplodin playing a role in the pathology of some, but not all, M. phaseolina isolates from soybeans with charcoal rot disease in southern USA. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungi; mycotoxins; phaseolinone; LC/MS; soybean; charcoal rot disease; root infection mechanism fungi; mycotoxins; phaseolinone; LC/MS; soybean; charcoal rot disease; root infection mechanism
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Abbas, H.K.; Bellaloui, N.; Accinelli, C.; Smith, J.R.; Shier, W.T. Toxin Production in Soybean (Glycine max L.) Plants with Charcoal Rot Disease and by Macrophomina phaseolina, the Fungus that Causes the Disease. Toxins 2019, 11, 645.

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