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Open AccessArticle

Aflatoxin B1 Conversion by Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larval Enzyme Extracts

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Wageningen Food Safety Research, Wageningen Campus P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Wageningen University, Department of Plant Sciences, Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen Campus P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Mars, Incorporated, McLean, VA 22101, USA, [email protected]
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JMC Consulting, Portland, OR 972229, USA
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Wageningen University, Department of Animal Sciences, Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen Campus P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(9), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11090532
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 12 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel protein source for food and feed. Previous research has found that insects, including BSFL, are capable of metabolically converting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but recovery of total AFB1 is less than 20% when accounting for its conversion to most known metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the conversion of AFB1 by S9 extracts of BSFL reared on substrates with or without AFB1. Liver S9 of Aroclor-induced rats was used as a reference. To investigate whether cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the conversion of AFB1, the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was tested in a number of treatments. The results showed that approximately 60% of AFB1 was converted to aflatoxicol and aflatoxin P1. The remaining 40% of AFB1 was not converted. Cytochrome P450s were indeed responsible for metabolic conversion of AFB1 into AFP1, and a cytoplasmic reductase was most likely responsible for conversion of AFB1 into aflatoxicol. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin; mycotoxin; black soldier fly; BSFL; Hermetia illucens; S9 fraction; cytochrome P450; metabolic conversion; enzyme induction aflatoxin; mycotoxin; black soldier fly; BSFL; Hermetia illucens; S9 fraction; cytochrome P450; metabolic conversion; enzyme induction
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Meijer, N.; Stoopen, G.; van der Fels-Klerx, H.; van Loon, J.J.; Carney, J.; Bosch, G. Aflatoxin B1 Conversion by Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larval Enzyme Extracts. Toxins 2019, 11, 532.

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