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Open AccessArticle

Efficacy of Azoxystrobin on Mycotoxins and Related Fungi in Italian Paddy Rice

1
Department of Sustainable Crop Production—DIPROVES, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Science, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy
2
Ente Nazionale Risi, Rice Research Centre, Strada per Ceretto 4, Castello d’Agogna, 27030 Pavia, Italy
3
Department of Animal, Food and Nutrition Science—DIANA, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060310
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
The efficacy of azoxystrobin was evaluated in the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi and relative mycotoxins in Italian paddy rice during the growing season in the field. Three experimental fields were considered and the applied experimental design was a strip plot with three replicates; rice samples were collected at four different growing stages. The efficacy of the fungicide treatment on rice fungal population was demonstrated with around 20% less total fungal incidence in sprayed samples compared to untreated ones; the same decrease was noted also in Fusarium spp. species but not in Aspergillus versicolor. Of the mycotoxins considered, ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AFBs) were never detected, deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 46% of samples at levels always lower than 100 µg/kg, while sterigmatocystin (STC) occurred in all the paddy rice samples collected after flowering, with a maximum value of 15.5 µg/kg. Treatment with azoxystrobin was not effective in reducing DON contamination, but it had an important and significant effect on STC content, showing a decrease of 67% in the sprayed samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice; mycotoxins; sterigmatocystin; STC; deoxynivalenol; DON; growing season; azoxystrobin; fungicide rice; mycotoxins; sterigmatocystin; STC; deoxynivalenol; DON; growing season; azoxystrobin; fungicide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giorni, P.; Rolla, U.; Romani, M.; Mulazzi, A.; Bertuzzi, T. Efficacy of Azoxystrobin on Mycotoxins and Related Fungi in Italian Paddy Rice. Toxins 2019, 11, 310.

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