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Co-Occurrence and Combinatory Effects of Alternaria Mycotoxins and other Xenobiotics of Food Origin: Current Scenario and Future Perspectives

1
Department of Food and Drug, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 27/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
2
Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Str. 38, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110640
Received: 6 September 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
Mycotoxins are low-molecular weight compounds produced by diverse genera of molds that may contaminate food and feed threatening the health of humans and animals. Recent findings underline the importance of studying the combined occurrence of multiple mycotoxins and the relevance of assessing the toxicity their simultaneous exposure may cause in living organisms. In this context, for the first time, this work has critically reviewed the most relevant data concerning the occurrence and toxicity of mycotoxins produced by Alternaria spp., which are among the most important emerging risks to be assessed in food safety, alone or in combination with other mycotoxins and bioactive food constituents. According to the literature covered, multiple Alternaria mycotoxins may often occur simultaneously in contaminated food, along with several other mycotoxins and food bioactives inherently present in the studied matrices. Although the toxicity of combinations naturally found in food has been rarely assessed experimentally, the data collected so far, clearly point out that chemical mixtures may differ in their toxicity compared to the effect of toxins tested individually. The data presented here may provide a solid foothold to better support the risk assessment of Alternaria mycotoxins highlighting the actual role of chemical mixtures on influencing their toxicity.
Keywords: Alternaria mycotoxins; combinatory effects; food safety; combined toxicity; co-occurrence; bioactive compounds Alternaria mycotoxins; combinatory effects; food safety; combined toxicity; co-occurrence; bioactive compounds
MDPI and ACS Style

Crudo, F.; Varga, E.; Aichinger, G.; Galaverna, G.; Marko, D.; Dall’Asta, C.; Dellafiora, L. Co-Occurrence and Combinatory Effects of Alternaria Mycotoxins and other Xenobiotics of Food Origin: Current Scenario and Future Perspectives. Toxins 2019, 11, 640.

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