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Special Issue "Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Abir Hussain
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Computer Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L33AF, UK
Interests: Data Science, Machine learning, natural language processing, image processing, signal processing, health applications
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dhiya Al-Jumeily
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UA, UK
Interests: AI-based clinical decision-making, medical knowledge engineering, human–machine interaction, wearable and intelligent devices and instruments, eSystem engineering
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Hissam Tawfik
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Leeds Beckett University, Leeds LS1 3HE, UK
Interests: eHealth, IoT, Time-series prediction, predictive analytics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Panos Liatsis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi - United Arab Emirates
Interests: Image processing, pattern recognition, machine learning, sensor systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

The 12th International Conference on the Developments in eSystems Engineering (DeSE2019) will continue the success of the previous DeSe conferences. The main theme of DeSE2019 (http://dese.org.uk/developments-in-esystems-engineering-2019/) is Robotics, Sensors, Data Science and Industry 4.0. DeSE2019 will be held from 7–10 October 2019 in Kazan, Russia. It will provide a leading forum for disseminating the latest results in eSystem Development, Robotics, Data Science and Big Data Research, Idustry 4.0,  IoT Development and Applications, Smart City, Smart Health, Smart Living and Smart Home, Health networking, Learning Analytics, Business Intelligence, Cloud Computing. Papers are invited on all aspects of Robotics, Sensors, Data Sciences, Big Data, IoT and IoE.

In addition to the DeSE 2019 papers, other independent submissions are also welcome. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Advanced Robotics
  • Internet of Everything and its Applications
  • Advances in Applications of AI
  • Biomedical Intelligence and Clinical Data Analysis
  • Predictive Models and Analytics Using Artificial Intelligence
  • Bio-Informatics, Health Informatics, and Bio-Computing
  • Computational Intelligence
  • Decision Support Systems
  • Data Mining, Machine Learning and Expert Systems
  • Genetic Algorithms
  • Image Processing and Medical Imaging
  • Novel Data Processing and Analytics, Tools and Systems
  • Big Data Systems, Mining and Management, Tools and Applications
  • Machine Learning, Web-based Decision Making
  • Big Data Algorithms
  • The Use of Artificial Intelligence in Precision Health and Medicine
  • Deep Learning Methods and Techniques
  • eSystems Engineering

Dr. Abir Jaafar Hussain
Prof. Dhiya Al-Jumeily
Prof. Hissam Tawfik
Prof. Panos Liatsis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sensors
  • Robotics
  • Big Data and Industry 4.0
  • Applied Artificial Intelligence
  • Machine Learning

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Dimensional Comparison between Evolutionary Algorithm and Deep Reinforcement Learning Methodologies for Autonomous Surface Vehicles with Water Quality Sensors
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2862; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082862 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The monitoring of water resources using Autonomous Surface Vehicles with water-quality sensors has been a recent approach due to the advances in unmanned transportation technology. The Ypacaraí Lake, the biggest water resource in Paraguay, suffers from a major contamination problem because of cyanobacteria [...] Read more.
The monitoring of water resources using Autonomous Surface Vehicles with water-quality sensors has been a recent approach due to the advances in unmanned transportation technology. The Ypacaraí Lake, the biggest water resource in Paraguay, suffers from a major contamination problem because of cyanobacteria blooms. In order to supervise the blooms using these on-board sensor modules, a Non-Homogeneous Patrolling Problem (a NP-hard problem) must be solved in a feasible amount of time. A dimensionality study is addressed to compare the most common methodologies, Evolutionary Algorithm and Deep Reinforcement Learning, in different map scales and fleet sizes with changes in the environmental conditions. The results determined that Deep Q-Learning overcomes the evolutionary method in terms of sample-efficiency by 50–70% in higher resolutions. Furthermore, it reacts better than the Evolutionary Algorithm in high space-state actions. In contrast, the evolutionary approach shows a better efficiency in lower resolutions and needs fewer parameters to synthesize robust solutions. This study reveals that Deep Q-learning approaches exceed in efficiency for the Non-Homogeneous Patrolling Problem but with many hyper-parameters involved in the stability and convergence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Machine Learning in Air Hockey Interactive Control System
Sensors 2020, 20(24), 7233; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247233 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 447
Abstract
In recent years, chip design technology and AI (artificial intelligence) have made significant progress. This forces all of fields to investigate how to increase the competitiveness of products with machine learning technology. In this work, we mainly use deep learning coupled with motor [...] Read more.
In recent years, chip design technology and AI (artificial intelligence) have made significant progress. This forces all of fields to investigate how to increase the competitiveness of products with machine learning technology. In this work, we mainly use deep learning coupled with motor control to realize the real-time interactive system of air hockey, and to verify the feasibility of machine learning in the real-time interactive system. In particular, we use the convolutional neural network YOLO (“you only look once”) to capture the hockey current position. At the same time, the law of reflection and neural networking are applied to predict the end position of the puck Based on the predicted location, the system will control the stepping motor to move the linear slide to realize the real-time interactive air hockey system. Finally, we discuss and verify the accuracy of the prediction of the puck end position and improve the system response time to meet the system requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
A PID-Type Fuzzy Logic Controller-Based Approach for Motion Control Applications
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5323; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185323 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
Motion control is widely used in industrial applications since machinery, robots, conveyor bands use smooth movements in order to reach a desired position decreasing the steady error and energy consumption. In this paper, a new Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) -type fuzzy logic controller (FLC) tuning [...] Read more.
Motion control is widely used in industrial applications since machinery, robots, conveyor bands use smooth movements in order to reach a desired position decreasing the steady error and energy consumption. In this paper, a new Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) -type fuzzy logic controller (FLC) tuning strategy that is based on direct fuzzy relations is proposed in order to compute the PID constants. The motion control algorithm is composed by PID-type FLC and S-curve velocity profile, which is developed in C/C++ programming language; therefore, a license is not required to reproduce the code among embedded systems. The self-tuning controller is carried out online, it depends on error and change in error to adapt according to the system variations. The experimental results were obtained in a linear platform integrated by a direct current (DC) motor connected to an encoder to measure the position. The shaft of the motor is connected to an endless screw; a cart is placed on the screw to control its position. The rise time, overshoot, and settling time values measured in the experimentation are 0.124 s, 8.985% and 0.248 s, respectively. These results presented in part 6 demonstrate the performance of the controller, since the rise time and settling time are improved according to the state of the art. Besides, these parameters are compared with different control architectures reported in the literature. This comparison is made after applying a step input signal to the DC motor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Cross Lingual Sentiment Analysis: A Clustering-Based Bee Colony Instance Selection and Target-Based Feature Weighting Approach
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5276; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185276 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 591
Abstract
The lack of sentiment resources in poor resource languages poses challenges for the sentiment analysis in which machine learning is involved. Cross-lingual and semi-supervised learning approaches have been deployed to represent the most common ways that can overcome this issue. However, performance of [...] Read more.
The lack of sentiment resources in poor resource languages poses challenges for the sentiment analysis in which machine learning is involved. Cross-lingual and semi-supervised learning approaches have been deployed to represent the most common ways that can overcome this issue. However, performance of the existing methods degrades due to the poor quality of translated resources, data sparseness and more specifically, language divergence. An integrated learning model that uses a semi-supervised and an ensembled model while utilizing the available sentiment resources to tackle language divergence related issues is proposed. Additionally, to reduce the impact of translation errors and handle instance selection problem, we propose a clustering-based bee-colony-sample selection method for the optimal selection of most distinguishing features representing the target data. To evaluate the proposed model, various experiments are conducted employing an English-Arabic cross-lingual data set. Simulations results demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the baseline approaches in terms of classification performances. Furthermore, the statistical outcomes indicate the advantages of the proposed training data sampling and target-based feature selection to reduce the negative effect of translation errors. These results highlight the fact that the proposed approach achieves a performance that is close to in-language supervised models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Pupil Localisation and Eye Centre Estimation Using Machine Learning and Computer Vision
Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3785; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133785 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
Various methods have been used to estimate the pupil location within an image or a real-time video frame in many fields. However, these methods lack the performance specifically in low-resolution images and varying background conditions. We propose a coarse-to-fine pupil localisation method using [...] Read more.
Various methods have been used to estimate the pupil location within an image or a real-time video frame in many fields. However, these methods lack the performance specifically in low-resolution images and varying background conditions. We propose a coarse-to-fine pupil localisation method using a composite of machine learning and image processing algorithms. First, a pre-trained model is employed for the facial landmark identification to extract the desired eye frames within the input image. Then, we use multi-stage convolution to find the optimal horizontal and vertical coordinates of the pupil within the identified eye frames. For this purpose, we define an adaptive kernel to deal with the varying resolution and size of input images. Furthermore, a dynamic threshold is calculated recursively for reliable identification of the best-matched candidate. We evaluated our method using various statistical and standard metrics along with a standardised distance metric that we introduce for the first time in this study. The proposed method outperforms previous works in terms of accuracy and reliability when benchmarked on multiple standard datasets. The work has diverse artificial intelligence and industrial applications including human computer interfaces, emotion recognition, psychological profiling, healthcare, and automated deception detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Wheelchair Neuro Fuzzy Control and Tracking System Based on Voice Recognition
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2872; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20102872 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Autonomous wheelchairs are important tools to enhance the mobility of people with disabilities. Advances in computer and wireless communication technologies have contributed to the provision of smart wheelchairs to suit the needs of the disabled person. This research paper presents the design and [...] Read more.
Autonomous wheelchairs are important tools to enhance the mobility of people with disabilities. Advances in computer and wireless communication technologies have contributed to the provision of smart wheelchairs to suit the needs of the disabled person. This research paper presents the design and implementation of a voice controlled electric wheelchair. This design is based on voice recognition algorithms to classify the required commands to drive the wheelchair. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller has been used to generate the required real-time control signals for actuating motors of the wheelchair. This controller depends on real data received from obstacle avoidance sensors and a voice recognition classifier. The wheelchair is considered as a node in a wireless sensor network in order to track the position of the wheelchair and for supervisory control. The simulated and running experiments demonstrate that, by combining the concepts of soft-computing and mechatronics, the implemented wheelchair has become more sophisticated and gives people more mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a Hyper-Redundant Robot and Teleoperation Using Mixed Reality for Inspection Tasks
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2181; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082181 - 12 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Hyper-redundant robots are highly articulated devices that present numerous technical challenges such as their design, control or remote operation. However, they offer superior kinematic skills than traditional robots for multiple applications. This work proposes an original and custom-made design for a discrete and [...] Read more.
Hyper-redundant robots are highly articulated devices that present numerous technical challenges such as their design, control or remote operation. However, they offer superior kinematic skills than traditional robots for multiple applications. This work proposes an original and custom-made design for a discrete and hyper-redundant manipulator. It is comprised of 7 sections actuated by cables and 14 degrees of freedom. It has been optimized to be very robust, accurate and capable of moving payloads with high dexterity. Furthermore, it has been efficiently controlled from the actuators to high-level strategies based on the management of its shape. However, these highly articulated systems often exhibit complex shapes that frustrate their spatial understanding. Immersive technologies emerge as a good solution to remotely and safely teleoperate the presented robot for an inspection task in a hazardous environment. Experimental results validate the proposed robot design and control strategies. As a result, it is concluded that hyper-redundant robots and immersive technologies should play an important role in the near future of automated and remote applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Finite-Time Disturbance Observer for Robotic Manipulators
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081943 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Robotic manipulators may be subject to different types of disturbances such as unknown payloads, unmodeled dynamics, and environment interaction forces. Observing these unknown disturbances in robotic manipulators is fundamental in many robotic applications such as disturbance rejection and sensorless force control. In this [...] Read more.
Robotic manipulators may be subject to different types of disturbances such as unknown payloads, unmodeled dynamics, and environment interaction forces. Observing these unknown disturbances in robotic manipulators is fundamental in many robotic applications such as disturbance rejection and sensorless force control. In this paper, a novel disturbance observer (DOB) is introduced based on the insights from the finite-time observer (FTO) and robot dynamics. Different from the traditional DOBs, this new observer can provide the capability to track the disturbance within a finite time. The performance of the presented observer is verified by two kinds of typical disturbances for a two-link manipulator with a comparison with several existing DOBs. The simulation results show the rapidity and accuracy of the proposed FTO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
An Adaptive Sliding-Mode Iterative Constant-force Control Method for Robotic Belt Grinding Based on a One-Dimensional Force Sensor
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071635 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
To improve the processing quality and efficiency of robotic belt grinding, an adaptive sliding-mode iterative constant-force control method for a 6-DOF robotic belt grinding platform is proposed based on a one-dimension force sensor. In the investigation, first, the relationship between the normal and [...] Read more.
To improve the processing quality and efficiency of robotic belt grinding, an adaptive sliding-mode iterative constant-force control method for a 6-DOF robotic belt grinding platform is proposed based on a one-dimension force sensor. In the investigation, first, the relationship between the normal and the tangential forces of the grinding contact force is revealed, and a simplified grinding force mapping relationship is presented for the application to one-dimension force sensors. Next, the relationship between the deformation and the grinding depth during the grinding is discussed, and a deformation-based dynamic model describing robotic belt grinding is established. Then, aiming at an application scene of robot belt grinding, an adaptive iterative learning method is put forward, which is combined with sliding mode control to overcome the uncertainty of the grinding force and improve the stability of the control system. Finally, some experiments were carried out and the results show that, after ten times iterations, the grinding force fluctuation becomes less than 2N, the mean value, standard deviation and variance of the grinding force error’s absolute value all significantly decrease, and that the surface quality of the machined parts significantly improves. All these demonstrate that the proposed force control method is effective and that the proposed algorithm is fast in convergence and strong in adaptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Feature Sensing and Robotic Grasping of Objects with Uncertain Information: A Review
Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3707; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133707 - 02 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
As there come to be more applications of intelligent robots, their task object is becoming more varied. However, it is still a challenge for a robot to handle unfamiliar objects. We review the recent work on the feature sensing and robotic grasping of [...] Read more.
As there come to be more applications of intelligent robots, their task object is becoming more varied. However, it is still a challenge for a robot to handle unfamiliar objects. We review the recent work on the feature sensing and robotic grasping of objects with uncertain information. In particular, we focus on how the robot perceives the features of an object, so as to reduce the uncertainty of objects, and how the robot completes object grasping through the learning-based approach when the traditional approach fails. The uncertain information is classified into geometric information and physical information. Based on the type of uncertain information, the object is further classified into three categories, which are geometric-uncertain objects, physical-uncertain objects, and unknown objects. Furthermore, the approaches to the feature sensing and robotic grasping of these objects are presented based on the varied characteristics of each type of object. Finally, we summarize the reviewed approaches for uncertain objects and provide some interesting issues to be more investigated in the future. It is found that the object’s features, such as material and compactness, are difficult to be sensed, and the object grasping approach based on learning networks plays a more important role when the unknown degree of the task object increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessReview
Towards the Exploitation of Physical Compliance in Segmented and Electrically Actuated Robotic Legs: A Review Focused on Elastic Mechanisms
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5351; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245351 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Physical compliance has been increasingly used in robotic legs, due to its advantages in terms of the mechanical regulation of leg mechanics and energetics and the passive response to abrupt external disturbances during locomotion. This article presents a review of the exploitation of [...] Read more.
Physical compliance has been increasingly used in robotic legs, due to its advantages in terms of the mechanical regulation of leg mechanics and energetics and the passive response to abrupt external disturbances during locomotion. This article presents a review of the exploitation of physical compliance in robotic legs. Particular attention has been paid to the segmented, electrically actuated robotic legs, such that a comparable analysis can be provided. The utilization of physical compliance is divided into three main categories, depending on the setting locations and configurations, namely, (1) joint series compliance, (2) joint parallel compliance, and (3) leg distal compliance. With an overview of the representative work related to each category, the corresponding working principles and implementation processes of various physical compliances are explained. After that, we analyze in detail some of the structural characteristics and performance influences of the existing designs, including the realization method, compliance profile, damping design, and quantitative changes in terms of mechanics and energetics. In parallel, the design challenges and possible future works associated with physical compliance in robotic legs are also identified and proposed. This article is expected to provide useful paradigmatic implementations and design guidance for physical compliance for researchers in the construction of novel physically compliant robotic legs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
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