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Special Issue "Marine Sensors: Recent Advances and Challenges"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Luís Miguel Valente Goncalves
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Guest Editor
Electronics Engineering Department, Minho University, Campus de Azurem, Guimaraes, Portugal
Interests: sensors; actuators; electronics
Dr. Marcos Silva Martins
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electronics Engineering Department, Minho University, Campus de Azurem, Guimaraes, Portugal
Interests: underwater acoustic communications; underwater transducers; deep-sea sensing
Prof. Dr. Rui Lima
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering Department, Minho University, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058, Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: microfluidics; nanofluidics; biomicrofluidics; biofluids; biomedical microdevices; biofabrication; cell mechanics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Graça Minas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Microelectromechanical Systems Research Unit (CMEMS-UMinho), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Azurem, Guimarães 4800-058, Portugal
Interests: lab-on-a-chip; on-chip integration of electronic circuits; optical filters; biosensors; organ-on-a-chip; biomedical microdevices
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ocean has a huge impact on our way of life, and there is a need to monitor and protect its biodiversity. Additionally, the ocean industrial potential for health, minerals, and oil has promoted the need for constant and real-time monitoring. Because of all of these concerns, it is important to develop efficient and smart marine sensors to improve our knowledge of the sea environment and to support marine sustainable development. Taking advantage of the most recent progress in sensing techniques, the purpose of this Special Issue is to provide an opportunity for the engineering and biological marine community to exchange knowledge and information on the latest advances and challenges in marine sensors and their applications to monitor sea environment. We hope to bring together researchers who are interested in the general field of sensors, especially in their applications in the sea.

In this Special Issue, we invite contributions (original research papers, review articles, and brief communications) that focus on the latest advances and challenges in marine sensors and related fields applied to marine sustainable development.

Prof. Luís Miguel Valente Gonçalves
Dr. Marcos Silva Martins
Prof. Rui Alberto Madeira Macedo Lima
Prof. Graça Minas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine sensing technologies
  • marine instrumentation
  • marine data communication
  • sensor networks
  • sea monitoring
  • sea modelling
  • remote sensing
  • sea pollution
  • energy harvesting
  • submersible power
  • submersible devices and equipment
  • submersible lab-on-chip devices
  • physical oceanography
  • biological oceanography
  • sustainable development

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
A Bioinspired Twin Inverted Multiscale Matched Filtering Method for Detecting an Underwater Moving Target in a Reverberant Environment
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5305; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235305 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
To this day, biological sonar systems still have great performance advantages over artificial sonar systems, especially for detection in environments with clutter, strong reverberation, and a low signal to noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, mammal sonar systems, for instance, bats and toothed whales, have [...] Read more.
To this day, biological sonar systems still have great performance advantages over artificial sonar systems, especially for detection in environments with clutter, strong reverberation, and a low signal to noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, mammal sonar systems, for instance, bats and toothed whales, have many characteristics worth learning from. This paper proposes a bioinspired twin inverted multiscale matched filtering method to detect underwater moving targets. This method can be mainly divided into three parts. Firstly, a hyperbolic frequency modulation (HFM) continuous wave (CW) multiharmonic detection signal was adopted after analyzing signals from bats and dolphins. This signal combines the advantages of CW and HFM signals and has excellent time measurement and speed measurement performance when detecting a moving target. Secondly, the twin inverted waveform was introduced to suppress strong linear reverberation and highlight moving targets. The pulse interval was determined by assessing the reverberation reduction time. Thirdly, when processing echoes, a multiscale matched filtering method was proposed to make use of multiharmonic information and improve detection performance. Finally, a channel pool experiment was carried out to test the performance of the proposed method. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed method has better performance when detecting a moving target in a reverberant environment compared to the conventional matched filtering method. Related results can be applied to small underwater platforms or sensor network platforms for target detection and coastal defense applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sensors: Recent Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
A Microfluidic Prototype System towards Microalgae Cell Separation, Treatment and Viability Characterization
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 4940; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19224940 - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
There are a huge number, and abundant types, of microalgae in the ocean; and most of them have various values in many fields, such as food, medicine, energy, feed, etc. Therefore, how to identify and separation of microalgae cells quickly and effectively is [...] Read more.
There are a huge number, and abundant types, of microalgae in the ocean; and most of them have various values in many fields, such as food, medicine, energy, feed, etc. Therefore, how to identify and separation of microalgae cells quickly and effectively is a prerequisite for the microalgae research and utilization. Herein, we propose a microfluidic system that comprised microalgae cell separation, treatment and viability characterization. Specifically, the microfluidic separation function is based on the principle of deterministic lateral displacement (DLD), which can separate various microalgae species rapidly by their different sizes. Moreover, a concentration gradient generator is designed in this system to automatically produce gradient concentrations of chemical reagents to optimize the chemical treatment of samples. Finally, a single photon counter was used to evaluate the viability of treated microalgae based on laser-induced fluorescence from the intracellular chlorophyll of microalgae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first laboratory prototype system combining DLD separation, concentration gradient generator and chlorophyll fluorescence detection technology for fast analysis and treatment of microalgae using marine samples. This study may inspire other novel applications of micro-analytical devices for utilization of microalgae resources, marine ecological environment protection and ship ballast water management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sensors: Recent Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Cost-Effective Optical Sensor for Continuous Monitoring of Turbidity and Suspended Particulate Matter in Marine Environment
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4439; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204439 - 14 Oct 2019
Abstract
A cost-effective optical sensor for continuous in-situ monitoring of turbidity and suspended particulate matter concentration (SPM), with a production cost in raw materials less than 20 €, is presented for marine or fluvial applications. The sensor uses an infrared LED and three photodetectors [...] Read more.
A cost-effective optical sensor for continuous in-situ monitoring of turbidity and suspended particulate matter concentration (SPM), with a production cost in raw materials less than 20 €, is presented for marine or fluvial applications. The sensor uses an infrared LED and three photodetectors with three different positions related to the light source—135º, 90º and 0º—resulting in three different types of light detection: backscattering, nephelometry and transmitted light, respectively. This design allows monitoring in any type of environment, offering a wide dynamic range and accuracy for low and high turbidity or SPM values. An ultraviolet emitter–receiver pair is also used to differentiate organic and inorganic matter through the differences in absorption at different wavelengths. The optical transducers are built in a watertight structure with a radial configuration where a printed circuit board with the electronic signal coupling is assembled. An in-lab calibration of the sensor was made to establish a relation between suspended particulate matter (SPM) or the turbidity (NTU) to the photodetectors’ electrical output value in Volts. Two different sizes of seashore sand were used (180 µm and 350 µm) to evaluate the particle size susceptibility. The sensor was tested in a fluvial environment to evaluate SPM change during sediment transport caused by rain, and a real test of 22 days continuous in-situ monitoring was realized to evaluate its performance in a tidal area. The monitoring results were analysed, showing the SPM change during tidal cycles as well as the influence of the external light and biofouling problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sensors: Recent Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Wideband and Wide Beam Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) Acoustic Transducer for Broadband Underwater Communications
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3991; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183991 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The advances in wireless communications are still very limited when intended to be used on Underwater Communication Systems mainly due to the adverse proprieties of the submarine channel to the acoustic and radio frequency (RF) waves propagation. This work describes the development and [...] Read more.
The advances in wireless communications are still very limited when intended to be used on Underwater Communication Systems mainly due to the adverse proprieties of the submarine channel to the acoustic and radio frequency (RF) waves propagation. This work describes the development and characterization of a polyvinylidene difluoride ultrasound transducer to be used as an emitter in underwater wireless communications. The transducer has a beam up to 10° × 70° degrees and a usable frequency band up to 1 MHz. The transducer was designed using Finite Elements Methods and compared with real measurements. Pool trials show a transmitting voltage response (TVR) of approximately 150 dB re µPa/[email protected] m from 750 kHz to 1 MHz. Sea trials were carried in Ria Formosa, Faro (Portugal) over a 15 m source—receiver communication link. All the signals were successfully detected by cross-correlation using 10 chirp signals between 10 to 900 kHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sensors: Recent Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Waveform Design for Improved Detection of Extended Targets in Sea Clutter
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3957; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183957 - 13 Sep 2019
Abstract
Adaptive waveform design for cognitive radar in the case of extended target detection under compound-Gaussian (CG) sea clutter is addressed. Based on the CG characteristics of sea clutter, the texture component is employed to characterize the clutter ensemble during each closed-loop feedback and [...] Read more.
Adaptive waveform design for cognitive radar in the case of extended target detection under compound-Gaussian (CG) sea clutter is addressed. Based on the CG characteristics of sea clutter, the texture component is employed to characterize the clutter ensemble during each closed-loop feedback and its estimation can be used for the next transmitted waveform design. The resulting waveform design problem is formulated according to the following optimization criterion: maximization of the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) for sea clutter suppression, and imposing a further constraint on sidelobes level of the waveform autocorrelation outputs for decreasing the false alarm rate. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sensors: Recent Advances and Challenges)
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Martins, M.S., et al. Wideband and Wide Beam Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF) Acoustic Transducer for Broadband Underwater. Sensors 2019, 19, 3991
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 4928; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19224928 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following erratum to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Sensors: Recent Advances and Challenges)
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