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Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Fault Diagnosis & Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 65435

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mathematics, Escola d’Enginyeria de Barcelona Est (EEBE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Campus Diagonal-Besòs (CDB), Eduard Maristany, 16, 08019 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: structural health monitoring; condition monitoring; piezoelectric transducers; PZT; data science; wind turbines
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401, USA
Interests: AI-based methods for structural health monitoring and dynamic response; random vibrations; hysteretic systems; seismic isolation; reliability and resilience
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitat de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: electric motors; fault diagnosis; transient analysis; signal processing; wavelet analysis; infrared thermography; time-frequency transforms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to announce that the /Fault Diagnosis & Sensors/ section is now compiling a collection of papers submitted by the scholars in this research field. The Special Issue /Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022 / engages in topics such as fault detection and diagnosis, fault/failure prognosis, structural health monitoring, condition monitoring, intelligent sensors and sensor networks for fault diagnosis, digital twins for fault diagnosis, modelling, pattern recognition, machine learning, artificial intelligence and data analytics for fault diagnosis, failure prognosis and NDT.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish a set of papers that typifies the very best insightful and influential original articles or comprehensive review papers. We expect these papers to be widely read and highly influential within the field.

Taking this opportunity, we would also like to call on more excellent scholars to join Fault Diagnosis & Sensors so we can achieve more milestones together.

Prof. Dr. Francesc Pozo
Prof. Dr. Mohammad N Noori
Prof. Dr. Steven Chatterton
Prof. Dr. Jose A Antonino-Daviu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (26 papers)

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0 pages, 653 KiB  
Article
A Fault-Detection System Approach for the Optimization of Warship Equipment Replacement Parts Based on Operation Parameters
by Álvaro Michelena, Víctor López, Francisco Lamas López, Elena Arce, José Mendoza García, Andrés Suárez-García, Guillermo García Espinosa, José-Luis Calvo-Rolle and Héctor Quintián
Sensors 2023, 23(7), 3389; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23073389 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
Systems engineering plays a key role in the naval sector, focusing on how to design, integrate, and manage complex systems throughout their life cycle; it is therefore difficult to conceive functional warships without it. To this end, specialized information systems for logistical support [...] Read more.
Systems engineering plays a key role in the naval sector, focusing on how to design, integrate, and manage complex systems throughout their life cycle; it is therefore difficult to conceive functional warships without it. To this end, specialized information systems for logistical support and the sustainability of material solutions are essential to ensure proper provisioning and to know the operational status of the frigate. However, based on an architecture composed of a set of logistics applications, this information system may require highly qualified operators with a deep knowledge of the behavior of onboard systems to manage it properly. In this regard, failure detection systems have been postulated as one of the main cutting-edge methods to address the challenge, employing intelligent techniques for observing anomalies in the normal behavior of systems without the need for expert knowledge. In this paper, the study is concerned to the scope of the Spanish navy, where a complex information system structure is responsible for ensuring the correct maintenance and provisioning of the vessels. In such context, we hereby suggest a comparison between different one-class techniques, such as statistical models, geometric boundaries, or dimensional reduction to face anomaly detection in specific subsystems of a warship, with the prospect of applying it to the whole ship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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27 pages, 6349 KiB  
Article
Controller Cyber-Attack Detection and Isolation
by Anna Sztyber-Betley, Michał Syfert, Jan Maciej Kościelny and Zuzanna Górecka
Sensors 2023, 23(5), 2778; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23052778 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2813
Abstract
This article deals with the cyber security of industrial control systems. Methods for detecting and isolating process faults and cyber-attacks, consisting of elementary actions named “cybernetic faults” that penetrate the control system and destructively affect its operation, are analysed. FDI fault detection and [...] Read more.
This article deals with the cyber security of industrial control systems. Methods for detecting and isolating process faults and cyber-attacks, consisting of elementary actions named “cybernetic faults” that penetrate the control system and destructively affect its operation, are analysed. FDI fault detection and isolation methods and the assessment of control loop performance methods developed in the automation community are used to diagnose these anomalies. An integration of both approaches is proposed, which consists of checking the correct functioning of the control algorithm based on its model and tracking changes in the values of selected control loop performance indicators to supervise the control circuit. A binary diagnostic matrix was used to isolate anomalies. The presented approach requires only standard operating data (process variable (PV), setpoint (SP), and control signal (CV). The proposed concept was tested using the example of a control system for superheaters in a steam line of a power unit boiler. Cyber-attacks targeting other parts of the process were also included in the study to test the proposed approach’s applicability, effectiveness, and limitations and identify further research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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25 pages, 11205 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis of the Pneumatic Wheel Condition Based on Vibration Analysis of the Sprung Mass in the Vehicle Self-Diagnostics System
by Krzysztof Prażnowski, Jarosław Mamala, Adam Deptuła, Anna M. Deptuła and Andrzej Bieniek
Sensors 2023, 23(4), 2326; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23042326 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1759
Abstract
This paper presents a method for the multi-criteria classification of data in terms of identifying pneumatic wheel imbalance on the basis of vehicle body vibrations in normal operation conditions. The paper uses an expert system based on search graphs that apply source features [...] Read more.
This paper presents a method for the multi-criteria classification of data in terms of identifying pneumatic wheel imbalance on the basis of vehicle body vibrations in normal operation conditions. The paper uses an expert system based on search graphs that apply source features of objects and distances from points in the space of classified objects (the metric used). Rules generated for data obtained from tests performed under stationary and road conditions using a chassis dynamometer were used to develop the expert system. The recorded linear acceleration signals of the vehicle body were analyzed in the frequency domain for which the power spectral density was determined. The power field values for selected harmonics of the spectrum consistent with the angular velocity of the wheel were adopted for further analysis. In the developed expert system, the Kamada–Kawai model was used to arrange the nodes of the decision tree graph. Based on the developed database containing learning and testing data for each vehicle speed and wheel balance condition, the probability of the wheel imbalance condition was determined. As a result of the analysis, it was determined that the highest probability of identifying wheel imbalance equal to almost 100% was obtained in the vehicle speed range of 50 km/h to 70 km/h. This is known as the pre-resonance range in relation to the eigenfrequency of the wheel vibrations. As the vehicle speed increases, the accuracy of the data classification for identifying wheel imbalance in relation to the learning data decreases to 50% for the speed of 90 km/h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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28 pages, 674 KiB  
Article
Min–Max Optimal Control of Robot Manipulators Affected by Sensor Faults
by Vladimir Milić, Josip Kasać and Marin Lukas
Sensors 2023, 23(4), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23041952 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the control law synthesis for robot manipulators, which guarantees that the effect of the sensor faults is kept under a permissible level, and ensures the stability of the closed-loop system. Based on Lyapunov’s stability analysis, the conditions that [...] Read more.
This paper is concerned with the control law synthesis for robot manipulators, which guarantees that the effect of the sensor faults is kept under a permissible level, and ensures the stability of the closed-loop system. Based on Lyapunov’s stability analysis, the conditions that enable the application of the simple bisection method in the optimization procedure were derived. The control law, with certain properties that make the construction of the Lyapunov function much easier—and, thus, the determination of stability conditions—was considered. Furthermore, the optimization problem was formulated as a class of problem in which minimization and maximization of the same performance criterion were simultaneously carried out. The algorithm proposed to solve the related zero-sum differential game was based on Newton’s method with recursive matrix relations, in which the first- and second-order derivatives of the objective function are calculated using hyper-dual numbers. The results of this paper were evaluated in simulation on a robot manipulator with three degrees of freedom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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25 pages, 7960 KiB  
Article
Fault Diagnosis of Lubrication Decay in Reaction Wheels Using Temperature Estimation and Forecasting via Enhanced Adaptive Particle Filter
by Mahdi Alidadi and Afshin Rahimi
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031474 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Reaction wheels (RW), the most common attitude control systems in satellites, are highly prone to failure. A satellite needs to be oriented in a particular direction to maneuver and accomplish its mission goals; losing the reaction wheel can lead to a complete or [...] Read more.
Reaction wheels (RW), the most common attitude control systems in satellites, are highly prone to failure. A satellite needs to be oriented in a particular direction to maneuver and accomplish its mission goals; losing the reaction wheel can lead to a complete or partial mission failure. Therefore, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) over long and short spans can be extremely valuable. The short-period prediction allows the satellite’s operator to manage and prioritize mission tasks based on the RUL and increases the chances of a total mission failure becoming a partial one. Studies show that lack of proper bearing lubrication and uneven frictional torque distribution, which lead to variation in motor torque, are the leading causes of failure in RWs. Hence, this study aims to develop a three-step prognostic method for long-term RUL estimation of RWs based on the remaining lubricant for the bearing unit and a potential fault in the supplementary lubrication system. In the first step of this method, the temperature of the lubricants is estimated as the non-measurable state of the system using a proposed adjusted particle filter (APF) with angular velocity and motor current of RW as the available measurements. In the second step, the estimated lubricant’s temperature and amount of injected lubrication in the bearing, along with the lubrication degradation model, are fed to a two-step particle filter (PF) for online model parameter estimation. In the last step, the performance of the proposed prognostics method is evaluated by predicting the RW’s RUL under two fault scenarios, including excessive loss of lubrication and insufficient injection of lubrication. The results show promising performance for the proposed scheme, with accuracy in estimation of the degradation model’s parameters around 2–3% of root mean squared percentage error (RMSPE) and prediction of RUL around 0.1–4% error. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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21 pages, 4523 KiB  
Article
Bearing Fault Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Fuzzy V-Structure Fault Estimator Scheme
by Farzin Piltan and Jong-Myon Kim
Sensors 2023, 23(2), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23021021 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Bearings are critical components of motors. However, they can cause several issues. Proper and timely detection of faults in the bearings can play a decisive role in reducing damage to the entire system, thereby reducing economic losses. In this study, a hybrid fuzzy [...] Read more.
Bearings are critical components of motors. However, they can cause several issues. Proper and timely detection of faults in the bearings can play a decisive role in reducing damage to the entire system, thereby reducing economic losses. In this study, a hybrid fuzzy V-structure fuzzy fault estimator was used for fault diagnosis and crack size identification in the bearing using vibration signals. The estimator was designed based on the combination of a fuzzy algorithm and a V-structure approach to reduce the oscillation and improve the unknown condition’s estimation and prediction in using the V-structure method. The V-structure surface is developed by the proposed fuzzy algorithm, which reduces the vibrations and improves the stability. In addition, the parallel fuzzy method is used to improve the robustness and stability of the V-structure algorithm. For data modeling, the proposed combination of an external autoregression error, a Laguerre filter, and a support vector regression algorithm was employed. Finally, the support vector machine algorithm was used for data classification and crack size detection. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was evaluated by leveraging the vibration signals provided in the Case Western Reserve University bearing dataset. The dataset consists of four conditions: normal, ball failure, inner fault, and outer fault. The results showed that the average accuracy of fault classification and crack size identification using the hybrid fuzzy V-structure fuzzy fault estimation algorithm was 98.75% and 98%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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18 pages, 7448 KiB  
Article
Capsule-Like Smart Aggregate with Pre-Determined Frequency Range for Impedance-Based Stress Monitoring
by Quang-Quang Pham, Quoc-Bao Ta and Jeong-Tae Kim
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010434 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
In this article, a new capsule-like smart aggregate (CSA) is developed and verified for impedance-based stress monitoring in a pre-determined frequency range of less than 100 kHz. The pros and cons of the existing smart aggregate models are discussed to define the requirement [...] Read more.
In this article, a new capsule-like smart aggregate (CSA) is developed and verified for impedance-based stress monitoring in a pre-determined frequency range of less than 100 kHz. The pros and cons of the existing smart aggregate models are discussed to define the requirement for the improved CSA model. The conceptual design and the impedance measurement model of the capsule-like smart aggregate (CSA) are demonstrated for concrete damage monitoring. In the model, the interaction between the CSA and the monitored structure is considered as the 2-degrees of freedom (2-DOF) impedance system. The mechanical and impedance responses of the CSA are described for two conditions: during concrete strength development and under compressive loadings. Next, the prototype of the CSA is designed for impedance-based monitoring in concrete structures. The local dynamic properties of the CSA are numerically simulated to pre-determine the sensitive frequency bands of the impedance signals. Numerical and experimental impedance analyses are performed to investigate the sensitivity of the CSA under compressive loadings. The changes in the impedance signals of the CSA induced by the compressive loadings are analyzed to assess the effect of loading directions on the performance of the CSA. Correlations between statistical impedance features and compressive stresses are also made to examine the feasibility of the CSA for stress quantification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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18 pages, 10157 KiB  
Article
A Method of Damage Detection Efficiency Enhancement of PZT Sensor Networks under Influence of Environmental and Operational Conditions
by Michal Dziendzikowski, Mateusz Heesch, Jakub Gorski, Kamil Kowalczyk, Krzysztof Dragan and Ziemowit Dworakowski
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010369 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1404
Abstract
Two performance parameters are particularly important for the assessment of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, i.e., their damage detection capabilities and risk of false positive indications due to varying environmental and operational conditions (EOCs). A reduced ratio of false-positive indications can be of [...] Read more.
Two performance parameters are particularly important for the assessment of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, i.e., their damage detection capabilities and risk of false positive indications due to varying environmental and operational conditions (EOCs). A reduced ratio of false-positive indications can be of significant importance for particular applications, for example, in aerospace, where the costs of unplanned maintenance procedures can be very high. In such cases, the reduction of the false calls ratio can be critical for the possibility of the practical application of the system, apart from damage detection efficiency and system costs. Among various sensor technologies, PZT networks are proven to be one of the most universal approaches to SHM, and they were successfully applied in different scenarios. Moreover, many EOCs which may have an impact on the risk of false positive indications have been identified. Over the years, different approaches to the influence of EOCs compensation have been proposed. Compensation methods can be tailored to the particular way in which a given measurement condition, for example, ambient temperature, alters signals acquired by the PZT network or can be formulated to be also applied in the more general case. In the paper, a method for enhancement of damage detection efficiency under influence of EOCs of general nature is proposed. The particular measurement condition affecting signals acquired by PZT sensors neither needs to be measured, which could be hard in some cases, but also nor even have to be identified. The efficiency of the proposed compensation algorithms is verified based on the example of experimental results obtained under varying temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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12 pages, 4344 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Low-Frequency Oscillation Event Detection Strategy for Railway Electrification Networks
by David Gonzalez-Jimenez, Jon Del-Olmo, Javier Poza, Fernando Garramiola and Patxi Madina
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010254 - 26 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Low-frequency oscillations (LFO) occur in railway electrification systems due to the incorporation of new trains with switching converters. As a result, the increased harmonic content can cause catenary stability problems under certain conditions. Most of the research published on this topic to date [...] Read more.
Low-frequency oscillations (LFO) occur in railway electrification systems due to the incorporation of new trains with switching converters. As a result, the increased harmonic content can cause catenary stability problems under certain conditions. Most of the research published on this topic to date is focused on modelling the event and analysing it using frequency spectrums. However, in recent years, due to the new technologies linked to Big Data (BD) and data mining (DM), a new opportunity to study and detect LFO events by means of machine-learning (ML) methods has emerged. Trains continuously collect data from the most important catenary variables, which offers new resources for analysing this type of event. Therefore, this article presents the design and implementation of a data-driven LFO event detection strategy for AC railway network scenarios. Compared to previous investigations, a new approach to analyse and detect LFO events, based on field data and ML, is presented. To obtain the most appropriate detection approach for the context of this application, on the one hand, this investigation includes a comparison of machine-learning algorithms (support vector machine, logistic regression, random forest, k-nearest neighbours, naïve Bayes) which have been trained with real field data. On the other hand, an analysis of key parameters and features to optimize event detection is also included. Thus, the most significant result of this work is the high metric values of the solution, reaching values above 97% in accuracy and 93% in F-1 score with the random forest algorithm. In addition, the applicability and training of data-driven methods with real field data are demonstrated. This automatic detection strategy can help with speeding up and improving LFO detection tasks that used to be performed manually. Finally, it is worth mentioning that this research has been structured based on the CRISP-DM methodology, established as the de facto approach for industrial DM projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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24 pages, 4702 KiB  
Article
Modular Supervisory Control for the Coordination of a Manufacturing Cell with Observable Faults
by Nikolaos D. Kouvakas, Fotis N. Koumboulis, Dimitrios G. Fragkoulis and Aristotelis Souliotis
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010163 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
In the present paper, a manufacturing cell in the presence of faults, coming from the devices of the process, is considered. The modular modeling of the subsystems of the cell is accomplished using of appropriate finite deterministic automata. The desired functionality of the [...] Read more.
In the present paper, a manufacturing cell in the presence of faults, coming from the devices of the process, is considered. The modular modeling of the subsystems of the cell is accomplished using of appropriate finite deterministic automata. The desired functionality of the cell as well as appropriate safety specifications are formulated as eleven desired languages. The desired languages are expressed as regular expressions in analytic forms. The languages are realized in the form of appropriate general type supervisor forms. Using these forms, a modular supervisory design scheme is accomplished providing satisfactory performance in the presence of faults as well guaranteeing the safety requirements. The aim of the present supervisor control scheme is to achieve tolerance of basic characteristics of the process coordination to upper-level faults, despite the presence of low-level faults in the devices of the process. The complexity of the supervisor scheme is computed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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29 pages, 4110 KiB  
Article
Screening of Discrete Wavelet Transform Parameters for the Denoising of Rolling Bearing Signals in Presence of Localised Defects
by Eugenio Brusa, Cristiana Delprete, Simone Gargiuli and Lorenzo Giorio
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010008 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
Maintenance scheduling is a fundamental element in industry, where excessive downtime can lead to considerable economic losses. Active monitoring systems of various components are ever more used, and rolling bearings can be identified as one of the primary causes of failure on production [...] Read more.
Maintenance scheduling is a fundamental element in industry, where excessive downtime can lead to considerable economic losses. Active monitoring systems of various components are ever more used, and rolling bearings can be identified as one of the primary causes of failure on production lines. Vibration signals extracted from bearings are affected by noise, which can make their nature unclear and the extraction and classification of features difficult. In recent years, the use of the discrete wavelet transform for denoising has been increasing, but studies in the literature that optimise all the parameters used in this process are lacking. In the current article, the authors present an algorithm to optimise the parameters required for denoising based on the discrete wavelet transform and thresholding. One-hundred sixty different configurations of the mother wavelet, threshold evaluation method, and threshold function are compared on the Case Western Reserve University database to obtain the best combination for bearing damage identification with an iterative method and are evaluated with tradeoff and kurtosis. The analysis results show that the best combination of parameters for denoising is dmey, rigrSURE, and the hard threshold. The signals were then distributed in a 2D plane for classification through an algorithm based on principal component analysis, which uses a preselection of features extracted in the time domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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23 pages, 2010 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Quality of Dynamic Open Government Data Using Statistical and Machine Learning Methods
by Areti Karamanou, Petros Brimos, Evangelos Kalampokis and Konstantinos Tarabanis
Sensors 2022, 22(24), 9684; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22249684 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Dynamic data (including environmental, traffic, and sensor data) were recently recognized as an important part of Open Government Data (OGD). Although these data are of vital importance in the development of data intelligence applications, such as business applications that exploit traffic data to [...] Read more.
Dynamic data (including environmental, traffic, and sensor data) were recently recognized as an important part of Open Government Data (OGD). Although these data are of vital importance in the development of data intelligence applications, such as business applications that exploit traffic data to predict traffic demand, they are prone to data quality errors produced by, e.g., failures of sensors and network faults. This paper explores the quality of Dynamic Open Government Data. To that end, a single case is studied using traffic data from the official Greek OGD portal. The portal uses an Application Programming Interface (API), which is essential for effective dynamic data dissemination. Our research approach includes assessing data quality using statistical and machine learning methods to detect missing values and anomalies. Traffic flow-speed correlation analysis, seasonal-trend decomposition, and unsupervised isolation Forest (iForest) are used to detect anomalies. iForest anomalies are classified as sensor faults and unusual traffic conditions. The iForest algorithm is also trained on additional features, and the model is explained using explainable artificial intelligence. There are 20.16% missing traffic observations, and 50% of the sensors have 15.5% to 33.43% missing values. The average percent of anomalies per sensor is 71.1%, with only a few sensors having less than 10% anomalies. Seasonal-trend decomposition detected 12.6% anomalies in the data of these sensors, and iForest 11.6%, with very few overlaps. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a study has explored the quality of dynamic OGD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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15 pages, 2609 KiB  
Article
A Novel Adaptive Sensor Fault Estimation Algorithm in Robust Fault Diagnosis
by Marcin Pazera and Marcin Witczak
Sensors 2022, 22(24), 9638; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22249638 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
The paper deals with a robust sensor fault estimation by proposing a novel algorithm capable of reconstructing faults occurring in the system. The provided approach relies on calculating the fault estimation adaptively in every discrete time instance. The approach is developed for the [...] Read more.
The paper deals with a robust sensor fault estimation by proposing a novel algorithm capable of reconstructing faults occurring in the system. The provided approach relies on calculating the fault estimation adaptively in every discrete time instance. The approach is developed for the systems influenced by unknown measurement and process disturbance. Such an issue has been handled with applying the commonly known H approach. The novelty of the proposed algorithm consists of eliminating a difference between consecutive samples of the fault in an estimation error. This results in a easier way of designing the robust estimator by simplification of the linear matrix inequalities. The final part of the paper is devoted to an illustrative example with implementation to a laboratory two-rotor aerodynamical system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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14 pages, 7665 KiB  
Article
Amplifying Lamb Wave Detection for Fiber Bragg Grating with a Phononic Crystal GRIN Lens Waveguide
by Chia-Fu Wang, Junghyun Wee and Kara Peters
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8426; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218426 - 2 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1760
Abstract
This paper demonstrates that a graded-index (GRIN) phononic lens, combined with a channel waveguide, can focus anti-symmetric Lamb waves for extraction by a detector with strong directional sensitivity. Guided ultrasonic wave inspection is commonly applied for structural health monitoring applications; however, obtaining sufficient [...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates that a graded-index (GRIN) phononic lens, combined with a channel waveguide, can focus anti-symmetric Lamb waves for extraction by a detector with strong directional sensitivity. Guided ultrasonic wave inspection is commonly applied for structural health monitoring applications; however, obtaining sufficient signal amplitude is a challenge. In addition, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have strong directional sensitivity. We fabricate the GRIN structure, followed by a channel waveguide starting at the focal point, using a commercial 3D printer and mount it on a thin aluminum plate. We characterize the focusing of the A0 mode Lamb wave in the plate, traveling across the GRIN lens using 3D laser Doppler vibrometry. We also measure the extraction of focused energy using an FBG sensor, examining the optimal sensor bond location and bond length in the channel of the waveguide for maximum signal extraction. The measured amplification of the ultrasound signal is compared to theoretical predictions. The results demonstrate that significant amplification of the waveform is achieved and that selecting the location of the FBG sensor in the channel is critical to optimizing the amplification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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20 pages, 10501 KiB  
Article
Behavior of Residual Current Devices at Earth Fault Currents with DC Component
by Stanislaw Czapp, Hanan Tariq and Slawomir Cieslik
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8382; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218382 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2652
Abstract
Low-voltage electrical installations are increasingly saturated with power electronic converters. Due to very high popularity of photovoltaic (PV) installations and the spread of electric vehicles (EV) as well as their charging installations, DC–AC and AC–DC converters are often found in power systems. The [...] Read more.
Low-voltage electrical installations are increasingly saturated with power electronic converters. Due to very high popularity of photovoltaic (PV) installations and the spread of electric vehicles (EV) as well as their charging installations, DC–AC and AC–DC converters are often found in power systems. The transformerless coupling of AC and DC systems via power electronic converters means that an electrical installation containing both these systems should be recognized from the point of view of earth fault current waveform shapes. In such installations, various shapes of the earth fault current may occur—a DC component of a high value may especially flow. The DC component included in the earth fault current influences the tripping threshold of residual current devices (RCDs)—the devices which are mandatory in certain locations. This paper presents results of the AC-type, A-type, and F-type RCDs sensitivity testing under residual currents of various compositions of the DC component. This testing has shown that the DC component may both degrade and improve the sensitivity of RCDs. Moreover, unexpected positive behaviors of RCDs in some circumstances under DC residual current is discussed. Therefore, recognizing the real sensitivity and behavior of RCDs from the point of view of the DC component is important for effective protection against electric shock, in particular, in PV installations and EV charging systems. The research results provide a new insight into the real behavior of RCDs in modern power systems and, consequently, the safety of people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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19 pages, 25100 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Oil Leakage Detection on Aftermarket Motorcycle Damping System with Convolutional Neural Networks
by Federico Bianchi, Stefano Speziali, Andrea Marini, Massimiliano Proietti, Lorenzo Menculini, Alberto Garinei, Gabriele Bellani and Marcello Marconi
Sensors 2022, 22(20), 7951; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22207951 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
In this work, we describe in detail how Deep Learning and Computer Vision can help to detect fault events of the AirTender system, an aftermarket motorcycle damping system component. One of the most effective ways to monitor the AirTender functioning is to look [...] Read more.
In this work, we describe in detail how Deep Learning and Computer Vision can help to detect fault events of the AirTender system, an aftermarket motorcycle damping system component. One of the most effective ways to monitor the AirTender functioning is to look for oil stains on its surface. Starting from real-time images, AirTender is first detected in the motorbike suspension system, simulated indoor, and then, a binary classifier determines whether AirTender is spilling oil or not. The detection is made with the help of the Yolo5 architecture, whereas the classification is carried out with the help of a suitably designed Convolutional Neural Network, OilNet40. In order to detect oil leaks more clearly, we dilute the oil in AirTender with a fluorescent dye with an excitation wavelength peak of approximately 390 nm. AirTender is then illuminated with suitable UV LEDs. The whole system is an attempt to design a low-cost detection setup. An on-board device, such as a mini-computer, is placed near the suspension system and connected to a full hd camera framing AirTender. The on-board device, through our Neural Network algorithm, is then able to localize and classify AirTender as normally functioning (non-leak image) or anomaly (leak image). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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13 pages, 24877 KiB  
Article
A Trade-Off Analysis between Sensor Quality and Data Intervals for Prognostics Performance
by Hyung Jun Park, Nam Ho Kim and Joo-Ho Choi
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7220; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197220 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1518
Abstract
In safety-critical systems such as industrial plants or aircraft, failure occurs inevitably during operation, and it is important to prevent it in order to maintain high availability. To reduce this risk, a lot of efforts are directed from developing sensing technologies to failure [...] Read more.
In safety-critical systems such as industrial plants or aircraft, failure occurs inevitably during operation, and it is important to prevent it in order to maintain high availability. To reduce this risk, a lot of efforts are directed from developing sensing technologies to failure prognosis algorithms to enable predictive maintenance. The success of effective and reliable predictive maintenance not only relies on robust prognosis algorithms but also on the selection of sensors or data acquisition strategy. However, there are not many in-depth studies on a trade-off between sensor quality and data storage in the view of prognosis performance. The information about (1) how often data should be measured and (2) how good sensor quality should be for reliable failure prediction can be highly impactful for practitioners. In this paper, the authors evaluate the efficacy of the two factors in terms of remaining useful life (RUL) prediction accuracy and its uncertainty. In addition, since knowing true degradation information is almost impossible in practice, the authors validated the use of the prognosis metric without requiring the true degradation information. A numerical case study is conducted to identify the relationship between sensor quality and data storage. Then, real bearing run-to-failure (RTF) datasets acquired from accelerometer (contact type) and microphone (non-contact type) sensors are evaluated based on the prognosis performance metric and compared in terms of the sensors’ cost-effectiveness for predictive maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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27 pages, 22568 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning with LPC and Wavelet Algorithms for Driving Fault Diagnosis
by Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong, Chih-Hui Simon Su, Yuan-En Liu, De-Yu Guu and Yu-Hua Chen
Sensors 2022, 22(18), 7072; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22187072 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2971
Abstract
Vehicle fault detection and diagnosis (VFDD) along with predictive maintenance (PdM) are indispensable for early diagnosis in order to prevent severe accidents due to mechanical malfunction in urban environments. This paper proposes an early voiceprint driving fault identification system using machine learning algorithms [...] Read more.
Vehicle fault detection and diagnosis (VFDD) along with predictive maintenance (PdM) are indispensable for early diagnosis in order to prevent severe accidents due to mechanical malfunction in urban environments. This paper proposes an early voiceprint driving fault identification system using machine learning algorithms for classification. Previous studies have examined driving fault identification, but less attention has focused on using voiceprint features to locate corresponding faults. This research uses 43 different common vehicle mechanical malfunction condition voiceprint signals to construct the dataset. These datasets were filtered by linear predictive coefficient (LPC) and wavelet transform(WT). After the original voiceprint fault sounds were filtered and obtained the main fault characteristics, the deep neural network (DNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), and long short-term memory (LSTM) architectures are used for identification. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the CNN algorithm is the best for the LPC dataset. In addition, for the wavelet dataset, DNN has the best performance in terms of identification performance and training time. After cross-comparison of experimental results, the wavelet algorithm combined with DNN can improve the identification accuracy by up to 16.57% compared with other deep learning algorithms and reduce the model training time by up to 21.5% compared with other algorithms. Realizing the cross-comparison of recognition results through various machine learning methods, it is possible for the vehicle to proactively remind the driver of the real-time potential hazard of vehicle machinery failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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18 pages, 6950 KiB  
Article
PD Flexible Built-In High-Sensitivity Elliptical Monopole Antenna Sensor
by Hanting Zhang, Guozhi Zhang, Xiaoxing Zhang, Hanlu Tian, Changyue Lu, Jianben Liu and Yin Zhang
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4982; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134982 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
In view of the insufficient signal detection sensitivity of Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS), partial discharge (PD), ultra-high frequency (UHF), and failure to conform with GIS surface structure when the existing rigid stereo structure UHF sensor is built in, this paper, using rectangular patch [...] Read more.
In view of the insufficient signal detection sensitivity of Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS), partial discharge (PD), ultra-high frequency (UHF), and failure to conform with GIS surface structure when the existing rigid stereo structure UHF sensor is built in, this paper, using rectangular patch antenna equivalent technique, trapezoidal ground plane technique, and coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed line index asymptotic linearization technique, conducts research on a flexible built-in high-sensitivity elliptic monopole antenna. The flexible antenna, with a thickness of only 0.28 mm, can be kept at a voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of less than three in the 300 MHz to 3 GHz band under the curvature radius of 0, 100, 300, and 500 mm, and at less than two in the 650 MHz to 3 GHz band. Through the true 220 kV-GIS partial discharge experimental platform built to analyze the high frequency electromagnetic wave detection performance of the built-in flexible antenna, it is shown that the flexible built-in high-sensitivity elliptical monopole antenna designed in this paper can effectively detect the characteristic signals of high-frequency electromagnetic waves emitted by partial discharges with an average discharge amount below 10 pC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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31 pages, 5808 KiB  
Article
Analytical Model of Eccentric Induction Machines Using the Conformal Winding Tensor Approach
by Carla Terron-Santiago, Javier Martinez-Roman, Ruben Puche-Panadero, Angel Sapena-Bano, Jordi Burriel-Valencia and Manuel Pineda-Sanchez
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093150 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
Induction machines (IMs) are a critical component of many industrial processes, and their failure can cause large economic losses. Condition-based maintenance systems (CBMs) that are capable of detecting their failures at an incipient stage can reduce these risks by continuously monitoring the IMs’ [...] Read more.
Induction machines (IMs) are a critical component of many industrial processes, and their failure can cause large economic losses. Condition-based maintenance systems (CBMs) that are capable of detecting their failures at an incipient stage can reduce these risks by continuously monitoring the IMs’ condition. The development and reliable operations of CBMs systems require rapid modeling of the faulty IM. Due to the fault-induced IM asymmetries, these models are much more complex than those used for a healthy IM. In particular, a mixed eccentricity fault (static and dynamic), which can degenerate into rubbing and destruction of the rotor, produces a non-uniform IM air gap that is different for each rotor position, which makes its very difficult to calculate the IM’s inductance matrix. In this work, a new analytical model of an eccentric IM is presented. It is based on the winding tensor approach, which allows a clear separation between the air gap and winding-related faults. Contrary to previous approaches, where complex expressions have been developed for obtaining mutual inductances between conductors and windings of an eccentric IM, a conformal transformation is proposed in this work, which allows using the simple inductance expressions of a healthy IM. This novel conformal winding tensor approach (CWFA) is theoretically explained and validated with the diagnosis of two commercial IMs with a mixed eccentricity fault. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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24 pages, 14414 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Defect Diagnosis of Rolling Element Bearings under Variable Operating Conditions Using Convolutional Neural Network and Order Maps
by Syed Muhammad Tayyab, Steven Chatterton and Paolo Pennacchi
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 2026; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22052026 - 4 Mar 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2623
Abstract
Vibration analysis is an established method for fault detection and diagnosis of rolling element bearings. However, it is an expert oriented exercise. To relieve the experts, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques such as deep neural networks, especially convolutional neural networks (CNN) [...] Read more.
Vibration analysis is an established method for fault detection and diagnosis of rolling element bearings. However, it is an expert oriented exercise. To relieve the experts, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques such as deep neural networks, especially convolutional neural networks (CNN) have gained the attention of researchers because of their image classification and recognition capability. Most researchers convert the vibration signal into representative time frequency vibration images such as spectrograms and scalograms. These images are used as inputs to train the CNN model for fault diagnosis. Commonly, fault diagnosis is performed under same operating conditions, where models are trained and deployed for prediction under the same operating conditions. However, outside the laboratory environment, in real world applications, different operating conditions, such as variable speed, may be encountered. With the change in speed, the characteristic frequencies of the vibration signal will also change, which will result in changing the vibration image. Consequently, the performance of the CNN model may drop significantly for prediction under different operating conditions. Accessing the training data from all potential operating conditions may not be feasible for most real-world applications. Therefore, there is a need to find some signal properties which are invariant to change in operating conditions and only change due to change in health state so that models trained under one set of operating conditions may predict correctly under different operating conditions. This paper proposes a defect diagnosis method for rolling element bearings, under variable operating conditions (speed and load) based on CNN and order maps. These maps exhibit consistent properties under varying speed; therefore, they can be used to train the CNN model for fault diagnosis under variable speed. The effect of load change on these order maps is experimentally studied and it is found that the proposed method can undertake fault diagnosis on rolling element bearings under variable speeds and loads with high accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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18 pages, 6368 KiB  
Article
Detection and Analysis of Corrosion and Contact Resistance Faults of TiN and CrN Coatings on 410 Stainless Steel as Bipolar Plates in PEM Fuel Cells
by Mohsen Forouzanmehr, Kazem Reza Kashyzadeh, Amirhossein Borjali, Anastas Ivanov, Mosayeb Jafarnode, Tat-Hean Gan, Bin Wang and Mahmoud Chizari
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030750 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4821
Abstract
Bipolar Plates (BPPs) are the most crucial component of the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. To improve fuel cell stack performance and lifetime, corrosion resistance and Interfacial Contact Resistance (ICR) enhancement are two essential factors for metallic BPPs. One of the [...] Read more.
Bipolar Plates (BPPs) are the most crucial component of the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. To improve fuel cell stack performance and lifetime, corrosion resistance and Interfacial Contact Resistance (ICR) enhancement are two essential factors for metallic BPPs. One of the most effective methods to achieve this purpose is adding a thin solid film of conductive coating on the surfaces of these plates. In the present study, 410 Stainless Steel (SS) was selected as a metallic bipolar plate. The coating process was performed using titanium nitride and chromium nitride by the Cathodic Arc Evaporation (CAE) method. The main focus of this study was to select the best coating among CrN and TiN on the proposed alloy as a substrate of PEM fuel cells through the comparison technique with simultaneous consideration of corrosion resistance and ICR value. After verifying the TiN and CrN coating compound, the electrochemical assessment was conducted by the potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The results of PDP show that all coated samples have an increase in the polarization resistance (Rp) values (ranging from 410.2 to 690.6 Ω·cm2) compared to substrate 410 SS (230.1 Ω·cm2). Corrosion rate values for bare 410 SS, CrN, and TiN coatings were measured as 0.096, 0.032, and 0.060 mpy, respectively. Facilities for X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM, TeScan-Mira III model and made in the Czech Republic), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS) were utilized to perform phase, corrosion behavior, and microstructure analysis. Furthermore, ICR tests were performed on both coated and uncoated specimens. However, the ICR of the coated samples increased slightly compared to uncoated samples. Finally, according to corrosion performance results and ICR values, it can be concluded that the CrN layer is a suitable choice for deposition on 410 SS with the aim of being used in a BPP fuel cell system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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19 pages, 9172 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Crack Evaluation with the Guided Wave–Convolutional Neural Network Ensemble and Differential Wavelet Spectrogram
by Jian Chen, Wenyang Wu, Yuanqiang Ren and Shenfang Yuan
Sensors 2022, 22(1), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010307 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
On-line fatigue crack evaluation is crucial for ensuring the structural safety and reducing the maintenance costs of safety-critical systems. Among structural health monitoring (SHM), guided wave (GW)-based SHM has been deemed as one of the most promising techniques. However, the traditional damage index-based [...] Read more.
On-line fatigue crack evaluation is crucial for ensuring the structural safety and reducing the maintenance costs of safety-critical systems. Among structural health monitoring (SHM), guided wave (GW)-based SHM has been deemed as one of the most promising techniques. However, the traditional damage index-based method and machine learning methods require manual processing and selection of GW features, which depend highly on expert knowledge and are easily affected by complicated uncertainties. Therefore, this paper proposes a fatigue crack evaluation framework with the GW–convolutional neural network (CNN) ensemble and differential wavelet spectrogram. The differential time–frequency spectrogram between the baseline signal and the monitoring signal is processed as the CNN input with the complex Gaussian wavelet transform. Then, an ensemble of CNNs is trained to jointly determine the crack length. Real fatigue tests on complex lap joint structures were carried out to validate the proposed method, in which several structures were tested preliminarily for collecting the training dataset and a new structure was adopted for testing. The root mean square error of the training dataset is 1.4 mm. Besides, the root mean square error of the evaluated crack length in the testing lap joint structure was 1.7 mm, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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22 pages, 5606 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Methodology for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Industrial Slurry Pumps in the Absence of Run to Failure Data
by Muhammad Mohsin Khan, Peter W. Tse and Amy J. C. Trappey
Sensors 2021, 21(24), 8420; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21248420 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
Smart remaining useful life (RUL) prognosis methods for condition-based maintenance (CBM) of engineering equipment are getting high popularity nowadays. Current RUL prediction models in the literature are developed with an ideal database, i.e., a combination of a huge “run to failure” and “run [...] Read more.
Smart remaining useful life (RUL) prognosis methods for condition-based maintenance (CBM) of engineering equipment are getting high popularity nowadays. Current RUL prediction models in the literature are developed with an ideal database, i.e., a combination of a huge “run to failure” and “run to prior failure” data. However, in real-world, run to failure data for rotary machines is difficult to exist since periodic maintenance is continuously practiced to the running machines in industry, to save any production downtime. In such a situation, the maintenance staff only have run to prior failure data of an in operation machine for implementing CBM. In this study, a unique strategy for the RUL prediction of two identical and in-process slurry pumps, having only real-time run to prior failure data, is proposed. The obtained vibration signals from slurry pumps were utilized for generating degradation trends while a hybrid nonlinear autoregressive (NAR)-LSTM-BiLSTM model was developed for RUL prediction. The core of the developed strategy was the usage of the NAR prediction results as the “path to be followed” for the designed LSTM-BiLSTM model. The proposed methodology was also applied on publically available NASA’s C-MAPSS dataset for validating its applicability, and in return, satisfactory results were achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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35 pages, 11357 KiB  
Article
Reducing the Training Samples for Damage Detection of Existing Buildings through Self-Space Approximation Techniques
by Alberto Barontini, Maria Giovanna Masciotta, Paulo Amado-Mendes, Luís F. Ramos and Paulo B. Lourenço
Sensors 2021, 21(21), 7155; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21217155 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
Data-driven methodologies are among the most effective tools for damage detection of complex existing buildings, such as heritage structures. Indeed, the historical evolution and actual behaviour of these assets are often unknown, no physical models are available, and the assessment must be performed [...] Read more.
Data-driven methodologies are among the most effective tools for damage detection of complex existing buildings, such as heritage structures. Indeed, the historical evolution and actual behaviour of these assets are often unknown, no physical models are available, and the assessment must be performed only based on the tracking of a set of damage-sensitive features. Selecting the most representative state indicators to monitor and sampling them with an adequate number of records are therefore essential tasks to guarantee the successful performance of the damage detection strategy. Despite their relevance, these aspects have been frequently taken for granted and little attention has been paid to them by the scientific community working in the field of Structural Health Monitoring. The present paper aims to fill this gap by proposing a multistep strategy to drive the selection of meaningful pairs of correlated features in order to support the damage detection as a one-class classification problem. Numerical methods to reduce the number of necessary acquisitions and estimate the performance of approximation techniques are also provided. The analyses carried out to test and validate the proposed strategy exploit a dense dataset collected during the long-term monitoring of an outstanding heritage structure, i.e., the Church of ‘Santa Maria de Belém’ in Lisbon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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Review

Jump to: Research

45 pages, 881 KiB  
Review
Structural Health Monitoring in Composite Structures: A Comprehensive Review
by Sahar Hassani, Mohsen Mousavi and Amir H. Gandomi
Sensors 2022, 22(1), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010153 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 77 | Viewed by 10367
Abstract
This study presents a comprehensive review of the history of research and development of different damage-detection methods in the realm of composite structures. Different fields of engineering, such as mechanical, architectural, civil, and aerospace engineering, benefit excellent mechanical properties of composite materials. Due [...] Read more.
This study presents a comprehensive review of the history of research and development of different damage-detection methods in the realm of composite structures. Different fields of engineering, such as mechanical, architectural, civil, and aerospace engineering, benefit excellent mechanical properties of composite materials. Due to their heterogeneous nature, composite materials can suffer from several complex nonlinear damage modes, including impact damage, delamination, matrix crack, fiber breakage, and voids. Therefore, early damage detection of composite structures can help avoid catastrophic events and tragic consequences, such as airplane crashes, further demanding the development of robust structural health monitoring (SHM) algorithms. This study first reviews different non-destructive damage testing techniques, then investigates vibration-based damage-detection methods along with their respective pros and cons, and concludes with a thorough discussion of a nonlinear hybrid method termed the Vibro-Acoustic Modulation technique. Advanced signal processing, machine learning, and deep learning have been widely employed for solving damage-detection problems of composite structures. Therefore, all of these methods have been fully studied. Considering the wide use of a new generation of smart composites in different applications, a section is dedicated to these materials. At the end of this paper, some final remarks and suggestions for future work are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fault Diagnosis & Sensors Section 2022)
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