Recently, biosensors have been used in an increasing number of different fields and disciplines due to their wide applicability, reproducibility, and selectivity. Three large disciplines in which this has become relevant has been the forensic, biometric, and cybersecurity fields. The call for novel noninvasive biosensors for these three applications has been a focus of research in these fields. Recent advances in these three areas has relied on the use of biosensors based on primarily colorimetric assays based on bioaffinity interactions utilizing enzymatic assays. In forensics, the use of different bodily fluids for metabolite analysis provides an alternative to the use of DNA to avoid the backlog that is currently the main issue with DNA analysis by providing worthwhile information about the originator. In biometrics, the use of sweat-based systems for user authentication has been developed as a proof-of-concept design utilizing the levels of different metabolites found in sweat. Lastly, biosensor assays have been developed as a proof-of-concept for combination with cybersecurity, primarily cryptography, for the encryption and protection of data and messages.
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