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Non-Invasive Electrochemical Biosensors Operating in Human Physiological Fluids

1
Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, and Biofilms—Research Center for Biointerfaces, Malmö University, 20506 Malmö, Sweden
2
Aptusens AB, 293 94 Kyrkhult, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6352; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216352
Received: 10 October 2020 / Revised: 3 November 2020 / Accepted: 4 November 2020 / Published: 7 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors – Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
Non-invasive healthcare technologies are an important part of research and development nowadays due to the low cost and convenience offered to both healthcare receivers and providers. This work overviews the recent advances in the field of non-invasive electrochemical biosensors operating in secreted human physiological fluids, viz. tears, sweat, saliva, and urine. Described electrochemical devices are based on different electrochemical techniques, viz. amperometry, coulometry, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. Challenges that confront researchers in this exciting area and key requirements for biodevices are discussed. It is concluded that the field of non-invasive sensing of biomarkers in bodily fluid is highly convoluted. Nonetheless, if the drawbacks are appropriately addressed, and the pitfalls are adroitly circumvented, the approach will most certainly disrupt current clinical and self-monitoring practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-invasive biosensors; human physiological fluids; tears; sweat; saliva; urine non-invasive biosensors; human physiological fluids; tears; sweat; saliva; urine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Falk, M.; Psotta, C.; Cirovic, S.; Shleev, S. Non-Invasive Electrochemical Biosensors Operating in Human Physiological Fluids. Sensors 2020, 20, 6352. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216352

AMA Style

Falk M, Psotta C, Cirovic S, Shleev S. Non-Invasive Electrochemical Biosensors Operating in Human Physiological Fluids. Sensors. 2020; 20(21):6352. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216352

Chicago/Turabian Style

Falk, Magnus; Psotta, Carolin; Cirovic, Stefan; Shleev, Sergey. 2020. "Non-Invasive Electrochemical Biosensors Operating in Human Physiological Fluids" Sensors 20, no. 21: 6352. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216352

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