Special Issue "Sustainable Food Processing Processes"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 September 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Dariusz Dziki
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 31 Głęboka St., 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Interests: food processing; milling; grinding; drying; baking; extrusion; bioactive compounds of food
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Renata Różyło
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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Food Engineering and Machines, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 28 Głęboka St., 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Interests: Food processing: milling, drying, and baking
Prof. Dr. Urszula Gawlik-Dziki
Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland
Interests: functional foods; interactions, phenolic compounds; antioxidants
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The demand for more and more production of high-quality food increases with the increase of the world population. Food processing processes must focus on minimizing the impact on the environment and support sustainable production of food. Especially such issues as energy saving, waste management, and cleaner processes must be taken into consideration. This Special Issue is focused on experimental, theoretical, and computational research on process development and engineering in this field. Chemical and biochemical reaction processes, mass transfer, separation and purification processes, heat transfer systems, mixing and fluid processes, integrated process design and scale-up, process modeling, simulation, optimization, and control are all topics that may be included in this issue. However, other aspects of sustainable food processing processes are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Dariusz Dziki
Prof. Dr. Renata Różyło
Prof. Dr. Urszula Gawlik-Dziki
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Sustainable food processing
  • Minimal food processing
  • Emerging food technologies
  • Food quality
  • Energy saving
  • Waste reduction

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Preservation of Antioxidant Properties of Endemic Dark Corn Using Solar Energy for Nixtamalization
Processes 2021, 9(2), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020401 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 139
Abstract
A comparative study of two corn nixtamalization processes is presented, one in the traditional way of the Michoacan region of Mexico, and the other using solar devices. The corn selected for the process was a nontransgenic endemic dark corn. For the nixtamalization process, [...] Read more.
A comparative study of two corn nixtamalization processes is presented, one in the traditional way of the Michoacan region of Mexico, and the other using solar devices. The corn selected for the process was a nontransgenic endemic dark corn. For the nixtamalization process, a solar concentration oven was used; this process using the solar device is simple and affordable for communities. For characterization, the properties of the antioxidant content of dark corn were analyzed for both processes, and the highest concentration of antioxidants between the two varieties of corn was obtained. The antioxidant capacity in the two varieties of black corn was quantified and determined, and the anthocyanin pigments were extracted with methanol. The total anthocyanin content (CAT) was evaluated by the pH difference method, and the antioxidant capacity by the DPPH method. In the solar nixtamalization process, a higher content of CAT anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were obtained. Therefore, the solar energy process was proposed as a sustainable energy option, and we concluded that black corn nixtamalized with a solar oven had high antioxidant levels and could be used as a nutritious food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Feasibility of Using VIS/NIR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Pesticide Residue Detection in Tomatoes
Processes 2021, 9(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020196 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 262
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to investigate the detection of the pesticide residual (profenofos) in tomatoes by using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy. Therefore, the experiments were performed on 180 tomato samples with different percentages of profenofos pesticide (higher and lower values than the maximum [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work was to investigate the detection of the pesticide residual (profenofos) in tomatoes by using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy. Therefore, the experiments were performed on 180 tomato samples with different percentages of profenofos pesticide (higher and lower values than the maximum residual limit (MRL)) as compared to the control (no pesticide). VIS/near infrared (NIR) spectral data from pesticide solution and non-pesticide tomato samples (used as control treatment) impregnated with different concentrations of pesticide in the range of 400 to 1050 nm were recorded by a spectrometer. For classification of tomatoes with pesticide content at lower and higher levels of MRL as healthy and unhealthy samples, we used different spectral pre-processing methods with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models. The Smoothing Moving Average pre-processing method with the standard error of cross validation (SECV) = 4.2767 was selected as the best model for this study. In addition, in the calibration and prediction sets, the percentages of total correctly classified samples were 90 and 91.66%, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that reflective spectroscopy (VIS/NIR) can be used as a non-destructive, low-cost, and rapid technique to control the health of tomatoes impregnated with profenofos pesticide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality of Watermelon Juice Concentrated by Forward Osmosis and Conventional Processes
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121568 - 28 Nov 2020
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice is known for its refreshing flavor, but its high perishability limits its availability throughout the year. Watermelon juice concentrate has extended shelf-life and lower transportation and storage costs, but the conventional thermal evaporation process for concentrating juice [...] Read more.
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice is known for its refreshing flavor, but its high perishability limits its availability throughout the year. Watermelon juice concentrate has extended shelf-life and lower transportation and storage costs, but the conventional thermal evaporation process for concentrating juice degrades the nutritional components and sensory quality of the product. Thus, in this work, a large-scale, non-thermal forward osmosis (FO) process was used to concentrate fresh watermelon juice up to 65°Brix. The FO concentrate was compared to thermal concentrate and fresh juices, and to commercially available refrigerated watermelon juices, in terms of lycopene and citrulline content, total soluble phenolics, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties. The FO concentrate had statistically similar (p < 0.05) levels of all the nutrients of interest except antioxidant activity, when compared to the thermal concentrate. The reconstituted FO concentrate maintained the same antioxidant activity as the raw source juice, which was 45% higher than that of the reconstituted thermal concentrate. Sensory results showed that reconstituted FO concentrate resulted in highly liked juice, and it outperformed the reconstituted thermal concentrate in the sensory hedonic rating. This work demonstrates the possibility to produce a high-quality watermelon juice concentrate by forward osmosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Variety on Rehydration Characteristics of Dried Apples
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111454 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 282
Abstract
The effect of dried apple varieties on their rehydration characteristics was investigated. Four varieties of apples, Champion, Cortland, Grey Reinette and Ligol, were taken into consideration. Rehydration properties and color of apples were investigated. In order to examine the influence of apple variety [...] Read more.
The effect of dried apple varieties on their rehydration characteristics was investigated. Four varieties of apples, Champion, Cortland, Grey Reinette and Ligol, were taken into consideration. Rehydration properties and color of apples were investigated. In order to examine the influence of apple variety on its rehydration properties, the process of rehydration was modeled. The model parameters obtained for investigated apple varieties were compared. Apple cubes were dried in a tunnel dryer (air temperature 60 °C and air velocity 2 m/s) and next rehydrated in distilled water at temperature: 20, 45 and 70 °C. Mass, dry matter mass, volume and color attributes of apples (raw, dried and rehydrated) were measured. The process of rehydration was modeled using empirical (Peleg and Weibull models) and theoretical (the Fick’s second law) models. Results of the analysis showed that the apple variety affects values of mass and volume increase, dry matter decrease and color of the rehydrated apple. Discussed parameters were also affected by rehydration temperature. Fick’s second law model can be considered as the most appropriate. Apple variety and rehydration temperature influenced the values of the model’s constants. Obtained values enabled attempts of the explanation of the rehydration course. It can be stated that apple var. Champion showed a greater rate of water absorption during the entire process of rehydration than other investigated varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Citric Acid, NaCl, and CaCl2 on Qualitative Changes of Horse Meat in Cold Storage
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091099 - 04 Sep 2020
Viewed by 585
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of citric acid, NaCl, and CaCl2 on the qualitative changes of horse meat during cold storage. The study material was the longest dorsal muscles (M. longissimus dorsi (LM)) obtained from twelve half-carcasses of [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of citric acid, NaCl, and CaCl2 on the qualitative changes of horse meat during cold storage. The study material was the longest dorsal muscles (M. longissimus dorsi (LM)) obtained from twelve half-carcasses of horses. The muscle was cut into five steaks, each of which was about 3 cm thick. One sample was kept as a control sample, and the remaining ones were treated with NaCl, citric acid, and CaCl2 (0.2 M and 0.3 M). The study material was obtained 24 h after the slaughter of the animals and was marinated in solution (citric acid and 0.2 M and 0.3 M calcium chloride) and by sprinkling and rubbing (sodium chloride). The applied treatments significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the texture parameters of horse meat (univariate analysis of variance). Citric acid caused deterioration of the study material with respect to the binding and retention of intrinsic water. Among the tested material, the lightest color of the meat was obtained for sample marinated in 0.3 M CaCl2. However, the darkest color of the meat was obtained after the addition of NaCl. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Ultrasonic-Assisted Curing Is Dependent on Muscle Size and Ultrasonication System
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091015 - 20 Aug 2020
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Ultrasound-assisted marinade is a promising technology for reducing the time of traditional immersion marination. This study evaluated the effect of the ultrasonic system (bath or probe, amplitude 50 or 100%) and muscle sample size (3 or 5 cm3) on physicochemical quality, [...] Read more.
Ultrasound-assisted marinade is a promising technology for reducing the time of traditional immersion marination. This study evaluated the effect of the ultrasonic system (bath or probe, amplitude 50 or 100%) and muscle sample size (3 or 5 cm3) on physicochemical quality, yield (salt content, fresh weight, and relative fresh weight), and bacteria counts associated with pork. The results showed a significantly high salt (p < 0.0001) content in 3 cm3 (11.54%) and 5 cm3 (8.88%) samples after 24 h marination by immersion. The 3 cm3 cubes marinated in a 100% probe system for 20 min presented an amount of salt (9.55%) that was quite close to the controls. The 3 cm3 samples treated by immersion and in a 50% probe system gained more relative weight (in relation to the initial weight, 7.45 and 6.64%, respectively) after 7 d at 4 °C. Meanwhile the 5 cm3 cubes marinated by immersion gained 8.1%. The other treatments showed a weight loss after treatment. Although significant differences were found in the fresh weight and in water holding capacity (WHC) in the 3 and 5 cm3 meat samples, the relative fresh weight is a real measure of weight gain, more relevant for the industry. Thus, the samples with the highest salt transfer experienced a phenomenon of “dehydration”, retaining less water. The 3 and 5 cm3 cubes marinated by immersion presented orange color tones due to the long processing time, while the probe system produced redder and brighter tones. Ultrasound as a technology to assist in marinades is not efficient for bacteria control of mesophilic, psychrophilic, or coliform. However, a significant increase in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts may bring benefits for meat preservation during refrigerated storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Ranking Factors of Infant Formula Milk Powder Using Improved Entropy Weight Based on HDT Method and Its Application of Food Safety
Processes 2020, 8(6), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060740 - 25 Jun 2020
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Food safety is about everyone’s health. Through risk assessment and early warning of food safety, food-related safety issues can be identified as early as possible and take timely precautions. However, the detection data of food safety are complex and non-linear, so it is [...] Read more.
Food safety is about everyone’s health. Through risk assessment and early warning of food safety, food-related safety issues can be identified as early as possible and take timely precautions. However, the detection data of food safety are complex and non-linear, so it is necessary to find the relationship and hierarchical representation of factors affecting food safety. This paper presents an improved entropy weight based on Hasse diagram technology (HDT) method to analyze the influencing factors of food safety. The entropy weight method was used to calculate the weight of each factor index, and the relationship matrix was obtained. Then, the data of infant milk powder in China were analyzed hierarchically by the HDT method. Thus, we can obtain the multi-level structure that affects food safety. It provides an effective basis for early warning of food safety, can help government regulators to strengthen management, and urge enterprises to produce food safely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Valorization of Globe Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) Agro-Industrial Discards, Obtaining an Extract with a Selective Effect on Viability of Cancer Cell Lines
Processes 2020, 8(6), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060715 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is considered one of the most significant sources of phenolic antioxidants in nature. However, more than 60% of its total volume is discarded for consumption purposes, making available an abundant, inexpensive and profitable source of natural antioxidants [...] Read more.
Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is considered one of the most significant sources of phenolic antioxidants in nature. However, more than 60% of its total volume is discarded for consumption purposes, making available an abundant, inexpensive and profitable source of natural antioxidants in the discarded fractions. Polyphenolic antioxidants from a South American variety of artichoke agro-industrial discards (external bracts and stems) were obtained by mild extraction processes. Best results were achieved at 40 °C, 75% of ethanol and 10 min of reaction, obtaining 2.16 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and 55,472.34 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g of antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses determined that caffeoylquinic acids comprise up to 85% of the total polyphenolic content, and only around 5% are flavonoids. Inulin content in the artichokes residues was recovered (48.4% dry weight (dw)), resulting in an extract with 28% of inulin in addition to the aforementioned antioxidant capacity. The artichoke discard extract in a concentration of 500 mg/L produced a strong decrease in Caco-2 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines viability, whereas healthy fibroblasts maintained their viability when the extract was concentrated at 1500 mg/L. These results suggest that the artichoke extract presents a good anti-proliferative potential effect on Caco-2 and MCF-7 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Drying Characteristics of Dracocephalum moldavica Leaves: Drying Kinetics and Physicochemical Properties
Processes 2020, 8(5), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050509 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the method and temperature of the sublimation, vacuum and convective drying process on the kinetics of dehydration of the Moldovan dragonhead leaves, as well as on the physical and chemical properties, such [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the method and temperature of the sublimation, vacuum and convective drying process on the kinetics of dehydration of the Moldovan dragonhead leaves, as well as on the physical and chemical properties, such as color coordinates, total content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, total monomeric anthocyanins content, total flavonoids content and content of essential oils. It was shown that the kinetics of the sublimation and vacuum drying process are best described by the logarithmic and Page models. Sublimation and vacuum drying were characterized by comparable process times. An increase in drying temperature caused a decrease in the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the dried material and a significant change in the composition of essential oils. The lowest brightness of the dried material and the lowest color saturation was found after sublimation drying at 20 °C. The highest dried material quality was found in case of convective and sublimation drying at 20 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Impact of Whole and Ground-by-Knife and Ball Mill Flax Seeds on the Physical and Sensorial Properties of Gluten Free-Bread
Processes 2020, 8(4), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040452 - 12 Apr 2020
Viewed by 690
Abstract
The aim of the study was to compare the physical and sensory properties of gluten-free bread with the addition of whole and ground flax seeds. The grinding process of flax seeds was carried out using a knife grinder and ball mill. After short-knife [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to compare the physical and sensory properties of gluten-free bread with the addition of whole and ground flax seeds. The grinding process of flax seeds was carried out using a knife grinder and ball mill. After short-knife grinding (20 s) (GM-200, Retsch), the seeds were divided into whole (average particle size 0.634 mm), coarse (769 mm) and fine (0.328 mm) flour, and these flours were additionally ground with ball milling (60 s) (Pulverisette 6, Fritsh). The grinding energy of seeds was evaluated. Baking of gluten-free bread was performed with 10% addition of different forms of whole and ground flaxseeds. The colour, volume, texture and sensory parameters of bread were evaluated. In addition, the crumbling index of bread was developed and defined as the percentage share of crumbed pieces of the bread slice in relation to the mass of the entire crumb sample cut out together with crumbs. Specific grinding energy of flaxseeds during short (20 s) knife grinding was equal to 109.5 J·g−1, and additional ball milling (60 s) caused significantly (α = 0.05) more than 4 times higher energy consumption, but more reduced particles of whole (0.497 mm), coarse (0.621 mm) and fine flour (0.308 mm) were obtained. After adding ground seeds, it was necessary to add more water to the dough, which increased dough yield from 220% to 240% and even to 260% when ball milling of coarse flax flour was applied. The most significant increase in the volume of bread and the most reduced crumbling was observed for breads with addition of coarse fractions of flaxseeds ground with ball milling. In comparison with the control sample of gluten-free bread; significant improvement in bread volume, textureand sensory evaluation was observed after using both whole and ground flaxseeds. Furthermore, the crumbling index was related to an organoleptic evaluation and can be used in bread quality assessment as a complement to instrumental texture measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Selected Parameters and Different Methods of Implementing Vacuum Impregnation of Apple Tissue on Its Effectiveness
Processes 2020, 8(4), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040428 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 679
Abstract
The study provides comprehensive information on the vacuum impregnation process applied to plant materials. It aims (in traditional applications) to ensure impermeability and elimination of porosity of various materials. The process substantially accelerates mass transfer in the liquid–solid system. The study describes the [...] Read more.
The study provides comprehensive information on the vacuum impregnation process applied to plant materials. It aims (in traditional applications) to ensure impermeability and elimination of porosity of various materials. The process substantially accelerates mass transfer in the liquid–solid system. The study describes the course of the process and accompanying phenomena as well its effects on plant tissues. The aim of the investigations was to determine the impact of some impregnation parameters (pressure, pressure change rate, vacuum maintenance time, relaxation time, and the coefficient of impregnating liquid viscosity) and the mode of impregnation (wet, dry, cyclic wet) on the degree of filling the plant tissue with the impregnating solution. Jonagold apples were used as the study material. The investigations have revealed that changes in the vacuum impregnation parameters (vacuum maintenance time, relaxation time, pressure change rate in the system) and the impregnation method do not exert a significant impact on the effectiveness of the process as expressed by the degree of permeation of the impregnating solution into the tissue. The pressure value and the viscosity coefficient were the only parameters that had a significant effect on the impregnation yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Standardizing the Hydrogel Application Rates and Foliar Nutrition for Enhancing Yield of Lentil (Lens culinaris)
Processes 2020, 8(4), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040420 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Lentil (Lens culinaris) is an important winter season annual legume crop known for its highly valued seed in human and animal nutrition owing to its high lysine and tryptophan content. Shortage of water during the crop growth period has become the [...] Read more.
Lentil (Lens culinaris) is an important winter season annual legume crop known for its highly valued seed in human and animal nutrition owing to its high lysine and tryptophan content. Shortage of water during the crop growth period has become the major impediment for cultivation of pulses in rice fallow in particular. Under such conditions, the application of hydrogel can be a potential alternative to improve photosynthetic efficiency, assimilate partitioning, and increase growth and yield. A field experiment was conducted from November to February during 2015–16 to 2017–18 on clay loam soil that was medium in fertility and acidic in reaction (pH 5.4) at Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. There were three hydrogel levels in total in the main plot and foliar nutrition with five different nutrient sprays in sub-plots, together comprising 15 treatment combinations. The data pooled over three years, 2015–2018, revealed that application of hydrogel at 5 kg/ha before sowing recorded a significantly greater number of pods per plant (38.0) and seed yield (1032.1 kg/ha) over the control. Foliar application of nutrients over flower initiation and pod development had a positive effect on increasing the number of pods per plant eventually enhanced the seed yield of lentil. Foliar application of either 0.5% NPK or salicylic acid 75 ppm spray at flower initiation and pod development stages recorded significantly more pods per plant over other nutrient treatments. Further, the yield attributed improved because of elevated growth in plant. Significantly maximum seed yield (956 kg/ha) recorded in the NPK spray of 0.5% remained on par with salicylic acid 75 ppm (939 kg/ha) over the rest of the treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Heating and Freezing Pretreatments on Mechanical, Chemical and Spectral Properties of Bulk Sunflower Seeds and Oil
Processes 2020, 8(4), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040411 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
The present study examined the effects of heating and freezing pretreatments on the mechanical, chemical, and spectral characteristics of sunflower seeds and oil under a linear compression process involving a universal compression-testing machine and a pressing vessel of diameter 60 mm with a [...] Read more.
The present study examined the effects of heating and freezing pretreatments on the mechanical, chemical, and spectral characteristics of sunflower seeds and oil under a linear compression process involving a universal compression-testing machine and a pressing vessel of diameter 60 mm with a plunger. The heating temperatures ranged from 40 to 80 °C and freezing temperatures from −2 to −36 °C at constant heating time of 30 min. The pretreated samples of initial height of 80 mm (22.6 × 10−5 m3) were compressed under a preset load of 100 kN and a speed of 5 mm/min. The results showed that oil expression efficiency significantly increased (p < 0.05) with increased heating temperatures but decreased with freezing temperatures. The lowest energy per volume oil of 22.55 ± 0.919 kJ/L was recorded at 80 °C compared to 26.40 ± 0.307 kJ/L noticed at −2 °C and control (25 °C) of 33.93 ± 3.866 kJ/L. The linear regression equations expressing oil expression efficiency, energy per volume oil, peroxide value, and free fatty acid, dependent on heating and freezing temperatures, were described with coefficients of determination between 0.373 and 0.908. Increased heating temperatures increased the UV absorption rate of the oil samples at a wavelength of 350 nm. The study is part of the continuing research on linear compression modeling of all processing factors, whereby the results are intended to be applied to the non-linear process dealing with a mechanical screw press to improve the oil extraction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Wholemeal Spelt Bread Enriched with Green Spelt as a Source of Valuable Nutrients
Processes 2020, 8(4), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040389 - 27 Mar 2020
Viewed by 607
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of wholemeal bread prepared from the flour of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) that was enriched by the addition of freeze-dried spelt grain (at proportions of 4%, 8%, and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of wholemeal bread prepared from the flour of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) that was enriched by the addition of freeze-dried spelt grain (at proportions of 4%, 8%, and 12%, respectively, in relation to the flour weight). The spelt grain used in the study was harvested at the milk dough stage (the so-called green grain). Green spelt grain was characterized by a significantly higher content of minerals namely P, Mg, Ca and Zn compared to ripe spelt grain. Additionally, it contained significantly higher amounts of amino acids (Asp, Thr, Ser, Gly, Ala, Cys, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Phe, Lys), lipids, as well as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and omega-3 and omega-9 acids. However, it had a lower content of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and omega-6 acids. The results showed that the nutritional value of bread was improved by the green spelt grain, however the ω6/ω3 ratio in bread enriched with green spelt grain was slightly less favorable than in control bread. Among all the products tested, bread enriched with a 12% proportion of green spelt grain was characterized by the highest content of almost all the amino acids (except for Pro, Cys, and Met), as well as in Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe. In addition, overall acceptability of this bread was the highest. Bread enriched with 8% of green grain contained the highest amount of P, Ca, Pro, linoleic acid, PUFA, and ω 6 acids, while bread enriched with 4% of green spelt grain had the highest content of palmitic acid and saturated fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Influence of Freezing and Thawing on the Yield and Energy Consumption of the Celeriac Juice Pressing Process
Processes 2020, 8(3), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030378 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
The aim of this study is to indicate the influence of pretreatment, consisting of grinding vegetables and then freezing and thawing the raw material before pressing on the process efficiency and quality of obtained juice. The subject of the research was celeriac root [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to indicate the influence of pretreatment, consisting of grinding vegetables and then freezing and thawing the raw material before pressing on the process efficiency and quality of obtained juice. The subject of the research was celeriac root (Apium graveolens L) of the Edward variety. Juice pressing was carried out in a laboratory basket press. The pressing yield and specific energy were values characterizing the pressing process, while pH and the extracted content in the juice were used to assess the juice quality. The experiment was performed according to three procedures. In each of them, the ground celeriac root (pulp or chips) was initially pretreated through freezing and thawing and then pressed twice. Among the examined methods of obtaining juice, the most beneficial method was pressing juice from the pulp, then freezing and thawing the pomace obtained in the first cycle, and finally, pressing the pomace. It is an energy-optimal method and guarantees a high pressing yield as well as obtaining juice with a higher soluble solid content than during the process of pressing chips. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Sieve Unit Inclination Angle in the Cleaning Process of Oat Grain in a Rotary Cleaning Device
Processes 2020, 8(3), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030346 - 18 Mar 2020
Viewed by 648
Abstract
The article presents some of the research on the wider work related to testing and improving a new rotary cleaning device. The new cereal grain cleaning and separation device can support the development of sustainable agriculture in terms of seed purity and quality. [...] Read more.
The article presents some of the research on the wider work related to testing and improving a new rotary cleaning device. The new cereal grain cleaning and separation device can support the development of sustainable agriculture in terms of seed purity and quality. This device is especially useful for small and medium-sized farms. This device has the characteristics of a multi-stage screen aided by an air stream (i.e., by pneumoseparation). The prototype was constructed at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The research was conducted at a test stand, which allowed changes in the operating parameters of the cleaner and their measurement. The scope of the tests included determining the influence of the inclination angle of the sieve unit (α) on the effectiveness and efficiency of oat grain cleaning. The experiment was carried out using two rotational spindle speeds: 5 and 75 rpm. The quality of the separation and cleaning of oat grains was evaluated using six cleaning process parameters: plump grain mass separation coefficient (Spg), fine grain separation coefficient (Sfg), fine impurities separation coefficient (Sfi), chaff separation coefficient (Sch), total coefficient of cleaning effectiveness (E), plump grain cleaning efficiency (qpg). Results showed the significant effect of the sieve drum inclination angle on the efficiency and effectiveness of oat grain cleaning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Blanching Time on Moisture, Sugars, Protein, and Processing Recovery of Sweet Corn Kernels
Processes 2020, 8(3), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030340 - 16 Mar 2020
Viewed by 650
Abstract
The objective of this work is to determine the influence of blanching time on moisture content, sugars, protein, and processing recovery (degree of cut corn) of sweet corn kernels. Sweetcorn cobs of the Jubilee variety were blanched in the water at the temperature [...] Read more.
The objective of this work is to determine the influence of blanching time on moisture content, sugars, protein, and processing recovery (degree of cut corn) of sweet corn kernels. Sweetcorn cobs of the Jubilee variety were blanched in the water at the temperature 85 °C during the period of 2, 4, 6, and 8 min. Non-blanched cobs were used as control samples. Blanched cobs were made subject to a mechanical process of cutting-off the kernels. It was stated that the blanching time has significant statistical influence on the content of moisture, sugars, and protein in kernel as well as on the quantity of the cut-off kernel mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Tamarind Seed Gum on the Qualities of Gluten-Free Cakes
Processes 2020, 8(3), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030318 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 653
Abstract
The effect of 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8% cold-water soluble tamarind seed gum on batter density, viscosity, and volume of gluten-free layer cakes made with rice flour was evaluated herein. It was observed that the addition of 0.4% tamarind seed gum gave better cake [...] Read more.
The effect of 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8% cold-water soluble tamarind seed gum on batter density, viscosity, and volume of gluten-free layer cakes made with rice flour was evaluated herein. It was observed that the addition of 0.4% tamarind seed gum gave better cake batter volume and was similar to cakes made with wheat flour. Texture profile analysis, color, proximate composition, water activity, total phenolics content, shelf life, and a sensory evaluation of a gluten-free cake with 0.4% tamarind seed gum were compared to a cake made with wheat flour and rice flour. Gluten-free cakes made with 0.4% tamarind seed gum had higher dietary fiber, sensory scores (appearance, texture, and overall acceptability), and longer shelf life than that of the control. Incorporation of 0.4% tamarind seed gum is recommended for gluten-free baked products as it results in more desirable sensory scores and a longer shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Compounds Extraction of Arbutus unedo L.: Process Intensification by Microwave Pretreatment
Processes 2020, 8(3), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030298 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
Arbutus unedo L., commonly known as the strawberry-tree fruit, is an endemic species of the Mediterranean flora. Microwave extraction technology has been considered as a fast and “green” method for the production of extracts rich in bioactive compounds, although the energy consumption is [...] Read more.
Arbutus unedo L., commonly known as the strawberry-tree fruit, is an endemic species of the Mediterranean flora. Microwave extraction technology has been considered as a fast and “green” method for the production of extracts rich in bioactive compounds, although the energy consumption is high. To overcome this bottleneck, microwave was used as a pretreatment procedure in short time periods. This technique promotes the burst of intracellular vacuoles leading to an increase in the lixiviation of phenolic compounds. Different approaches were tested, namely a solvent-free irradiation (SFI), a solvent-assisted irradiation (SAI) and a pressurized solvent-assisted irradiation (PSAI). After irradiation, a solid–liquid extraction procedure was performed using a mixture of water and ethanol. A kinetic evaluation of the total phenolic content (TPC) was performed using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. For the total anthocyanin content, a UV-spectrophotometric method was used. HPLC-UV and LC-MS were used for TPC and identification of present compounds. Microwave irradiation led to an increase in TPC of extracts after SAI (52%) and PSAI (66%) along with a reduction in time of extraction from 30 min to less than 2 min. The anthocyanin content also increased by 66% for the SAI and PSAI extractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Near-Null Geomagnetic Field as an Innovative Method of Fruit Storage
Processes 2020, 8(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030262 - 25 Feb 2020
Viewed by 731
Abstract
The article presents the findings of a study investigating the effects of storing Jonagold apples for six weeks in a condition in which the vertical component of the geomagnetic field has been eliminated (near null GMF) and in control conditions representing those applied [...] Read more.
The article presents the findings of a study investigating the effects of storing Jonagold apples for six weeks in a condition in which the vertical component of the geomagnetic field has been eliminated (near null GMF) and in control conditions representing those applied in traditional storage (i.e., in the local geomagnetic field (local GMF)). Analyses of the fruit were performed before the start of and three times during the experiment (i.e., following four, five and six weeks in storage). The contents of simple sugars were measured using the HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method; refractometry was applied to identify total extract; thermogravimetry was used to measure the water content, volatile substances and total ash; calorific value and intensity of respiration were examined by measuring CO2 emissions. Significant differences were found between the apples stored in the experimental and under control conditions, showing an advantage of storage in a condition with the vertical component of the geomagnetic field removed. Statistically significant differences were mainly identified in the speed of starch conversion into simple sugars, as well as the intensity of respiration and the appearance of the two groups of apples. Storage of fruit in a compensated geomagnetic field proved to be an effective method permitting an extended duration of storage without significant deterioration of the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of apples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Possibility to Save Water and Energy by Application of Fresh Vegetables to Produce Supplemented Potato-Based Snack Pellets
Processes 2020, 8(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020153 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of fresh vegetable addition on processing efficiency, and to ascertain the energy and water consumption during production of potato-based snack pellets. The extrusion-cooking process with a modified single screw extruder was applied at [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of fresh vegetable addition on processing efficiency, and to ascertain the energy and water consumption during production of potato-based snack pellets. The extrusion-cooking process with a modified single screw extruder was applied at variable screw speeds and amounts of vegetable additives. A mixture of potato flakes, potato grits and starch was used as a basic recipe. The potato composition was supplemented with fresh pulp of onion, leek, kale and carrot in amounts of 2.5–30.0% as replacement of a related amount of potato starch. The water consumption, as well as processing indicators: the production efficiency, the specific mechanical energy (SME), and the total SME requirements during snack pellets processing at the laboratory scale were evaluated. As a result of this work, we found that the amount of applied vegetable additives had little impact on both processing efficiency and SME depending on the screw speeds applied. Moreover, we saw increased processing efficiency with increased screw speed during extrusion. Of particular note, maximum value of processing efficiency was observed if fresh onion was used as an additive at the highest speed screw. Furthermore, the lowest specific mechanical energy consumption was noted for extrudates supplemented with fresh onion addition processed at the lowest screw speed. The most important limiting of water consumption during processing without negative effects on processing efficiency and quality of the final snack pellets was observed if 20% to 30% of fresh vegetables were used in the recipe. We believe that application of fresh vegetable pulp limited the energy requirements by mitigating the drying process of additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Most Suitable Conditions for Dehydration of Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) Fruits
Processes 2020, 8(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020151 - 24 Jan 2020
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) is an Australian native tree, possessing high level bioactivity and antioxidant activity. To prevent deterioration of active constituents, appropriate drying practices must be determined. This study comparatively evaluates the impact of a range of drying methods including freeze-, [...] Read more.
Tuckeroo (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) is an Australian native tree, possessing high level bioactivity and antioxidant activity. To prevent deterioration of active constituents, appropriate drying practices must be determined. This study comparatively evaluates the impact of a range of drying methods including freeze-, microwave-, vacuum-, hot air- and sun-drying on the physical, phytochemical and antioxidant characteristics of Tuckeroo fruit. Experimental results showed that the five drying methods had significant impact on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of the fruits. Of the drying methods assessed, freeze drying best preserved Tuckeroo activity, recording higher total phenolic content (TPC) (81.88 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g), total flavonoids (TFC) (107.71 mg catechin equivalent (CAE)/g), proanthocyanidins (TPro) (83.86 mg CAE/g) and exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacity. However, vacuum drying at 65 kPa, 100 °C for 5 h is recommended for drying Tuckeroo fruits for further processing in a large scale as it also retained high levels of TPC, TFC and TPro (58 mg GAE/g, 91 mg CAE/g and 74 mg CAE/g, respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Different Softening Processes on the Hardness and Quality of Thawed Neritic Squid (Uroteuthis edulis) Muscle
Processes 2020, 8(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020135 - 21 Jan 2020
Viewed by 662
Abstract
While attempting to develop a soft, seafood-based product as a potential food item for senior citizens, we evaluated the effects of different softening methods on the hardness and quality of thawed muscular mantle tissue of the neritic squid (Uroteuthis edulis) versus [...] Read more.
While attempting to develop a soft, seafood-based product as a potential food item for senior citizens, we evaluated the effects of different softening methods on the hardness and quality of thawed muscular mantle tissue of the neritic squid (Uroteuthis edulis) versus controls. Comparisons were made among injection with proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelain); soaking in these enzymes or in alkali solutions (NaHCO3, NaOH); various soaking regimes combined with either orbital shaking under vacuum, ultrasonic processing, or ultrasonic cleaning; or hot-air drying and rehydration. Elderly panelists’ sensory impressions of thawed and heat-sterilized squid mantle subjected to these treatments were recorded, together with the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), pH, color, protein breakdown profile (SDS-PAGE), and histological characteristics of thawed squid mantle subjected to the same treatments but not heat-sterilized. TVBN measurements showed that squid mantle remained in a close-to-fresh state under all treatments except for hot-air drying. The pH and hardness decreased and the muscles turned white when soaked in either enzymes or alkali. Orbital shaking under vacuum while soaking in 0.3% papain for 12 h produced the softest product, the next softest being obtained by injection with 0.3% papain. After orbital shaking under vacuum in 1.0% papain, protein degradation was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, and broken muscle fibers were evident in histological sections. Sensory evaluation panelists with unimpeded chewing ability rated mushy, papain-treated squid mantle poorly. Soaking in 2% NaHCO3 in an ultrasonic processor, following by washing out of the alkali, proved to be a better tenderizing method than either enzyme treatment or hot-air drying for neritic squid mantle intended for consumption by senior citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Usefulness of the Twin-Screw Press in Terms of the Pressing Efficiency and Antioxidant Properties of Apple Juice
Processes 2020, 8(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010101 - 11 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
The paper presents the possibility of applying a twin-screw press for juice extraction from apples with different textural properties. The research was carried out with six different varieties; namely, Granny Smith, Modi, Ligol, Lobo, Boscop and Szampion. During the experiment, the following properties [...] Read more.
The paper presents the possibility of applying a twin-screw press for juice extraction from apples with different textural properties. The research was carried out with six different varieties; namely, Granny Smith, Modi, Ligol, Lobo, Boscop and Szampion. During the experiment, the following properties were measured: texture properties, pressing yield and polyphenolic content; and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity both in raw apples and apple juice. Based on the analysis, three hardness levels of apples can be distinguished, impacting the course of juice pressing in a twin-screw press (low hardness below 30 N, medium hardness 30–50 N and high hardness 50 N). The study showed that only high hardness apples are suitable for pressing on a twin-screw press. The mechanism by which texture properties influence the juice pressing process in the studied press was explained. It was further demonstrated that the hardness of apples has a positive impact on the degree of extraction of polyphenols and ascorbic acid into apple juice. This is caused by the different fracture patterns of tissues with different mechanical properties. High hardness apples (Granny Smith and Modi) were characterized by a considerably greater degree of bioactive substance extraction into juice than medium hardness apples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Drying Kinetics, Grinding Characteristics, and Physicochemical Properties of Broccoli Sprouts
Processes 2020, 8(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010097 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
In this study, we studied the drying process, grinding characteristics and physicochemical characteristics of broccoli sprouts (BS). The seeds of broccoli were germinated at 20 °C for 3 and 6 days. Then, the seeds were air- and freeze-dried, and the Page model was [...] Read more.
In this study, we studied the drying process, grinding characteristics and physicochemical characteristics of broccoli sprouts (BS). The seeds of broccoli were germinated at 20 °C for 3 and 6 days. Then, the seeds were air- and freeze-dried, and the Page model was used for prediction of drying kinetics of broccoli sprouts. It was observed that the drying time of BS decreased about twofold as the air-drying temperature increased from 40 to 80 °C. An increasing the air-drying temperature from 40 to 80 °C decreased the drying time by approximately twofold. Freeze-drying of sprouts took the longest drying time. Germination of seeds significantly decreased the value of grinding energy requirements, and the ground sprouts exhibited a different grinding pattern in comparison to ground non-germinated seeds. In terms of color parameters, the highest lightness and yellowness were found for freeze-dried sprouts. Redness and yellowness of sprouts increased with an increase in the air-drying temperature. The lowest total color difference was obtained for the freeze-dried sprouts. Higher drying temperature resulted in lower total phenolics content (TPC) and decreased antioxidant activity (AA). The highest TPC and AA were observed in air-dried sprouts (40 °C) and freeze-dried sprouts after 6 days of germination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Application of Novel Techniques for Monitoring Quality Changes in Meat and Fish Products during Traditional Processing Processes: Reconciling Novelty and Tradition
Processes 2020, 8(8), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8080988 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in monitoring changes induced in fish and other seafood, and meat and meat products, following the application of traditional processing processes by means of conventional and emerging advanced techniques. Selected examples from the literature [...] Read more.
In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in monitoring changes induced in fish and other seafood, and meat and meat products, following the application of traditional processing processes by means of conventional and emerging advanced techniques. Selected examples from the literature covering relevant applications of spectroscopic methods (i.e., visible and near infrared (VIS/NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and fluorescence) will be used to illustrate the topics covered in this review. Although a general reluctance toward using and adopting new technologies in traditional production sectors causes a relatively low interest in spectroscopic techniques, the recently published studies have pointed out that these techniques could be a powerful tool for the non-destructive monitoring and process optimization during the production of muscle food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
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