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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Different Softening Processes on the Hardness and Quality of Thawed Neritic Squid (Uroteuthis edulis) Muscle

1
Center of Excellence for the Oceans, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
2
Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020135 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 December 2019 / Revised: 19 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
While attempting to develop a soft, seafood-based product as a potential food item for senior citizens, we evaluated the effects of different softening methods on the hardness and quality of thawed muscular mantle tissue of the neritic squid (Uroteuthis edulis) versus controls. Comparisons were made among injection with proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelain); soaking in these enzymes or in alkali solutions (NaHCO3, NaOH); various soaking regimes combined with either orbital shaking under vacuum, ultrasonic processing, or ultrasonic cleaning; or hot-air drying and rehydration. Elderly panelists’ sensory impressions of thawed and heat-sterilized squid mantle subjected to these treatments were recorded, together with the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), pH, color, protein breakdown profile (SDS-PAGE), and histological characteristics of thawed squid mantle subjected to the same treatments but not heat-sterilized. TVBN measurements showed that squid mantle remained in a close-to-fresh state under all treatments except for hot-air drying. The pH and hardness decreased and the muscles turned white when soaked in either enzymes or alkali. Orbital shaking under vacuum while soaking in 0.3% papain for 12 h produced the softest product, the next softest being obtained by injection with 0.3% papain. After orbital shaking under vacuum in 1.0% papain, protein degradation was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, and broken muscle fibers were evident in histological sections. Sensory evaluation panelists with unimpeded chewing ability rated mushy, papain-treated squid mantle poorly. Soaking in 2% NaHCO3 in an ultrasonic processor, following by washing out of the alkali, proved to be a better tenderizing method than either enzyme treatment or hot-air drying for neritic squid mantle intended for consumption by senior citizens. View Full-Text
Keywords: neritic squid; tenderization; bromelain; papain; food for seniors; palatability neritic squid; tenderization; bromelain; papain; food for seniors; palatability
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Grygier, M.J.; Fan, Y.-W.; Sung, W.-C. Effects of Different Softening Processes on the Hardness and Quality of Thawed Neritic Squid (Uroteuthis edulis) Muscle. Processes 2020, 8, 135.

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