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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Drying Kinetics, Grinding Characteristics, and Physicochemical Properties of Broccoli Sprouts

1
Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 31, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Life Sciences, Skromna 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland
3
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin, Poland
4
Department of Equipment Operation and Maintenance in the Food Industry, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 28, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
5
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Automatics, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 28, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
6
Department of Food Technology, College of Food Sciences, University of Al-Qasim Green, Babylon 964, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010097
Received: 7 December 2019 / Revised: 4 January 2020 / Accepted: 8 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Processing Processes)
In this study, we studied the drying process, grinding characteristics and physicochemical characteristics of broccoli sprouts (BS). The seeds of broccoli were germinated at 20 °C for 3 and 6 days. Then, the seeds were air- and freeze-dried, and the Page model was used for prediction of drying kinetics of broccoli sprouts. It was observed that the drying time of BS decreased about twofold as the air-drying temperature increased from 40 to 80 °C. An increasing the air-drying temperature from 40 to 80 °C decreased the drying time by approximately twofold. Freeze-drying of sprouts took the longest drying time. Germination of seeds significantly decreased the value of grinding energy requirements, and the ground sprouts exhibited a different grinding pattern in comparison to ground non-germinated seeds. In terms of color parameters, the highest lightness and yellowness were found for freeze-dried sprouts. Redness and yellowness of sprouts increased with an increase in the air-drying temperature. The lowest total color difference was obtained for the freeze-dried sprouts. Higher drying temperature resulted in lower total phenolics content (TPC) and decreased antioxidant activity (AA). The highest TPC and AA were observed in air-dried sprouts (40 °C) and freeze-dried sprouts after 6 days of germination. View Full-Text
Keywords: broccoli; germination; air-drying; freeze-drying; temperature; grinding energy; total phenolics content broccoli; germination; air-drying; freeze-drying; temperature; grinding energy; total phenolics content
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dziki, D.; Habza-Kowalska, E.; Gawlik-Dziki, U.; Miś, A.; Różyło, R.; Krzysiak, Z.; Hassoon, W.H. Drying Kinetics, Grinding Characteristics, and Physicochemical Properties of Broccoli Sprouts. Processes 2020, 8, 97.

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