Special Issue "Polysaccharides"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jun-ichi Kadokawa

Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology, and Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: polysaccharides; supramolecules; nanostructures; enzymatic synthesis; ionic liquids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As polysaccharides have always been a hot topic, this Special Issue is motivated by the observed increasing interest shown by various research groups in this field, including naturally-occurring processes, extraction and purification from natural sources, chemical, crystalline, and higher-ordered structures, biocompatibility and biological functions, derivatization and modification, new synthetic methods, and applications as functional materials. However, topics are not limited to these studies, but cover all research areas concerning polysaccharides.

Considering your prominent contribution in this interesting research topic, I would like to cordially invite you to submit an article to this Special Issue. This Special Issue will publish full research papers, communications, and review articles. I would like to bring together a collection of comprehensive reviews from leading experts and up-to-date researches from notable groups in the community.

The manuscript should be submitted online before 30 November 2018. I would very much appreciate if you would consider being one of our authors.

Prof. Dr. Jun-ichi Kadokawa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Naturally occurring processes
  • Extraction and purification
  • Structures
  • Biocompatibility and biological functions
  • Derivatization and modification
  • New synthetic methods
  • Functional materials

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Antimony Removal from Water by a Chitosan-Iron(III)[ChiFer(III)] Biocomposite
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020351
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
The presence of antimony(III) in water represents a worldwide concern, mainly due to its high toxicity and carcinogenicity potential. It can be separated from water by the use of sustainable biopolymers such as chitosan or its derivatives. The present study applied chitosan modified [...] Read more.
The presence of antimony(III) in water represents a worldwide concern, mainly due to its high toxicity and carcinogenicity potential. It can be separated from water by the use of sustainable biopolymers such as chitosan or its derivatives. The present study applied chitosan modified with iron(III) beads to Sb(III) removal from aqueous solutions. The resulting material performed with a high adsorption capacity of 98.68 mg/g. Material characterization consisted of Raman spectroscopy (RS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope observations (SEM-EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc). The adsorption study included pH study, effect of initial concentration, kinetics, ion effect, and reusability assessment. The RS, XRD, and FTIR results indicated that the main functional groups in the composite were related to hydroxyl and amino groups, and iron oxyhydroxide species of α-FeO(OH). The pHpzc was found to be 7.41. The best adsorption efficiency was set at pH 6. The equilibrium isotherms were better fitted with a non-linear Langmuir model, and the kinetics data were fitted with a pseudo-second order rate equation. The incorporation of iron into the chitosan matrix improved the Sb(III) uptake by 47.9%, compared with neat chitosan (CS). The material did not exhibit an impact in its performance in the presence of other ions, and it could be reused for up to three adsorption–desorption cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Sorption and Desorption Studies of Pb(II) and Ni(II) from Aqueous Solutions by a New Composite Based on Alginate and Magadiite Materials
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020340
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
A new composite material based on alginate and magadiite/Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (CAM-D2EHPA) was successfully prepared by previous impregnation of layered magadiite with D2EHPA extractant, and then immobilized into the alginate matrix. Air dried beads of CAM-D2EHPA were characterized by FTIR and SEM–EDX techniques. [...] Read more.
A new composite material based on alginate and magadiite/Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (CAM-D2EHPA) was successfully prepared by previous impregnation of layered magadiite with D2EHPA extractant, and then immobilized into the alginate matrix. Air dried beads of CAM-D2EHPA were characterized by FTIR and SEM–EDX techniques. The sorbent was used for the separation of lead and nickel from nitrate solutions; the main parameters of sorption such as contact time, pH of the solution, and initial metal concentration were studied. The beads recovered 94% of Pb(II) and 65% of Ni(II) at pH 4 from dilute solutions containing 10 mg L−1 of metal (sorbent dosage, S.D. 1 g L−1). The equilibrium data gave a better fit using the Langmuir model, and kinetic profiles were fitted using a pseudo-second order rate equation. The maximum sorption capacities obtained (at pH 4) were 197 mg g−1 and 44 mg g−1 for lead and nickel, respectively. The regeneration of the sorbent was efficiently carried out with a dilute solution of HNO3 (0.5 M). The composite material was reused in 10 sorption–elution cycles with no significant differences on sorption uptake. A study with synthetic effluents containing an equimolar concentration of both metals indicated a better selectivity towards lead ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Comparisons of Functional Properties of Polysaccharides from Nostoc flagelliforme under Three Culture Conditions
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020263
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 4 February 2019
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Abstract
Nostoc flagelliforme is an edible cyanobacterium with excellent food and herbal values. It has been used as food in China for more than 2000 years. Many studies have been focused on improving the yield and bioactivity of Nostoc flagelliforme polysaccharides although these have [...] Read more.
Nostoc flagelliforme is an edible cyanobacterium with excellent food and herbal values. It has been used as food in China for more than 2000 years. Many studies have been focused on improving the yield and bioactivity of Nostoc flagelliforme polysaccharides although these have ignored the functional properties. In this study, we extracted and purified three polysaccharides (WL-CPS, NaCl-CPS and Glu-CPS) from Nostoc flagelliforme under normal, salt stress and mixotrophic culture conditions, respectively, in order to change the physicochemical properties of polysaccharides with the aim of obtaining better functional properties. Both salt stress and mixotrophic culture conditions increased the specific yield of polysaccharides. Their functional properties were comparatively investigated and the results showed that NaCl-CPS exhibited the highest emulsification activity and flocculation capability, which was also higher than that of some commercial products. In contrast, Glu-CPS exhibited the highest water and oil holding capacities, foaming property, intrinsic viscosity and bile acids binding capacity. Our results indicated that both NaCl-CPS and Glu-CPS could be considered to be functional polysaccharides according to their respective characteristics, which have great potential in numerous applications, such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical and mineral industries. These findings also demonstrated the potential application of the proper regulation of culture conditions in the development of polysaccharides with desired functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Solubility Difference between Pectic Fractions from Creeping Fig Seeds
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010159
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Crude water-extracted pectin (WEP) isolated from creeping fig seeds were mainly fractionated into WEP-0.3 and WEP-0.4 fractions. Fractions were confirmed to be nonstarch, nonreducing sugars, nonpolyphenols and protein-unbounded acidic polysaccharides. Interestingly, a significant difference in solubility was found between WEP-0.3 (higher solubility than [...] Read more.
Crude water-extracted pectin (WEP) isolated from creeping fig seeds were mainly fractionated into WEP-0.3 and WEP-0.4 fractions. Fractions were confirmed to be nonstarch, nonreducing sugars, nonpolyphenols and protein-unbounded acidic polysaccharides. Interestingly, a significant difference in solubility was found between WEP-0.3 (higher solubility than WEP) and WEP-0.4 (remarkably insoluble), which was consistent with the amorphous and porous sponge-like structure of WEP-0.3 as well as the crystalline and dense rod-like state of WEP-0.4. However, the result of the FT-IR spectra was contradicted by the solubility of WEP-0.4, which possessed the lowest degree of methoxylation and ought to possess the highest solubility. Through mineral analysis, a considerably high content of Ca2+ was found in WEP-0.4, suggesting that the low solubility of WEP-0.4 was probably attributable to the formation of microgels during dialysis. Therefore, metal divalent cations in the dialysate were suggested to be depleted for the dialysis of low methoxyl pectin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Long Term and Large-Scale Continuous Studies on Zinc(II) Sorption and Desorption on Hybrid Pectin-Guar Gum Biosorbent
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010096
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Pectin-guar gum biosorbent was tested for zinc(II) ions removal in column process. Sorption–desorption experiments were performed in laboratory and at larger scale. The breakthrough and elution curves were obtained for various conditions. The Bed Depth Service Time model was tested for utility in [...] Read more.
Pectin-guar gum biosorbent was tested for zinc(II) ions removal in column process. Sorption–desorption experiments were performed in laboratory and at larger scale. The breakthrough and elution curves were obtained for various conditions. The Bed Depth Service Time model was tested for utility in data estimation. Possibility of sorbent reuse and its lifetime was examined in 20 repeated sorption–desorption cycles. Finally, tests were repeated for real wastewater from galvanizing plant, giving satisfactory results. The effectiveness of Zn(II) sorption happened to be dependent on process parameters; tests have proved that it increased with increasing bed height and with decreasing flow rate or grain size. For an initial zinc concentration of 30 mg/L, even 2096 mL of zinc solution could be purified in small scale experiment (2 g of fine grain sorbent and flow rate 60 mL/h) or 5900 L in large-scale (16 kg of large grain sorbent and flow rate 45 L/h). This allowed for 40-fold or 49-fold zinc increases in concentration in one sorption–desorption cycle. The most successful results are meant that at least 20 sorption–desorption cycles could be performed on one portion of biosorbent without loss of its effectiveness, large-scale tests for real wastewater from galvanizing plant gave satisfactory results, and that the form and mechanical stability of our sorbent is suitable for column usage with flow rates applicable in industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle The First Synthesis of Periodic and Alternating Glycopolymers by RAFT Polymerization: A Novel Synthetic Pathway for Glycosaminoglycan Mimics
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010070
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
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Abstract
This study concerned the controlled synthesis of periodic glycopolymers by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) copolymerization. To this end, maltose- and lactose-substituted vinyl ethers (MalVE and LacVE, respectively) and maltose-substituted maleimide (MalMI) were newly synthesized. RAFT copolymerization of MalVE and ethyl maleimide (EtMI) [...] Read more.
This study concerned the controlled synthesis of periodic glycopolymers by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) copolymerization. To this end, maltose- and lactose-substituted vinyl ethers (MalVE and LacVE, respectively) and maltose-substituted maleimide (MalMI) were newly synthesized. RAFT copolymerization of MalVE and ethyl maleimide (EtMI) (monomer feed ratio: MalVE:EtMI = 1:1) afforded periodic glycopolymers (poly(MalVE-co-EtMI)) consisting of major parts of alternating structure (-(MalVE-EtMI)n-) and a small part of consecutive sequences of EtMI (–EtMI-EtMI-). Occurrence of the latter sequences was caused by the homopolymerizability of maleimide under the present polymerization condition, and the formation of the consecutive sequences of EtMI was successfully suppressed by varying the monomer feed ratio. RAFT copolymerization of LacVE and EtMI was also found to proceed and similarly yielded periodic glycopolymers (poly(LacVE-co-EtMI)). Moreover, RAFT copolymerization of LacVE and MalMI (monomer feed ratio: LacVE:MalMI = 1:1) was performed to give copolymers (poly(LacVE-co-MalMI)) having composition ratio of LacVE/MalMI ≈ 36/64. The resultant periodic glycopolymers poly(MalVE-co-EtMI) and poly(LacVE-co-EtMI) were subjected to lectin binding assay using concanavalin A and peanut agglutinin, exhibiting the glycocluster effect. Moreover, these glycopolymers obtained from the copolymerization of VE and MI were found to be non-cytotoxic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Mechanism of Xylogenesis in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) Shoots during Cold Storage
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010038
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
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Abstract
A bamboo shoot is the immature stem of the woody grass and a nutritious and popular vegetable in East Asia. However, it undergoes a rapid xylogenesis process right after harvest, even being stored in a cold chamber. To investigate the molecular regulation mechanisms [...] Read more.
A bamboo shoot is the immature stem of the woody grass and a nutritious and popular vegetable in East Asia. However, it undergoes a rapid xylogenesis process right after harvest, even being stored in a cold chamber. To investigate the molecular regulation mechanisms of xylogenesis in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) shoots (MBSes) during cold storage, the measurement of cell wall polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) and related enzyme activities (phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), peroxidase (POD), and xylan xylosyltransferase (XylT)) and transcriptomic analysis were performed during cold storage. It was noticed that cellulose and lignin contents increased, while hemicellulose content exhibited a downward trend. PAL, CAD, and POD activity presented an upward trend generally in MBS when stored at 4 °C for 16 days. XylT activity showed a descending trend during the stages of storage, but slightly increased during the 8th to 12th days after harvest at 4 °C. Transcriptomic analysis identified 72, 28, 44, and 31 functional unigenes encoding lignin, cellulose, xylan biosynthesis enzymes, and transcription factors (TFs), respectively. Many of these secondary cell wall (SCW)-related genes showed higher expression levels in the later period of cold storage. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the selected genes conformed to the expression pattern. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of MBS secondary wall biosynthesis at the molecular level during the cold storage process. The results give insight into the xylogenesis process of this economically important vegetable and shed light on solving this problem of the post-harvest industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic High-Pressure Microfluidization-Treated Pectin under Different Ethanol Concentrations
Polymers 2018, 10(12), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10121410
Received: 4 November 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
We previously reported that dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) can degrade pectin in aqueous solution. In this study, we further investigated the effect of DHPM on pectin in water-ethanol systems. In the absence of DHPM treatment, it was found that pectin exhibited increased average [...] Read more.
We previously reported that dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) can degrade pectin in aqueous solution. In this study, we further investigated the effect of DHPM on pectin in water-ethanol systems. In the absence of DHPM treatment, it was found that pectin exhibited increased average particle size and unchanged average molecular weight, but a decline in reducing-sugar-ends content with the increase of ethanol concentrations (0–10% v/v). These results indicated that the addition of ethanol induced aggregation of pectin. During DHPM treatment, pectin underwent disaggregation and degradation under all measured ethanol concentrations. Disaggregation was enhanced but degradation was weakened with the increase of ethanol concentration. FT-IR and UV spectra indicated that demethylation but no β-elimination occurred in the water-ethanol system during DHPM. Finally, the mechanism of DHPM-induced disaggregation and degradation of pectin under a water-ethanol system was updated. This work may help us to find a suitable condition for reducing the degradation of pectin during the process of homogenization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Difference in Macroscopic Morphologies of Amylosic Supramolecular Networks Depending on Guest Polymers in Vine-Twining Polymerization
Polymers 2018, 10(11), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10111277
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Amylose, a natural polysaccharide, acts as a host molecule to form supramolecular inclusion complexes in its enzymatically formation process, that is, phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization using the α-d-glucose 1-phosphate monomer and the maltooligosaccharide primer, in the presence of appropriate guest polymers (vine-twining [...] Read more.
Amylose, a natural polysaccharide, acts as a host molecule to form supramolecular inclusion complexes in its enzymatically formation process, that is, phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization using the α-d-glucose 1-phosphate monomer and the maltooligosaccharide primer, in the presence of appropriate guest polymers (vine-twining polymerization). Furthermore, in the vine-twining polymerization using maltooligosaccharide primer-grafted polymers, such as maltoheptaose (G7)-grafted poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA), in the presence of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), the enzymatically elongated amylose graft chains have formed inclusion complexes with PCL among the PGA main-chains to construct supramolecular networks. Either hydrogelation or aggregation as a macroscopic morphology from the products was observed in accordance with PCL/primer feed ratios. In this study, we evaluated macroscopic morphologies from such amylosic supramolecular networks with different guest polymers in the vine-twining polymerization using G7-grafted PGA in the presence of polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF), PCL, and poly(l-lactide) (PLLA). Consequently, we found that the reaction mixture using PTHF totally turned into a hydrogel form, whereas the products using PCL and PLLA were aggregated in the reaction mixtures. The produced networks were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic measurements. The difference in the macroscopic morphologies was reasonably explained by stabilities of the complexes depending on the guest polymers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Therapeutic Effect and Metabolic Mechanism of A Selenium-Polysaccharide from Ziyang Green Tea on Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Polymers 2018, 10(11), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10111269
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
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Abstract
Ziyang green tea was considered a medicine food homology plant to improve chronic fatigue Ssyndrome (CFS) in China. The aim of this research was to study the therapeutic effect of selenium-polysaccharides (Se-TP) from Ziyang green tea on CFS and explore its metabolic mechanism. [...] Read more.
Ziyang green tea was considered a medicine food homology plant to improve chronic fatigue Ssyndrome (CFS) in China. The aim of this research was to study the therapeutic effect of selenium-polysaccharides (Se-TP) from Ziyang green tea on CFS and explore its metabolic mechanism. A CFS-rats model was established in the present research and Se-TP was administrated to evaluate the therapeutic effect on CFS. Some serum metabolites including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood lactate acid (BLA), corticosterone (CORT), and aldosterone (ALD) were checked. Urine metabolites were analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis was also used to check the data. The results selected biomarkers that were entered into the MetPA database to analyze their corresponding metabolic pathways. The results demonstrated that Se-TP markedly improved the level of BUN and CORT in CFS rats. A total of eight differential metabolites were detected in GC-MS analysis, which were benzoic acid, itaconic acid, glutaric acid, 4-acetamidobutyric acid, creatine, 2-hydroxy-3-isopropylbutanedioic acid, l-dopa, and 21-hydroxypregnenolone. These differential metabolites were entered into the MetPA database to search for the corresponding metabolic pathways and three related metabolic pathways were screened out. The first pathway was steroid hormone biosynthesis. The second was tyrosine metabolism, and the third was arginine-proline metabolism. The 21-hydroxypregnenolone level of rats in the CFS group markedly increased after the Se-TP administration. In conclusion, Se-TP treatments on CFS rats improved their condition. Its metabolic mechanism was closely related to that which regulates the steroid hormone biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Achyranthes bidentata Polysaccharides on Intestinal Morphology, Immune Response, and Gut Microbiome in Yellow Broiler Chickens Challenged with Escherichia coli K88
Polymers 2018, 10(11), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10111233
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABPS) supplementation on performance, immune response, intestinal mucosal morphology, and gut microbiome in yellow-feathered broilers challenged with Escherichia coli K88. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used for [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABPS) supplementation on performance, immune response, intestinal mucosal morphology, and gut microbiome in yellow-feathered broilers challenged with Escherichia coli K88. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used for the trial. Two hundred and forty one-day-old female broilers were randomly assigned to four treatments: (1) negative-control broilers were fed by a basal diet and saline (NG); (2) positive-control broilers were fed by a basal diet and orally challenged with 108 CFU E. coli K88 (CNG); (3) ABP group broilers were fed by a basal diet containing ABPS (500 mg/kg of feed) and saline; (4) CABP group broilers were fed by a basal diet containing ABPS (500 mg/kg of feed) and orally challenged with 108 CFU E. coli K88. Growth performance, serum biochemical indexes, immune responses, intestinal mucosal morphology, and cecal microbial community structure were evaluated. The ABP group had greatest body weight (BW), average daily body weight gain (ADG), and intestinal villus height compared to other treatments (p < 0.05). The CABP group had a higher villus height/crypt depth ratio (V/C) compared with other treatments (p < 0.05). The expression levels of NF-κB were lower in the ABP group. The CNG group had higher Escherichia coli and Enterococcus contents in cecal samples compared to other treatments (p < 0.05). Serum glucose, uric acid, TNF-α, and Secretory Immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) levels were higher in broilers challenged with E. coli (p < 0.001) than that with saline. Broilers challenged with E. coli had reduced taxa richness in the cecal samples. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in cecal samples revealed that a lower proportion of Firmicutes and a higher proportion of Proteobacteria were detected in the broilers challenged with E. coli. Compared with the controls, dietary ABPS supplementation increased serum total protein, albumin, and S-IgA levels, but decreased serum glucose, uric acid, and TNF-α levels in broilers (p < 0.05). Diet supplemented with ABPS increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and the abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, and altered cecal microbiota community structure. These results suggest that ABPS can promote growth performance and improve intestinal morphology and microbiota community structure in broilers challenged with E. coli K88. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Calcium Alginate Submicroparticles on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Polymers 2018, 10(10), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10101154
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Calcium alginate (CaAlg) submicroparticles have a potential application in agricultural delivery systems. This study investigated the effects of CaAlg submicroparticles on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat. CaAlg submicroparticles with a Z-average diameter of around 250.4 nm and a measured zeta potential [...] Read more.
Calcium alginate (CaAlg) submicroparticles have a potential application in agricultural delivery systems. This study investigated the effects of CaAlg submicroparticles on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat. CaAlg submicroparticles with a Z-average diameter of around 250.4 nm and a measured zeta potential value of about −25.4 mV were prepared and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). After this, the effects of the concentration of CaAlg submicroparticles (10–500 μg/mL) on germination percentage, seedling length, the number of adventitious roots, chlorophyll content and soluble protein content were evaluated. The results demonstrated a significant increase in the level of germination percentage (9.0%), seedling index (50.3%), adventitious roots (27.5%), seedling length (17.0%), chlorophyll (8.7%) and soluble protein contents (4.5%) at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. However, an inhibitory effect was observed at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The SEM examination showed that CaAlg submicroparticles could be successfully adsorbed onto the surface of the wheat seed. Further studies proved that CaAlg submicroparticles at a concentration of 100 μg/mL promoted the expression of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-related genes (YUCCA9, AUX1, ARF and UGT) in wheat, which resulted in an increase of 69% and 21% in IAA concentration in wheat roots and shoots, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Properties and Macrophage Activation of Cell Wall Polysaccharides from the Fruiting Bodies of Hericium erinaceus
Polymers 2018, 10(8), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10080850
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble cell wall polysaccharides were obtained from fruiting body extracted residual micropowders of Hericium erinaceus, harvested at seven different growing stages. The structural properties and in vitro immunity activities of cell wall polysaccharides extracted successively by hot [...] Read more.
In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble cell wall polysaccharides were obtained from fruiting body extracted residual micropowders of Hericium erinaceus, harvested at seven different growing stages. The structural properties and in vitro immunity activities of cell wall polysaccharides extracted successively by hot water and sodium hydroxide solution were studied, and the results indicated that the yield and content of polysaccharides increased during the reproductive growth stage and decreased with the maturity of the fruiting body. Water-soluble cell wall polysaccharides mainly composed of glucose and galactose at a molar ratio of 3.4–14:1.0, and also contained a small ratio of glucuronic acid. The alkali-soluble cell wall polysaccharides were glucans with lower molecular weight and higher macrophage activation activity in vitro than water-soluble ones. Our findings suggest that the growth stages (H4 and H5) are suitable for harvesting H. erinaceus fruiting bodies with higher cell wall polysaccharide yield and functional benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Wound Dressings Based on Chitosan-Dialdehyde Cellulose Nanocrystals-Silver Nanoparticles: Mechanical Strength, Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060673
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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The present work envisages a simple approach to synthesize a new wound dressing based on chitosan-dialdehyde cellulose nanocrystal-silver nanoparticles (CS-DCNC-AgNPs). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were generated in-situ by periodate oxidation of cellulose nanocrystals to generate aldehyde functions, which were used to reduce Ag+ [...] Read more.
The present work envisages a simple approach to synthesize a new wound dressing based on chitosan-dialdehyde cellulose nanocrystal-silver nanoparticles (CS-DCNC-AgNPs). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were generated in-situ by periodate oxidation of cellulose nanocrystals to generate aldehyde functions, which were used to reduce Ag+ into Ag0 in mild alkaline conditions. Subsequently, the dialdehyde cellulose nanocrystal-silver nanoparticles (DCNC-AgNPs) were added to chitosan (CS) to form the wound dressings by solution casting method. The aim was to enhance the antibacterial effect of CS by incorporation of AgNPs and to improve the mechanical strength and hydrophobicity of CS by incorporation of DCNC that cross-linked by hydrogen bonds. The antibacterial activities were evaluated against five gram-negative bacteria, one gram-positive bacteria, and three fungi. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed using the NIH3T3 cell lines by Sulforhodamine B assay. Research outputs signified that CS-DCNC-AgNPs possessed good mechanical strength and hydrophobicity, high antibacterial activity and less cytotoxicity. Our results propose that CS-DCNC-AgNPs can be a promising, safe antibacterial to be incorporated in wound dressings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Superabsorbent Polymers Based on Starch Aldehydes and Carboxymethyl Cellulose
Polymers 2018, 10(6), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10060605
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
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Abstract
Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are crosslinked hydrophilic polymers that are capable of absorbing large amounts of water. Commercial SAPs are mostly produced with acrylic acid that cannot be easily biodegraded. Therefore, in this study, polysaccharide-based SAPs using carboxymethyl cellulose as a major component were [...] Read more.
Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are crosslinked hydrophilic polymers that are capable of absorbing large amounts of water. Commercial SAPs are mostly produced with acrylic acid that cannot be easily biodegraded. Therefore, in this study, polysaccharide-based SAPs using carboxymethyl cellulose as a major component were prepared. Starch aldehydes and citric acid were selected due to their environment-friendly, non-toxic, and biodegradable properties compared to conventional crosslinking agents. Starch aldehydes were prepared by periodate oxidation, which forms aldehyde groups by taking the places of C–OH groups at C-2 and C-3. Furthermore, starch aldehydes were analyzed through the change in FT-IR spectra, the aldehyde quantitation, and the morphology in FE-SEM images. In the crosslinking of polysaccharide-based SAPs, the acetal bridges from starch aldehydes led to a large amount of water entering the network structure of the SAPs. However, the ester bridges from citric acid interfered with the water penetration. In addition, the swelling behavior of the SAPs was analyzed by the Fickian diffusion model and the Schott’s pseudo second order kinetics model. The relationship between swelling behavior and morphology of the SAPs was analyzed by FE-SEM images. In conclusion, polysaccharide-based SAPs were well prepared and the highest equilibrium swelling ratio was 87.0 g/g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Lipid-Lowering Effect of the Pleurotus eryngii (King Oyster Mushroom) Polysaccharide from Solid-State Fermentation on Both Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells and Zebrafish Models
Polymers 2018, 10(5), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10050492
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
Hyperlipidemia is a key risk factor in inducing fatty liver, hypertension, atherosclerosis and cerebrovascular diseases. Previous studies have verified that polysaccharides from fruiting bodies (PEPE) of Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) are capable of decreasing the lipid content. In this study, the P. [...] Read more.
Hyperlipidemia is a key risk factor in inducing fatty liver, hypertension, atherosclerosis and cerebrovascular diseases. Previous studies have verified that polysaccharides from fruiting bodies (PEPE) of Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) are capable of decreasing the lipid content. In this study, the P. eryngii polysaccharide is obtained by solid-state fermentation (PESF) using lignocellulosic wastes, corn-cobs and wheat bran. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays indicate that PESF has a similar composition to that of PEPE. Meanwhile, PESF has no detectable toxicity and is able to significantly inhibit foam-cell formation in murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Further verification indicates that PESF has lipid-lowering effects during the lipid absorption phase in a zebrafish hyperlipidemia model. Our findings suggest that the P. eryngii polysaccharide from solid-state fermentation (PESF) can be used as a valuable lipid-lowering food additive or raw materials for producing lipid-lowering drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Use of Microbial Cellulose as a Biocarrier for 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Propanone and Its Potential Application in Industry
Polymers 2018, 10(4), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10040438
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
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Abstract
Can microbial cellulose (MC) be used as a bio-carrier for 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone (DHA)? The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of using MC as a biomaterial for DHA transferring into the stratum corneum and inducing changes in skin color. The MC [...] Read more.
Can microbial cellulose (MC) be used as a bio-carrier for 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone (DHA)? The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of using MC as a biomaterial for DHA transferring into the stratum corneum and inducing changes in skin color. The MC patches were obtained from Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain and incubated in solutions with various concentrations of DHA (g·L−1: 20; 50; 80; 110) at 22 °C for 24 h. Afterwards; the patches were applied onto the skin for 15, 30, or 60 min. Skin color changes were assessed visually compared to a control patches without DHA. The intensity of skin color was increasing with the increase of DHA concentration and time of patches application. Application of MC patches with DHA (50 g·L−1) for 30 min ensured the color which was considered the closest to the desired natural tan effect. MC patches containing DHA can be biocarriers enabling DHA transport into the stratum corneum and causing skin color changes. Study results indicate a new possibility for industrial applications of MC; e.g., as a biocarrier in masking the symptoms of vitiligo or production of self-tanning agents in the form of masks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Fluorescent Labeling of Polysaccharides from Masson Pine Pollen and Its Effect on RAW264.7 Macrophages
Polymers 2018, 10(4), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10040372
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
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Abstract
In order to explore the immediate effect of polysaccharides and macrophages, polysaccharides from masson pine pollen (PPM60) were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) by using a chemical-derived method, and the reactant was named PPM60-Tyr-FITC. Direct interaction of PPM60-Tyr-FITC and RAW264.7 macrophages could be [...] Read more.
In order to explore the immediate effect of polysaccharides and macrophages, polysaccharides from masson pine pollen (PPM60) were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) by using a chemical-derived method, and the reactant was named PPM60-Tyr-FITC. Direct interaction of PPM60-Tyr-FITC and RAW264.7 macrophages could be detected by flow cytometer (FCM), and this interaction could be inhibited by Pitstop 2 (clathrin inhibitor) and TAK-242 (Toll-like receptor 4 inhibitor). The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) also revealed that there was a co-localization phenomenon between PPM60-Tyr-FITC and RAW264.7 macrophage receptors, and it could be suppressed by Pitstop 2 and TAK-242. It was confirmed that PPM60 enters into RAW264.7 macrophages mainly through endocytosis, rather than the phagocytosis, and TLR4 played a mediating role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Extraction Optimization, Purification, Antioxidant Activity, and Preliminary Structural Characterization of Crude Polysaccharide from an Arctic Chlorella sp.
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10030292
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
The arctic strain of Chlorella sp. (Chlorella-Arc) exists in the coldest and driest arctic ecosystems, and it is a new resource of active polysaccharides. The extraction of crude polysaccharide from Chlorella-Arc was optimized using the response surface methodology. A crude [...] Read more.
The arctic strain of Chlorella sp. (Chlorella-Arc) exists in the coldest and driest arctic ecosystems, and it is a new resource of active polysaccharides. The extraction of crude polysaccharide from Chlorella-Arc was optimized using the response surface methodology. A crude polysaccharide yield of approximately 9.62 ± 0.11% dry weight was obtained under these optimized conditions. Three fractions (P-I, P-II, and P-III) were present after purification by 2-diethylaminoethanol Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The P-IIa fraction demonstrated significant antioxidant activities. Moreover, P-IIa was an α- and β-type heteropolysaccharide with a pyran group and contained variable amounts of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose, and galactose based on fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Production of high amounts of polysaccharide may allow further exploration of the microalgae Chlorella-Arc as a natural antioxidant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Exopolysaccharide Gellan Gum and Derived Oligo-Gellan Enhance Growth and Antimicrobial Activity in Eucomis Plants
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10030242
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
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Abstract
One of the visible trends in the cultivation of plants, particularly of medicinal ones, is the increasing interest of researchers in polysaccharides and their derivatives that show biostimulatory properties and are also safe to use. In the current study, we evaluated the effects [...] Read more.
One of the visible trends in the cultivation of plants, particularly of medicinal ones, is the increasing interest of researchers in polysaccharides and their derivatives that show biostimulatory properties and are also safe to use. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of gellan gum and its depolymerized form oligo-gellan, on growth and antimicrobial activity of two ornamental species Eucomis bicolor and Eucomis comosa used in natural medicine. The biopolymers were applied in the form of bulb coating prepared by using polyelectrolyte complexes. In both species investigated, gellan gum and oligo-gellan enhanced the fresh weight of leaves and bulbs, the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus, and the leaf content of basic macronutrients. In comparison with the control, the plants treated with oligo-gellan accumulated more biomass, were first to flower, and had the highest leaf content of potassium. The extracts from the bulbs treated with gellan gum and oligo-gellan showed higher effectiveness in reducing the count of Bacillus atrophaeus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus than those from the bulbs not treated with the polysaccharides. The research described here largely expands our current knowledge on the effects of gellan gum derivatives and has a huge practical potential in agriculture production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Solubilization of Fluoranthene by Hydroxypropyl β-Cyclodextrin Oligomer for Bioremediation
Polymers 2018, 10(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020111
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 20 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
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Abstract
Fluoranthene (FT) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), consisting of naphthalene and benzene rings connected by a five-member ring. It is widespread in the environment. The hydrophobicity of FT limits its availability for biological uptake and degradation. In this study, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin oligomers [...] Read more.
Fluoranthene (FT) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), consisting of naphthalene and benzene rings connected by a five-member ring. It is widespread in the environment. The hydrophobicity of FT limits its availability for biological uptake and degradation. In this study, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin oligomers (HP-β-CD-ol) were synthesized with epichlorohydrin (EP), while the solubility enhancement of FT by HP-β-CD-ol was investigated in water. The synthesized HP-β-CD-ol was characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS), 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The solubility of FT increased 178-fold due to the complex formation with HP-β-CD oligomers. The inclusion complexes of FT/HP-β-CD-ol were analyzed using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance (NOESY NMR) spectroscopy. On the basis of these results, HP-β-CD-ol is recommended as a potential solubilizer for the development of PAH removal systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus Acidophilus by Xanthan-Chitosan and Its Stability in Yoghurt
Polymers 2017, 9(12), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9120733
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Microencapsulations of Lactobacillus acidophilus in xanthan-chitosan (XC) and xanthan-chitosan-xanthan (XCX) polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) gels were prepared in this study. The process of encapsulation was optimized with the aid of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum condition was chitosan of 0.68%, xanthan of 0.76%, [...] Read more.
Microencapsulations of Lactobacillus acidophilus in xanthan-chitosan (XC) and xanthan-chitosan-xanthan (XCX) polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) gels were prepared in this study. The process of encapsulation was optimized with the aid of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum condition was chitosan of 0.68%, xanthan of 0.76%, xanthan-L. acidophilus mixture (XLM)/chitosan of 1:2.56 corresponding to a high viable count (1.31 ± 0.14) × 1010 CFU·g−1, and encapsulation yield 86 ± 0.99%, respectively. Additionally, the application of a new encapsulation system (XC and XCX) in yoghurt achieved great success in bacterial survival during the storage of 21 d at 4 °C and 25 °C, respectively. Specially, pH and acidity in yogurt were significantly influenced by the new encapsulation system in comparison to free suspension during 21 d storage. Our study provided a potential encapsulation system for probiotic application in dairy product which paving a new way for functional food development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Extraction and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Tea Leaf Waste Fibers
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9110588
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
The aim was to explore the utilization of tea leaf waste fibers (TLWF) as a source for the production of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). TLWF was first treated with alkaline, followed by bleaching before being hydrolyzed with concentrated sulfuric acid. The materials attained after [...] Read more.
The aim was to explore the utilization of tea leaf waste fibers (TLWF) as a source for the production of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). TLWF was first treated with alkaline, followed by bleaching before being hydrolyzed with concentrated sulfuric acid. The materials attained after each step of chemical treatments were characterized and their chemical compositions were studied. The structure analysis was examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). From FTIR analysis, two peaks at 1716 and 1207 cm−1—which represent C=O stretching and C–O stretching, respectively—disappeared in the spectra after the alkaline and bleaching treatments indicated that hemicellulose and lignin were almost entirely discarded from the fiber. The surface morphology of TLWF before and after chemical treatments was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the dimension of CNC was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The extraction of CNC increased the surface roughness and the crystallinity index of fiber from 41.5% to 83.1%. Morphological characterization from TEM revealed the appearance of needle-like shaped CNCs with average diameter of 7.97 nm. The promising results from all the analyses justify TLWF as a principal source of natural materials which can produce CNC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle A Concise Synthesis of Three Branches Derived from Polysaccharide RN1 and Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Activity Study
Polymers 2017, 9(10), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9100536
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 5 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
RN1, a polysaccharide from flowers of Panax pseudo-ginsieng Wall. Var. notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng, is a potential multi-targeting drug candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. However, the active targeting domain of RN1 is still unknown. Herein, three RN1 derived branches were synthesized via [...] Read more.
RN1, a polysaccharide from flowers of Panax pseudo-ginsieng Wall. Var. notoginseng (Burkill) Hoo & Tseng, is a potential multi-targeting drug candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. However, the active targeting domain of RN1 is still unknown. Herein, three RN1 derived branches were synthesized via [3+2] or [2+2] strategies, efficiently. Two pentasaccharides, 18 and 27, showed similar inhibition effect on pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells to that of RN1 at same concentration. Interestingly, tetrasaccharide 21 potently inhibited gemcitabineresistant cell line Panc-1 at high concentration. These suggest that the branches of RN1 might be the active targeting domain and tetrasaccharide 21 might be a potential leading compound for pancreatic cancer with gemcitabine resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose from Different Fruit and Vegetable Pomaces
Polymers 2017, 9(10), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9100495
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
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Abstract
A new fractionation process was developed to achieve valorization of fruit and vegetable pomaces. The importance of the residues from fruits and vegetables is still growing; therefore; the study presents the novel route of a fractioning process for the conversion of agro-industrial biomasses, [...] Read more.
A new fractionation process was developed to achieve valorization of fruit and vegetable pomaces. The importance of the residues from fruits and vegetables is still growing; therefore; the study presents the novel route of a fractioning process for the conversion of agro-industrial biomasses, such as pomaces, into useful feedstocks with potential application in the fields of fuels, chemicals, and polymers. Hence, the biorefinery process is expected to convert them into various by-products offering a great diversity of low-cost materials. The final product of the process is the cellulose of the biofuel importance. The study presents the novel route of the fractioning process for the conversion of agro-industrial biomasses, such as pomaces, into useful feedstocks with a potential application in the fields of fuels, chemicals, and polymers. Therefore the aim of this paper was to present the novel route of the pomaces fraction and the characterization of residuals. Pomaces from apple, cucumber, carrot, and tomato were treated sequentially with water, acidic solution, alkali solution, and oxidative reagent in order to obtain fractions reach in sugars, pectic polysaccharides, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Pomaces were characterized by dry matter content, neutral detergent solubles, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Obtained fractions were characterized by the content of pectins expressed as galacturonic acid equivalent and hemicelluloses expressed as a xyloglucan equivalent. The last fraction and residue was cellulose characterized by crystallinity degree by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), microfibril diameter by atomic force microscope (AFM), and overall morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hemicelluloses content was similar in all pomaces. Moreover, all the materials were characterized by the high pectins level in extracts evaluated as galacturonic acid content. The lignins content compared with other plant biomasses was on a very low level. The cellulose fraction was the highest in cucumber pomace. The cellulose fraction was characterized by crystallinity degree, microfibril diameter, and overall morphology. Isolated cellulose had a very fine structure with relatively high crystalline index but small crystallites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessReview Xylans of Red and Green Algae: What Is Known about Their Structures and How They Are Synthesised?
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020354
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 17 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
Xylans with a variety of structures have been characterised in green algae, including chlorophytes (Chlorophyta) and charophytes (in the Streptophyta), and red algae (Rhodophyta). Substituted 1,4-β-d-xylans, similar to those in land plants (embryophytes), occur in the cell wall matrix of advanced [...] Read more.
Xylans with a variety of structures have been characterised in green algae, including chlorophytes (Chlorophyta) and charophytes (in the Streptophyta), and red algae (Rhodophyta). Substituted 1,4-β-d-xylans, similar to those in land plants (embryophytes), occur in the cell wall matrix of advanced orders of charophyte green algae. Small proportions of 1,4-β-d-xylans have also been found in the cell walls of some chlorophyte green algae and red algae but have not been well characterised. 1,3-β-d-Xylans occur as triple helices in microfibrils in the cell walls of chlorophyte algae in the order Bryopsidales and of red algae in the order Bangiales. 1,3;1,4-β-d-Xylans occur in the cell wall matrix of red algae in the orders Palmariales and Nemaliales. In the angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana, the gene IRX10 encodes a xylan 1,4-β-d-xylosyltranferase (xylan synthase), and, when heterologously expressed, this protein catalysed the production of the backbone of 1,4-β-d-xylans. An orthologous gene from the charophyte green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum, when heterologously expressed, produced a similar protein that was also able to catalyse the production of the backbone of 1,4-β-d-xylans. Indeed, it is considered that land plant xylans evolved from xylans in ancestral charophyte green algae. However, nothing is known about the biosynthesis of the different xylans found in chlorophyte green algae and red algae. There is, thus, an urgent need to identify the genes and enzymes involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessReview Polysaccharide Based Scaffolds for Soft Tissue Engineering Applications
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010001
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract
Soft tissue reconstructs require materials that form three-dimensional (3-D) structures supportive to cell proliferation and regenerative processes. Polysaccharides, due to their hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, abundance, and presence of derivatizable functional groups, are distinctive scaffold materials. Superior mechanical properties, physiological signaling, and tunable tissue [...] Read more.
Soft tissue reconstructs require materials that form three-dimensional (3-D) structures supportive to cell proliferation and regenerative processes. Polysaccharides, due to their hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, abundance, and presence of derivatizable functional groups, are distinctive scaffold materials. Superior mechanical properties, physiological signaling, and tunable tissue response have been achieved through chemical modification of polysaccharides. Moreover, an appropriate formulation strategy enables spatial placement of the scaffold to a targeted site. With the advent of newer technologies, these preparations can be tailor-made for responding to alterations in temperature, pH, or other physiological stimuli. In this review, we discuss the developmental and biological aspects of scaffolds prepared from four polysaccharides, viz. alginic acid (ALG), chitosan (CHI), hyaluronic acid (HA), and dextran (DEX). Clinical studies on these scaffolds are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessReview Biological Activity and Pharmacological Application of Pectic Polysaccharides: A Review
Polymers 2018, 10(12), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10121407
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Pectin is a polymer with a core of alternating α-1,4-linked d-galacturonic acid and α-1,2-l-rhamnose units, as well as a variety of neutral sugars such as arabinose, galactose, and lesser amounts of other sugars. Currently, native pectins have been compared [...] Read more.
Pectin is a polymer with a core of alternating α-1,4-linked d-galacturonic acid and α-1,2-l-rhamnose units, as well as a variety of neutral sugars such as arabinose, galactose, and lesser amounts of other sugars. Currently, native pectins have been compared to modified ones due to the development of natural medicines and health products. In this review, the results of a study of the bioactivity of pectic polysaccharides, including its various pharmacological applications, such as its immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antibacterial, antioxidant and antitumor activities, have been summarized. The potential of pectins to contribute to the enhancement of drug delivery systems has been observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessReview Exploiting Microbial Polysaccharides for Biosorption of Trace Elements in Aqueous Environments—Scope for Expansion via Nanomaterial Intervention
Polymers 2017, 9(12), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym9120721
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
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Abstract
With pollution sounding high alarms all around us, there is an immediate necessity for remediation. In most cases, the remediation measures require further remediation—the anti-pollutants themselves cause pollution. In this correspondence, the search deepens towards natural biogenic components that can be used for [...] Read more.
With pollution sounding high alarms all around us, there is an immediate necessity for remediation. In most cases, the remediation measures require further remediation—the anti-pollutants themselves cause pollution. In this correspondence, the search deepens towards natural biogenic components that can be used for bioremediation. Polysaccharide and biosorption have been themes in discussion for quite some time, where a slow decline in the enthusiasm in this area has been observed. This review revisits the importance of using polysaccharide based materials for biosorption. The need for polysaccharide-based nanocomposites, which hold better promise for greater deliverables, is emphasized as a means of rejuvenating the future perspectives in this area of application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharides)
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