Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant–Soil Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 27834

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Guest Editor
College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
Interests: soil microbiome; microbial ecology; microbial biogeography; plant microbiome; community assembly
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants provide niches for the growth and proliferation of a variety of soil microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, protists, and viruses, and these microorganisms form a complex co-correlation with plants. Soil microorganisms can give plant hosts health advantages, including growth promotion, nutrient absorption, stress tolerance, and resistance to pathogens. Plants secrete secondary metabolites to recruit soil microorganisms, and rhizosphere microorganisms have the ability to be manipulated or designed to be beneficial to plants due to their co-evolution capabilities. In addition, the environment has a great influence on the genetic, biochemical, and metabolic interactions of the plant–rhizosphere microbial community. Therefore, it is essential to clarify how the interaction between plant–rhizosphere soil–microorganism shapes the assembly of plant-related microbiome and regulates its beneficial properties, such as nutrient acquisition and plant health. It is an important scientific task to reveal the mechanism of plant–rhizosphere soil–microorganism interaction. This Special Issue aims to collect research on plant–soil–microbial interactions, which are related to community assembly, nutrient regulation, secretion of secondary metabolites, and regulation mechanisms.

Dr. Shuo Jiao
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • plant health
  • rhizosphere microorganisms
  • promoting growth
  • root exudates
  • nutrient absorption
  • regulation mechanism

Published Papers (13 papers)

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14 pages, 4037 KiB  
Article
An In Situ Evaluation of Different CAM Plants as Plant Microbial Fuel Cells for Energy Recovery in the Atacama Desert
by Felipe M. Galleguillos Madrid, Mauricio Trigo, Sebastián Salazar-Avalos, Sergio Carvajal-Funes, Douglas Olivares, Carlos Portillo, Edward Fuentealba, Norman Toro, Gilda Carrasco, Luis Cáceres, Ingrid Jamett and Alvaro Soliz
Plants 2023, 12(23), 4016; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12234016 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1310
Abstract
Excess energy derived from photosynthesis can be used in plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) systems as a sustainable alternative for the generation of electricity. In this study, the in situ performance of CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) plants in Calama, in the Atacama Desert, [...] Read more.
Excess energy derived from photosynthesis can be used in plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) systems as a sustainable alternative for the generation of electricity. In this study, the in situ performance of CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) plants in Calama, in the Atacama Desert, was evaluated for energy recovery using PMFCs with stainless steel AISI 316L and Cu as electrodes. The plant species evaluated included Aloe perfoliata, Cereus jamacaru, Austrocylindropuntia subulata, Agave potatorum, Aloe arborescens, Malephora crocea, and Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Among the plant species, Kalanchoe daigremontiana demonstrated significant potential as an in situ PMFC, showing a maximum cell potential of 0.248 V and a minimum of 0.139 V. In addition, the cumulative energy for recovery was about 9.4 mWh m−2 of the electrode. The use of CAM plants in PMFCs presents a novel approach for green energy generation, as these plants possess an inherent ability to adapt to arid environments and water-scarce areas such as the Atacama Desert climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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14 pages, 2721 KiB  
Article
Rhizosphere Microbiome and Phenolic Acid Exudation of the Healthy and Diseased American Ginseng Were Modulated by the Cropping History
by Jiahui Zhang, Yanli Wei, Hongmei Li, Jindong Hu, Zhongjuan Zhao, Yuanzheng Wu, Han Yang, Jishun Li and Yi Zhou
Plants 2023, 12(16), 2993; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12162993 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
The infection of soil-borne diseases has the potential to modify root exudation and the rhizosphere microbiome. However, the extent to which these modifications occur in various monocropping histories remains inadequately explored. This study sampled healthy and diseased American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) [...] Read more.
The infection of soil-borne diseases has the potential to modify root exudation and the rhizosphere microbiome. However, the extent to which these modifications occur in various monocropping histories remains inadequately explored. This study sampled healthy and diseased American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) plants under 1–4 years of monocropping and analyzed the phenolic acids composition by HPLC, microbiome structure by high-throughput sequencing technique, and the abundance of pathogens by quantitative PCR. First, the fungal pathogens of Fusarium solani and Ilyonectria destructans in the rhizosphere soil were more abundant in the diseased plants than the healthy plants. The healthy American ginseng plants exudated more phenolic acid, especially p-coumaric acid, compared to the diseased plants after 1–2 years of monocropping, while this difference gradually diminished with the increase in monocropping years. The pathogen abundance was influenced by the exudation of phenolic acids, e.g., total phenolic acids (r = −0.455), p-coumaric acid (r = −0.465), and salicylic acid (r = −0.417), and the further in vitro test confirmed that increased concentration of p-coumaric acid inhibited the mycelial growth of the isolated pathogens for root rot. The healthy plants had a higher diversity of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal microbiome than the diseased plants only after a long period of monocropping. Our study has revealed that the cropping history of American ginseng has altered the effect of pathogens infection on rhizosphere microbiota and root exudation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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18 pages, 5665 KiB  
Article
Linkages between Plant Community Composition and Soil Microbial Diversity in Masson Pine Forests
by Jing Guo, Boliang Wei, Jinliang Liu, David M. Eissenstat, Shuisheng Yu, Xiaofei Gong, Jianguo Wu, Xiaoyong He and Mingjian Yu
Plants 2023, 12(9), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12091750 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Plant species identity influences soil microbial communities directly by host specificity and root exudates, and indirectly by changing soil properties. As a native pioneer species common in early successional communities, Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests are widely distributed in subtropical China, [...] Read more.
Plant species identity influences soil microbial communities directly by host specificity and root exudates, and indirectly by changing soil properties. As a native pioneer species common in early successional communities, Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests are widely distributed in subtropical China, and play a key role in improving ecosystem productivity. However, how pine forest composition, especially the dominance of plant functional groups, affects soil microbial diversity remains unclear. Here, we investigated linkages among woody plant composition, soil physicochemical properties, and microbial diversity in forests along a dominance gradient of Masson pine. Soil bacterial and fungal communities were mainly explained by woody plant community composition rather than by woody species alpha diversity, with the dominance of tree (without including shrub) species and ectomycorrhizal woody plant species accounting for more of the variation among microbial communities than pine dominance alone. Structural equation modeling revealed that bacterial diversity was associated with woody plant compositional variation via altered soil physicochemical properties, whereas fungal diversity was directly driven by woody plant composition. Bacterial functional groups involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism were negatively correlated with the availability of soil nitrogen and phosphorus, whereas saprotrophic and pathogenic fungal groups showed negative correlations with the dominance of tree species. These findings indicate strong linkages between woody plant composition than soil microbial diversity; meanwhile, the high proportion of unexplained variability indicates great necessity of further definitive demonstration for better understanding of forest–microbe interactions and associated ecosystem processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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22 pages, 2909 KiB  
Article
Aspergillus welwitschiae BK Isolate Ameliorates the Physicochemical Characteristics and Mineral Profile of Maize under Salt Stress
by Humaira Gul, Raid Ali, Mamoona Rauf, Muhammad Hamayun, Muhammad Arif, Sumera Afzal Khan, Zahida Parveen, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei and In-Jung Lee
Plants 2023, 12(8), 1703; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12081703 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Abiotic stressors are global limiting constraints for plant growth and development. The most severe abiotic factor for plant growth suppression is salt. Among many field crops, maize is more vulnerable to salt, which inhibits the growth and development of plants and results in [...] Read more.
Abiotic stressors are global limiting constraints for plant growth and development. The most severe abiotic factor for plant growth suppression is salt. Among many field crops, maize is more vulnerable to salt, which inhibits the growth and development of plants and results in low productivity or even crop loss under extreme salinity. Consequently, comprehending the effects of salt stress on maize crop improvement, while retaining high productivity and applying mitigation strategies, is essential for achieving the long-term objective of sustainable food security. This study aimed to exploit the endophytic fungal microbe; Aspergillus welwitschiae BK isolate for the growth promotion of maize under severe salinity stress. Current findings showed that salt stress (200 mM) negatively affected chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, and endogenous IAA, with enhanced values of chlorophyll a/b ratio, carotenoids, total protein, total sugars, total lipids, secondary metabolites (phenol, flavonoids, tannins), antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase), proline content, and lipid peroxidation in maize plants. However, BK inoculation reversed the negative impact of salt stress by rebalancing the chlorophyll a/b ratio, carotenoids, total protein, total sugars, total lipids, secondary metabolites (phenol, flavonoids, tannins), antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase), and proline content to optimal levels suitable for growth promotion and ameliorating salt stress in maize plants. Furthermore, maize plants inoculated with BK under salt stress had lower Na+, Cl concentrations, lower Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ ratios, and higher N, P, Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+ content than non-inoculated plants. The BK isolate improved the salt tolerance by modulating physiochemical attributes, and the root-to-shoot translocation of ions and mineral elements, thereby rebalancing the Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+ ratio of maize plants under salt stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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18 pages, 3785 KiB  
Article
Performance of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Isolated from Sandy Soil on Growth of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
by Medhat Rehan, Ahmad Al-Turki, Adil H. A. Abdelmageed, Noha M. Abdelhameid and Ayman F. Omar
Plants 2023, 12(8), 1588; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12081588 - 9 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3020
Abstract
The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere affect plant growth, health, and productivity, as well as soil-nutrient contents. They are considered a green and eco-friendly technology that will reduce chemical-fertilizer usage, thereby reducing production costs and protecting the environment. Out of 58 bacterial [...] Read more.
The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere affect plant growth, health, and productivity, as well as soil-nutrient contents. They are considered a green and eco-friendly technology that will reduce chemical-fertilizer usage, thereby reducing production costs and protecting the environment. Out of 58 bacterial strains isolated in Qassim, Saudi Arabia, four strains were identified by the 16S rRNA as the Streptomyces cinereoruber strain P6-4, Priestia megaterium strain P12, Rossellomorea aquimaris strain P22-2, and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain P24. The plant-growth-promoting (PGP) features of the identified bacteria involving inorganic phosphate (P) solubilization, the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), and siderophore secretion were assessed in vitro. Regarding the P solubilization, the previous strains’ efficacy reached 37.71%, 52.84%, 94.31%, and 64.20%, respectively. The strains produced considerable amounts of IAA (69.82, 251.70, 236.57, and 101.94 µg/mL) after 4 days of incubation at 30 °C. Furthermore, the rates of siderophore production reached 35.51, 26.37, 26.37, and 23.84 psu, respectively, in the same strains. The application of the selected strains in the presence of rock phosphate (RP) with tomato plants under greenhouse conditions was evaluated. The plant growth and P-uptake traits positively and significantly increased in response to all the bacterial treatments, except for some traits, such as plant height, number of leaves, and leaf DM at 21 DAT, compared to the negative control (rock phosphate, T2). Notably, the P. megaterium strain P12 (T4), followed by R. aquimaris strain P22-2 (T5), revealed the best values related to plant height (at 45 DAT), number of leaves per plant (at 45 DAT), root length, leaf area, leaf-P uptake, stem P uptake, and total plant P uptake compared to the rock phosphate. The first two components of the PCA (principal component analysis) represented 71.99% (PCA1 = 50.81% and PCA2 = 21.18%) of the variation at 45 DAT. Finally, the PGPR improved the vegetative-growth traits of the tomato plants through P solubilization, IAA, and siderophore production, and ameliorated the availability of nutrients. Thus, applying in PGPR in sustainable agriculture will potentially reduce production costs and protect the environment from contamination by chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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15 pages, 12475 KiB  
Article
Decrease in Soil Functionalities and Herbs’ Diversity, but Not That of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Linked to Short Fire Interval in Semi-Arid Oak Forest Ecosystem, West Iran
by Javad Mirzaei, Mehdi Heydari, Reza Omidipour, Nahid Jafarian and Christopher Carcaillet
Plants 2023, 12(5), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12051112 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
The semi-arid forest ecosystems of western Iran dominated by Quercus brantii are often disturbed by wildfires. Here, we assessed the effects of short fire intervals on the soil properties and community diversity of herbaceous plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), as well as [...] Read more.
The semi-arid forest ecosystems of western Iran dominated by Quercus brantii are often disturbed by wildfires. Here, we assessed the effects of short fire intervals on the soil properties and community diversity of herbaceous plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), as well as the interactions between these ecosystem features. Plots burned once or twice within 10 years were compared to unburned plots over a long time period (control sites). Soil physical properties were not affected by the short fire interval, except bulk density, which increased. Soil geochemical and biological properties were affected by the fires. Soil organic matter and nitrogen concentrations were depleted by two fires. Short intervals impaired microbial respiration, microbial biomass carbon, substrate-induced respiration, and urease enzyme activity. The successive fires affected the AMF’s Shannon diversity. The diversity of the herb community increased after one fire and dropped after two, indicating that the whole community structure was altered. Two fires had greater direct than indirect effects on plant and fungal diversity, as well as soil properties. Short-interval fires depleted soil functional properties and reduced herb diversity. With short-interval fires probably fostered by anthropogenic climate change, the functionalities of this semi-arid oak forest could collapse, necessitating fire mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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13 pages, 641 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Wool Mulch on Plant Development in the Context of the Physical and Biological Conditions in Soil
by Katalin Juhos, Enikő Papdi, Flórián Kovács, Vasileios P. Vasileiadis and Andrea Veres
Plants 2023, 12(3), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12030684 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2608
Abstract
Mulching techniques can comprise a solution that better utilizes precipitation and irrigation water in such a manner that mitigates soil degradation and drought damage; however, there are still gaps in the literature with regard to the effect of the use of mulch materials [...] Read more.
Mulching techniques can comprise a solution that better utilizes precipitation and irrigation water in such a manner that mitigates soil degradation and drought damage; however, there are still gaps in the literature with regard to the effect of the use of mulch materials on the development of plant–soil–microbe interactions. Waste fibers, as alternative biodegradable mulch materials, are becoming increasingly prominent. The effect of wool mulch (WM) on water use efficiency, with regard to pepper seedlings, was investigated in different soil types (sand, clay loam, peat) in a pot experiment. Two semi-field experiments were also set up to investigate the effect of WM–plant interactions on sweet pepper yields, as compared with agro textiles and straw mulches. Soil parameters (moisture, temperature, DHA, β-glucosidase enzymes, permanganate-oxidizable carbon) were measured during the growing season. The effect of WM on yield and biomass was more significant with the less frequent irrigation and the greater water-holding capacity of soils. Microbiological activity was significantly higher in the presence of plants, and because of the water retention of WM, the metabolic products of roots and the more balanced soil temperature were caused by plants. In the sandy soil, the straw mulch had a significantly better effect on microbiological parameters and yields than the agro textiles and WM. In soils with a higher water capacity, WM is a sustainable practice for improving the biological parameters and water use efficiency of soil. The effect of WM on yields cannot solely be explained by the water retention of the mulch; indeed, the development of biological activity and plant–soil–microbe interactions in the soil are also contributing factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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24 pages, 6219 KiB  
Article
Nitrogen Fertilizer Type and Genotype as Drivers of P Acquisition and Rhizosphere Microbiota Assembly in Juvenile Maize Plants
by Melissa Mang, Niels Julian Maywald, Xuelian Li, Uwe Ludewig and Davide Francioli
Plants 2023, 12(3), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12030544 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2381
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development, as well as an important factor limiting sustainable maize production. Targeted nitrogen (N) fertilization in the form of ammonium has been shown to positively affect Pi uptake under P-deficient conditions compared to [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development, as well as an important factor limiting sustainable maize production. Targeted nitrogen (N) fertilization in the form of ammonium has been shown to positively affect Pi uptake under P-deficient conditions compared to nitrate. Nevertheless, its profound effects on root traits, P uptake, and soil microbial composition are still largely unknown. In this study, two maize genotypes F160 and F7 with different P sensitivity were used to investigate phosphorus-related root traits such as root hair length, root diameter, AMF association, and multiple P efficiencies under P limitation when fertilized either with ammonium or nitrate. Ammonium application improved phosphorous acquisition efficiency in the F7 genotype but not in F160, suggesting that the genotype plays an important role in how a particular N form affects P uptake in maize. Additionally, metabarcoding data showed that young maize roots were able to promote distinct microbial taxa, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, when fertilized with ammonium. Overall, the results suggest that the form of chemical nitrogen fertilizer can be instrumental in selecting beneficial microbial communities associated with phosphorus uptake and maize plant fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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17 pages, 1600 KiB  
Article
Cyanobacteria Application Ameliorates Floral Traits and Outcrossing Rate in Diverse Rice Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines
by Hassan Sh. Hamad, Eman M. Bleih, Elsayed E. Gewaily, Ahmed E. Abou Elataa, Heba A. El Sherbiny, Noha M. Abdelhameid and Medhat Rehan
Plants 2022, 11(24), 3411; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11243411 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1592
Abstract
In rice, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) represents an irreplaceable strategy for producing high-yielding hybrid rice based on the commercial exploitation of heterosis. Thereupon, enhancing floral traits and outcrossing rates in CMS lines increase hybrid seed production and ensure global food security. The exogenous [...] Read more.
In rice, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) represents an irreplaceable strategy for producing high-yielding hybrid rice based on the commercial exploitation of heterosis. Thereupon, enhancing floral traits and outcrossing rates in CMS lines increase hybrid seed production and ensure global food security. The exogenous application of cyanobacteria could enhance outcrossing rates in CMS lines and, accordingly, hybrid rice seed production. In the present study, we aimed at exploring the impact of cyanobacteria implementation such as Anabaena oryzae, Nostoc muscorum, and their mixture to promote the floral traits, outcrossing rates, and seed production in hybrid rice. The impact of cyanobacteria (Anabaena Oryza (T2), Nostoc muscorum (T3), and their combination (T4) versus the untreated control (T1) was investigated for two years on the growth, floral, and yield traits of five diverse CMS lines, namely IR69625A (L1), IR58025A (L2), IR70368A (L3), G46A (L4), and K17A(L5). The evaluated CMS lines exhibited significant differences in all measured floral traits (days to heading (DTH), total stigma length (TSL), stigma width (SW), duration of spikelet opening (DSO), spikelet opening angle (SOA)). Additionally, L4 displayed the uppermost total stigma length and stigma width, whereas L1 and L5 recorded the best duration of spikelet opening and spikelet opening angle. Notably, these mentioned CMS lines exhibited the highest plant growth and yield traits, particularly under T4 treatment. Strong positive relationships were distinguished between the duration of the spikelet opening, panicle exertion, panicle weight, seed set, grain yield, total stigma length, spikelet opening angle, stigma width, and number of fertile panicles per hill. Cyanobacteria is a potential promising tool to increase floral traits and seed production in hybrid rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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24 pages, 1920 KiB  
Article
Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Support Plant Sulfur Supply through Organosulfur Mobilizing Bacteria in the Hypho- and Rhizosphere
by Jacinta Gahan, Orla O’Sullivan, Paul D. Cotter and Achim Schmalenberger
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3050; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223050 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
This study aimed to elucidate the role of bacteria colonising mycorrhizal hyphae in organically bound sulfur mobilisation, the dominant soil sulfur source that is not directly plant available. The effect of an intact mycorrhizal symbiosis with access to stable isotope organo-34S [...] Read more.
This study aimed to elucidate the role of bacteria colonising mycorrhizal hyphae in organically bound sulfur mobilisation, the dominant soil sulfur source that is not directly plant available. The effect of an intact mycorrhizal symbiosis with access to stable isotope organo-34S enriched soils encased in 35 µm mesh cores was tested in microcosms with Agrostis stolonifera and Plantago lanceolata. Hyphae and associated soil were sampled from static mesh cores with mycorrhizal ingrowth and rotating mesh cores that exclude mycorrhizal ingrowth as well as corresponding rhizosphere soil, while plant shoots were analysed for 34S uptake. Static cores increased uptake of 34S at early stages of plant growth when sulfur demand appeared to be high and harboured significantly larger populations of sulfonate mobilising bacteria. Bacterial and fungal communities were significantly different in the hyphospheres of static cores when compared to rotating cores, not associated with plant hosts. Shifts in bacterial and fungal communities occurred not only in rotated cores but also in the rhizosphere. Arylsulfatase activity was significantly higher in the rhizosphere when cores stayed static, while atsA and asfA gene diversity was distinct in the microcosms with static and rotating cores. This study demonstrated that AM symbioses can promote organo-S mobilization and plant uptake through interactions with hyphospheric bacteria, enabling AM fungal ingrowth into static cores creating a positive feedback-loop, detectable in the microbial rhizosphere communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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19 pages, 4771 KiB  
Article
Effects of Two Kinds of Commercial Organic Fertilizers on Growth and Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Corn on New Reclamation Land
by Xuqing Li, Qiujun Lu, Dingyi Li, Daoze Wang, Xiaoxu Ren, Jianli Yan, Temoor Ahmed and Bin Li
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2553; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192553 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
Due to the development of urbanization and industrialization, a large amount of cultivated land resources has been occupied, while new reclamation land could expand the supply of usable land for food security. Organic fertilizers, such as crop residues, biosolids, sheep manure, mushroom residue, [...] Read more.
Due to the development of urbanization and industrialization, a large amount of cultivated land resources has been occupied, while new reclamation land could expand the supply of usable land for food security. Organic fertilizers, such as crop residues, biosolids, sheep manure, mushroom residue, and biogas liquid, have been considered as an effective amendment in immature soil to improve its quality. Recently, two kinds of commercial organic fertilizers, pig manure and mushroom residue organic fertilizer (PMMR-OF), and sheep manure organic fertilizer (SM-OF), have been more regularly applied in agriculture production. However, the information available on effect of the two kinds of fertilizers on plant growth and rhizosphere soil properties in immature field is very limited. In order to evaluate PMMR-OF and SM-OF on immature soil, the soil quality and microbial community structure of corn rhizosphere soil samples under the two kinds of organic fertilizers at different concentrations was investigated. The results revealed a significant difference between commercial organic fertilizers (especially SM-OF) and chemical compound fertilizers (CCF) in soil properties and microbial community structure. Indeed, compared with the control based on16S and ITS amplicon sequencing of soil microflora, SM-OF caused a 10.79–19.52%, 4.33–4.39%,and 14.58–29.29% increase in Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Ascomycota, but a 5.82–20.58%, 0.53–24.06%, 10.87–16.79%, 2.69–10.50%, 44.90–59.24%, 8.88–10.98%, and 2.31–21.98% reduction in Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota, and Chytridiomycota, respectively. CCF caused a 24.11%, 23.28%, 38.87%, 19.88%, 18.28%, and 13.89% reduction in Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, but a 22.77%, 41.28%, 7.88%, and 19.39% increase in Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Ascomycota, and Mortierellomycota, respectively. Furthermore, redundancy discriminant analysis of microbial communities and soil properties of PMMR-OF, SM-OF, CCF, and the control treatments indicated that the main variables of bacterial and fungal communities included organic matter content, available P, and available K. Overall, the results of this study revealed significant changes under different fertilizer conditions (PMMR-OF, SM-OF, CCF, under different concentrations) in microbiota and chemical properties of corn soil. Commercial organic fertilizers, particularly SM-OF, can be used as a good amendment for the new reclamation land. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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17 pages, 5827 KiB  
Article
Planting Systems Affect Soil Microbial Communities and Enzymes Activities Differentially under Drought and Phosphorus Addition
by Olusanya Abiodun Olatunji, Kaiwen Pan, Akash Tariq, Gideon Olarewaju Okunlola, Dong Wang, Idris Olawale Raimi and Lin Zhang
Plants 2022, 11(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030319 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2829
Abstract
The use of phosphorus (P) to alleviate soil nutrient deficiency alters resources in plant and microbial communities, but it remains unknown how mixed and monospecific planting of forest tree species shape soil microbial structure and functions in response to drought and its interplay [...] Read more.
The use of phosphorus (P) to alleviate soil nutrient deficiency alters resources in plant and microbial communities, but it remains unknown how mixed and monospecific planting of forest tree species shape soil microbial structure and functions in response to drought and its interplay with phosphorus addition. We investigated the microbial structure and chemical properties of forest soils planted with P. zhennan monoculture, A. cremastogyne monoculture, and their mixed cultures. The three planting systems were exposed to drought (30–35% water reduction) and the combination of drought with P. A well-watered treatment (80–85% water addition) of similar combinations was used as the control. Planting systems shaped the effects of drought on the soil microbial properties leading to an increase in nitrate nitrogen, urease activity, and microbial biomass carbon in the monocultures, but decrease in mixed cultures. In the monoculture of P. zhennan, addition of P to drought-treated soil increased enzyme activities, the concentration of dissolved organic nitrogen, and carbon, leading to increase in the total bacteria, G+ bacteria, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Except in the drought with P addition treatment, the impact of admixing on total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), bacterial PLFA, and fungi PLFA was synergistic in all treatments. Our findings indicated that in monoculture of P. zhennan and its mixed planting with A. cremastogyne, greater biological activities could be established under drought conditions with the addition of P. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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Review

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14 pages, 1679 KiB  
Review
Different Preharvest Diseases in Garlic and Their Eco-Friendly Management Strategies
by Hadiqa Anum, Yuxin Tong and Ruifeng Cheng
Plants 2024, 13(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13020267 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Background: garlic reproduces mainly through clove planting, as sexual reproduction via seeds is uncommon. Growers encounter challenges with pathogens due to the larger size and vegetative nature of seed cloves, as well as the storage conditions conducive to fungal growth. Some Phyto-pathogenic fungi, [...] Read more.
Background: garlic reproduces mainly through clove planting, as sexual reproduction via seeds is uncommon. Growers encounter challenges with pathogens due to the larger size and vegetative nature of seed cloves, as well as the storage conditions conducive to fungal growth. Some Phyto-pathogenic fungi, previously unrecognized as garlic infections, can remain latent within bulb tissues long after harvest. Although outwardly healthy, these infected bulbs may develop rot under specific conditions. Aim of review: planting diseased seed cloves can contaminate field soil, with some fungal and bacterial infections persisting for extended periods. The substantial size of seed cloves makes complete eradication of deeply ingrained infections difficult, despite the use of systemic fungicides during the preplanting and postharvest phases. Additionally, viruses, resistant to fungicides, persist in vegetative material. They are prevalent in much of the garlic used for planting, and their host vectors are difficult to eliminate. To address these challenges, tissue-culture techniques are increasingly employed to produce disease-free planting stock. Key scientific concepts of the review: garlic faces a concealed spectrum of diseases that pose a global challenge, encompassing fungal threats like Fusarium’s vascular wilt and Alternaria’s moldy rot, bacterial blights, and the elusive garlic yellow stripe virus. The struggle to eliminate deeply ingrained infections is exacerbated by the substantial size of seed cloves. Moreover, viruses persist in garlic seeds, spreading through carrier vectors, and remain unaffected by fungicides. This review emphasizes eco-friendly strategies to address these challenges, focusing on preventive measures, biocontrol agents, and plant extracts. Tissue-culture techniques emerge as a promising solution for generating disease-free garlic planting material. The review advocates for ongoing research to ensure sustainable garlic cultivation, recognizing the imperative of safeguarding this culinary staple from an array of fungal and viral threats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant-Soil-Microbe Interactions)
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