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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Anti-HSV-1 Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Extracts and Pure Polyphenol Compounds Derived from Pistachios Kernels (Pistacia vera L.)

1
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale SS. Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
2
Shenzhen International Institute for Biomedical Research, 140 Jinye Ave. Building A10, Dapeng New District, Shenzhen 518116, China
3
Unit of Biotechnology and Pathologies, Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax 3029, Tunisia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020267
Received: 9 January 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 15 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Plant Antioxidants Action)
Natural compounds are a prominent source of novel antiviral drugs. Several reports have previously shown the antimicrobial activity of pistachio polyphenol extracts. Therefore, the aim of our research was to investigate the activity of polyphenol-rich extracts of natural shelled (NPRE) pistachios kernels (Pistacia vera L.) on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication. The Vero cell line was used to assess the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity. The cell viability was calculated by detection of cellular ATP after treatment with various concentrations of NPRE. For antiviral studies, five nontoxic-concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mg/mL) were tested. Our study demonstrated that treatment with NPRE (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mg/mL) reduced the expression of the viral proteins ICP8 (infected cell polypeptide 8), UL42 (unique long UL42 DNA polymerase processivity factor), and US11 (unique short US11 protein), and resulted in a decrease of viral DNA synthesis. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50), 50% inhibitory concentration (EC50), and the selectivity index (SI) values for NPRE were 1.2 mg/mL, 0.4mg/mL, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, we assessed the anti-herpetic effect of a mix of pure polyphenol compounds (NS MIX) present in NPRE. In conclusion, our findings indicate that natural shelled pistachio kernels have remarkable inhibitory activity against HSV-1. View Full-Text
Keywords: herpes simplex virus; antiviral; pistachios; polyphenols herpes simplex virus; antiviral; pistachios; polyphenols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Musarra-Pizzo, M.; Pennisi, R.; Ben-Amor, I.; Smeriglio, A.; Mandalari, G.; Sciortino, M.T. In Vitro Anti-HSV-1 Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Extracts and Pure Polyphenol Compounds Derived from Pistachios Kernels (Pistacia vera L.). Plants 2020, 9, 267.

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