Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles for Bioimaging and Theragnostics

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 12130

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
BioMedical Engineering and Imaging Institute, Department of Diagnostic, Molecular and Interventional Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
Interests: nanomedicine; diagnostics; fluorescent nanoparticles; bioimaging; spectroscopy
1. Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red-Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Interests: supramolecular chemistry; organic nanoparticles; nanovesicles; drug-delivery systems; green processing; supercritical fluids

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
2. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red-Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Interests: nanobiotechnology; colloidal nanoparticles; nucleic acids; biosensing; drug delivery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fluorescence-based techniques play an essential role in the study of biological events in tissues and animals due to their specificity and noninvasive nature. However, realizing the whole potential of today’s fluorescence imaging and detection in terms of speed, resolution, and sensitivity, requires fluorescent labels that combine stability, a very high brightness, and a high photostability. In this regard, novel, bright and stable organic fluorescent nanoparticles have evolved rapidly during the last few years, allowing further development of novel, experimental treatments and imaging strategies, including photodynamic therapy or image-guided surgery. These results shine a spotlight on fluorescent nanomaterials as promising candidates for imaging and theragnostics in several health disorders. In this Special Issue, we invite authors to report on their recently developed, fluorescent, organic nanoparticles for imaging, diagnostics, and the treatment of diseases.

Dr. Judit Morlà-Folch
Dr. Nora Ventosa
Dr. Mariana Köber
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • imaging
  • therapy
  • theragnostic
  • nanomedicine
  • fluorescent organic nanoparticles
  • fluorescent probes
  • photodynamic therapy
  • image-guided surgery
  • fluorescent drug-delivery
  • fluorescent nanocarriers

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2703 KiB  
Article
Fluorescent and Magnetic Radical Dendrimers as Potential Bimodal Imaging Probes
by Songbai Zhang, Vega Lloveras, Yufei Wu, Juan Tolosa, Joaquín C. García-Martínez and José Vidal-Gancedo
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(6), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15061776 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Dual or multimodal imaging probes have emerged as powerful tools that improve detection sensitivity and accuracy in disease diagnosis by imaging techniques. Two imaging techniques that are complementary and do not use ionizing radiation are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical fluorescence imaging [...] Read more.
Dual or multimodal imaging probes have emerged as powerful tools that improve detection sensitivity and accuracy in disease diagnosis by imaging techniques. Two imaging techniques that are complementary and do not use ionizing radiation are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical fluorescence imaging (OFI). Herein, we prepared metal-free organic species based on dendrimers with magnetic and fluorescent properties as proof-of-concept of bimodal probes for potential MRI and OFI applications. We used oligo(styryl)benzene (OSB) dendrimers core that are fluorescent on their own, and TEMPO organic radicals anchored on their surfaces, as the magnetic component. In this way, we synthesized six radical dendrimers and characterized them by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis, MALDI-TOF, SEC, EPR, fluorimetry, and in vitro MRI. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the new dendrimers present two properties: on one hand, they are paramagnetic and show the ability to generate contrast by MRI in vitro, and, on the other hand, they also show fluoresce emission. This is a remarkable result since it is one of the very few cases of macromolecules with bimodal magnetic and fluorescent properties using organic radicals as the magnetic probe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles for Bioimaging and Theragnostics)
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32 pages, 3900 KiB  
Article
Multiple Linear Regression Predictive Modeling of Colloidal and Fluorescence Stability of Theranostic Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions
by Michele Herneisey and Jelena M. Janjic
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(4), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15041103 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFC-NEs) are widely used as theranostic nanoformulations with fluorescent dyes commonly incorporated for tracking PFC-NEs in tissues and in cells. Here, we demonstrate that PFC-NE fluorescence can be fully stabilized by controlling their composition and colloidal properties. A quality-by-design (QbD) approach [...] Read more.
Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFC-NEs) are widely used as theranostic nanoformulations with fluorescent dyes commonly incorporated for tracking PFC-NEs in tissues and in cells. Here, we demonstrate that PFC-NE fluorescence can be fully stabilized by controlling their composition and colloidal properties. A quality-by-design (QbD) approach was implemented to evaluate the impact of nanoemulsion composition on colloidal and fluorescence stability. A full factorial, 12-run design of experiments was used to study the impact of hydrocarbon concentration and perfluorocarbon type on nanoemulsion colloidal and fluorescence stability. PFC-NEs were produced with four unique PFCs: perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB), perfluorodecalin (PFD), perfluoro(polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether) oxide (PFPE), and perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether (PCE). Multiple linear regression modeling (MLR) was used to predict nanoemulsion percent diameter change, polydispersity index (PDI), and percent fluorescence signal loss as a function of PFC type and hydrocarbon content. The optimized PFC-NE was loaded with curcumin, a known natural product with wide therapeutic potential. Through MLR-supported optimization, we identified a fluorescent PFC-NE with stable fluorescence that is unaffected by curcumin, which is known to interfere with fluorescent dyes. The presented work demonstrates the utility of MLR in the development and optimization of fluorescent and theranostic PFC nanoemulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles for Bioimaging and Theragnostics)
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19 pages, 3871 KiB  
Article
Quatsomes Loaded with Squaraine Dye as an Effective Photosensitizer for Photodynamic Therapy
by Nicolò Bordignon, Mariana Köber, Giorgia Chinigò, Carlotta Pontremoli, Ettore Sansone, Guillem Vargas-Nadal, Maria Jesus Moran Plata, Alessandra Fiorio Pla, Nadia Barbero, Judit Morla-Folch and Nora Ventosa
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030902 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
Photodynamic therapy is a non-invasive therapeutic strategy that combines external light with a photosensitizer (PS) to destroy abnormal cells. Despite the great progress in the development of new photosensitizers with improved efficacy, the PS’s photosensitivity, high hydrophobicity, and tumor target avidity still represent [...] Read more.
Photodynamic therapy is a non-invasive therapeutic strategy that combines external light with a photosensitizer (PS) to destroy abnormal cells. Despite the great progress in the development of new photosensitizers with improved efficacy, the PS’s photosensitivity, high hydrophobicity, and tumor target avidity still represent the main challenges. Herein, newly synthesized brominated squaraine, exhibiting intense absorption in the red/near-infrared region, has been successfully incorporated into Quatsome (QS) nanovesicles at different loadings. The formulations under study have been characterized and interrogated in vitro for cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and PDT efficiency in a breast cancer cell line. The nanoencapsulation of brominated squaraine into QS overcomes the non-water solubility limitation of the brominated squaraine without compromising its ability to generate ROS rapidly. In addition, PDT effectiveness is maximized due to the highly localized PS loadings in the QS. This strategy allows using a therapeutic squaraine concentration that is 100 times lower than the concentration of free squaraine usually employed in PDT. Taken together, our results reveal the benefits of the incorporation of brominated squaraine into QS to optimize their photoactive properties and support their applicability as photosensitizer agents for PDT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles for Bioimaging and Theragnostics)
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17 pages, 5031 KiB  
Article
Fluorescent PLGA Nanocarriers for Pulmonary Administration: Influence of the Surface Charge
by Aina Areny-Balagueró, Wid Mekseriwattana, Marta Camprubí-Rimblas, Andrea Stephany, Ariana Roldan, Anna Solé-Porta, Antonio Artigas, Daniel Closa and Anna Roig
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(7), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14071447 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2731
Abstract
Nearly four million yearly deaths can be attributed to respiratory diseases, prompting a huge worldwide health emergency. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic’s death toll has surpassed six million, significantly increasing respiratory disease morbidity and mortality rates. Despite recent advances, it is still challenging for [...] Read more.
Nearly four million yearly deaths can be attributed to respiratory diseases, prompting a huge worldwide health emergency. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic’s death toll has surpassed six million, significantly increasing respiratory disease morbidity and mortality rates. Despite recent advances, it is still challenging for many drugs to be homogeneously distributed throughout the lungs, and specifically to reach the lower respiratory tract with an accurate sustained dose and minimal systemic side effects. Engineered nanocarriers can provide increased therapeutic efficacy while lessening potential biochemical adverse reactions. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a biodegradable polymer, has attracted significant interest as an inhalable drug delivery system. However, the influence of the nanocarrier surface charge and its intratracheal instillation has not been addressed so far. In this study, we fabricated red fluorescent PLGA nanocapsules (NCs)—Cy5/PLGA—with either positive (Cy5/PLGA+) or negative surface charge (Cy5/PLGA-). We report here on their excellent colloidal stability in culture and biological media, and after cryo-storage. Their lack of cytotoxicity in two relevant lung cell types, even for concentrations as high as 10 mg/mL, is also reported. More importantly, differences in the NCs’ cell uptake rates and internalization capacity were identified. The uptake of the anionic system was faster and in much higher amounts—10-fold and 2.5-fold in macrophages and epithelial alveolar cells, respectively. The in vivo study demonstrated that anionic PLGA NCs were retained in all lung lobules after 1 h of being intratracheally instilled, and were found to accumulate in lung macrophages after 24 h, making those nanocarriers especially suitable as a pulmonary immunomodulatory delivery system with a marked translational character. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles for Bioimaging and Theragnostics)
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Review

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33 pages, 4409 KiB  
Review
Fluorescent Multifunctional Organic Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery and Bioimaging: A Tutorial Review
by Guillem Vargas-Nadal, Mariana Köber, Audrey Nsamela, Francesca Terenziani, Cristina Sissa, Silvia Pescina, Fabio Sonvico, Amirah Mohd Gazzali, Habibah A. Wahab, Luca Grisanti, María Eugenia Olivera, María Celeste Palena, María Laura Guzman, Laura Carolina Luciani-Giacobbe, Alvaro Jimenez-Kairuz, Nora Ventosa, Imma Ratera, Kevin D. Belfield and Ben M. Maoz
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(11), 2498; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14112498 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3287
Abstract
Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) are a large family of nanostructures constituted by organic components that emit light in different spectral regions upon excitation, due to the presence of organic fluorophores. FONs are of great interest for numerous biological and medical applications, due to [...] Read more.
Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) are a large family of nanostructures constituted by organic components that emit light in different spectral regions upon excitation, due to the presence of organic fluorophores. FONs are of great interest for numerous biological and medical applications, due to their high tunability in terms of composition, morphology, surface functionalization, and optical properties. Multifunctional FONs combine several functionalities in a single nanostructure (emission of light, carriers for drug-delivery, functionalization with targeting ligands, etc.), opening the possibility of using the same nanoparticle for diagnosis and therapy. The preparation, characterization, and application of these multifunctional FONs require a multidisciplinary approach. In this review, we present FONs following a tutorial approach, with the aim of providing a general overview of the different aspects of the design, preparation, and characterization of FONs. The review encompasses the most common FONs developed to date, the description of the most important features of fluorophores that determine the optical properties of FONs, an overview of the preparation methods and of the optical characterization techniques, and the description of the theoretical approaches that are currently adopted for modeling FONs. The last part of the review is devoted to a non-exhaustive selection of some recent biomedical applications of FONs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles for Bioimaging and Theragnostics)
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