Special Issue "Epigenetic Drugs"

A special issue of Pharmaceuticals (ISSN 1424-8247). This special issue belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2021) | Viewed by 18185

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Marcin Ratajewski
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Epigenetics, Institute of Medical Biology of the Polish of Sciences, Lodz, Poland
Interests: epigenetics , Th17 lymphocytes; autoimmunity; nuclear receptors; melanoma; drug resistance; sirtuins; plant-derived natural products

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes, heart, mental, and autoimmune diseases) are associated with epigenetic aberrations including DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications, chromatin remodeling, and regulatory RNA. Until now, the DNMT inhibitors 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-20-deoxycytidine and the HDAC inhibitors belinostat, panobinostat, romidepsin, vorinostat have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of various cancers. Many of these drugs suffer from high toxicity, rapid metabolism, poor bioavailability, and limited effectiveness in monotherapy. However, in combinatorial therapy, they can be beneficial to patients. In this Special Issue, we would like to invite the submission of manuscripts containing new findings, which may contribute to the design and use of new epigenetic drugs with improved activity, functional significance of different epigenetic drugs (or candidates)-induced signaling pathways and their clinical implications, improvement of the new drugs selectivity, identification of new molecular targets of epigenetic drugs and their clinical significance, and potential combined epigenetic therapies.

We look forward to your contributions.

Dr. Marcin Ratajewski
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • epigenetic modulating agents
  • epigenetic drug discovery
  • DNA methylation
  • histone post-translational modifications
  • chromatin remodeling
  • epigenetic markers
  • cancer epigenetics
  • epigenetic therapeutics in immunotherapy
  • combined therapy

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Epigenetic Modulation of Gremlin-1/NOTCH Pathway in Experimental Crescentic Immune-Mediated Glomerulonephritis
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15020121 - 20 Jan 2022
Viewed by 918
Abstract
Crescentic glomerulonephritis is a devastating autoimmune disease that without early and properly treatment may rapidly progress to end-stage renal disease and death. Current immunosuppressive treatment provides limited efficacy and an important burden of adverse events. Epigenetic drugs are a source of novel therapeutic [...] Read more.
Crescentic glomerulonephritis is a devastating autoimmune disease that without early and properly treatment may rapidly progress to end-stage renal disease and death. Current immunosuppressive treatment provides limited efficacy and an important burden of adverse events. Epigenetic drugs are a source of novel therapeutic tools. Among them, bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitors (iBETs) block the interaction between bromodomains and acetylated proteins, including histones and transcription factors. iBETs have demonstrated protective effects on malignancy, inflammatory disorders and experimental kidney disease. Recently, Gremlin-1 was proposed as a urinary biomarker of disease progression in human anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated crescentic glomerulonephritis. We have now evaluated whether iBETs could regulate Gremlin-1 in experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis induced by nephrotoxic serum (NTS) in mice, a model resembling human crescentic glomerulonephritis. In NTS-injected mice, the iBET JQ1 inhibited renal Gremlin-1 overexpression and diminished glomerular damage, restoring podocyte numbers. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated BRD4 enrichment of the Grem-1 gene promoter in injured kidneys, consistent with Gremlin-1 epigenetic regulation. Moreover, JQ1 blocked BRD4 binding and inhibited Grem-1 gene transcription. The beneficial effect of iBETs was also mediated by modulation of NOTCH pathway. JQ1 inhibited the gene expression of the NOTCH effectors Hes-1 and Hey-1 in NTS-injured kidneys. Our results further support the role for epigenetic drugs, such as iBETs, in the treatment of rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Article
Regulation of m6A Methylation as a New Therapeutic Option against COVID-19
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(11), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14111135 - 08 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the resulting pandemic has led to a spasmodic search for approaches able to limit the diffusion of the disease. The epigenetic machinery has aroused considerable interest in the last decades, and much evidence has demonstrated that this [...] Read more.
The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the resulting pandemic has led to a spasmodic search for approaches able to limit the diffusion of the disease. The epigenetic machinery has aroused considerable interest in the last decades, and much evidence has demonstrated that this type of modification could regulate the early stages of viral infection. Recently it was reported that N6-methyladenosine (m6A) influences SARS-CoV-2 replication, although its role remains to be further investigated. The knockdown of enzymes involved in the m6A pathway could represent an optimal strategy to deepen the epigenetic mechanism. In the present study, we blocked the catalytic activity of the fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) by using the selective inhibitor rhein. We observed a strong broad-spectrum reduction of infectivity caused by various coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. This effect could be due to the modulation of m6A levels and could allow identification of this modification as a new therapeutic target to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Article
Hydralazine and Panobinostat Attenuate Malignant Properties of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(7), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14070670 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Among the well-established alterations contributing to prostate cancer (PCa) pathogenesis, epigenetics is an important player in its development and aggressive disease state. Moreover, since no curative therapies are available for advanced stage disease, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies targeting [...] Read more.
Among the well-established alterations contributing to prostate cancer (PCa) pathogenesis, epigenetics is an important player in its development and aggressive disease state. Moreover, since no curative therapies are available for advanced stage disease, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies targeting this subset of patients. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the combined antineoplastic effects of DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and histone deacetylase inhibitors panobinostat and valproic acid in several prostate cell lines. The effect of these drugs was assessed in four PCa (LNCaP, 22Rv1, DU145 and PC-3) cell lines, as well as in non-malignant epithelial (RWPE-1) and stromal (WPMY-1) cell lines, using several assays to evaluate cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation, DNA damage and clonogenic potential. We found that exposure to each epidrug separately reduced viability of all PCa cells in a dose-dependent manner and that combined treatments led to synergic growth inhibitory effects, impacting also on colony formation, invasion, apoptotic and proliferation rates. Interestingly, antitumoral effects of combined treatment were particularly expressive in DU145 cells. We concluded that hydralazine and panobinostat attenuate malignant properties of PCa cells, constituting a potential therapeutic tool to counteract PCa progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Article
Neuroprotective Effects of Tripeptides—Epigenetic Regulators in Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(6), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060515 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
KED and EDR peptides prevent dendritic spines loss in amyloid synaptotoxicity in in vitro model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The objective of this paper was to study epigenetic mechanisms of EDR and KED peptides’ neuroprotective effects on neuroplasticity and dendritic spine morphology in [...] Read more.
KED and EDR peptides prevent dendritic spines loss in amyloid synaptotoxicity in in vitro model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The objective of this paper was to study epigenetic mechanisms of EDR and KED peptides’ neuroprotective effects on neuroplasticity and dendritic spine morphology in an AD mouse model. Daily intraperitoneal administration of the KED peptide in 5xFAD mice from 2 to 4 months of age at a concentration of 400 μg/kg tended to increase neuroplasticity. KED and EDR peptides prevented dendritic spine loss in 5xFAD-M mice. Their action’s possible molecular mechanisms were investigated by molecular modeling and docking of peptides in dsDNA, containing all possible combinations of hexanucleotide sequences. Similar DNA sequences were found in the lowest-energy complexes of the studied peptides with DNA in the classical B-form. EDR peptide has binding sites in the promoter region of CASP3, NES, GAP43, APOE, SOD2, PPARA, PPARG, GDX1 genes. Protein products of these genes are involved in AD pathogenesis. The neuroprotective effect of EDR and KED peptides in AD can be defined by their ability to prevent dendritic spine elimination and neuroplasticity impairments at the molecular epigenetic level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Communication
PARP Traps Rescue the Pro-Inflammatory Response of Human Macrophages in the In Vitro Model of LPS-Induced Tolerance
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14020170 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
Secondary infections cause sepsis that lead to patient disability or death. Contact of macrophages with bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide—LPS) activates the intracellular signaling pathway downstream of Toll-like receptors (TLR), which initiate an immune proinflammatory response. However, the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B [...] Read more.
Secondary infections cause sepsis that lead to patient disability or death. Contact of macrophages with bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide—LPS) activates the intracellular signaling pathway downstream of Toll-like receptors (TLR), which initiate an immune proinflammatory response. However, the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent proinflammatory cytokines significantly decreases after single high or multiple LPS stimulations. Knowing that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) serves as a cofactor of NF-κB, we aimed to verify a hypothesis of the possible contribution of PARP1 to the development of LPS-induced tolerance in human macrophages. Using TNF-α mRNA expression as a readout, we demonstrate that PARP1 interaction with the TNF-α promoter, controls macrophage immunoparalysis. We confirm that PARP1 is extruded from the gene promoter, whereas cell pretreatment with Olaparib maintains macrophage responsiveness to another LPS treatment. Furthermore, cell pretreatment with proteasome inhibitor MG132 completely abrogates the effect of Olaparib, suggesting that PARP1 acts with NF-κB in the same regulatory pathway, which controls pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription. Mechanistically, PARP1 trapping allows for the re-rebinding of p65 to the TNF-α promoter in LPS-stimulated cells. In conclusion, PARP traps prevent PARP1 extrusion from the TNF-α promoter upon macrophage stimulation, thereby maintaining chromatin responsiveness of TLR activation, allowing for the re-binding of p65 and TNF-α transcription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Article
Expanding the Structural Diversity of DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14010017 - 27 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
Inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are attractive compounds for epigenetic drug discovery. They are also chemical tools to understand the biochemistry of epigenetic processes. Herein, we report five distinct inhibitors of DNMT1 characterized in enzymatic inhibition assays that did not show activity with [...] Read more.
Inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are attractive compounds for epigenetic drug discovery. They are also chemical tools to understand the biochemistry of epigenetic processes. Herein, we report five distinct inhibitors of DNMT1 characterized in enzymatic inhibition assays that did not show activity with DNMT3B. It was concluded that the dietary component theaflavin is an inhibitor of DNMT1. Two additional novel inhibitors of DNMT1 are the approved drugs glyburide and panobinostat. The DNMT1 enzymatic inhibitory activity of panobinostat, a known pan inhibitor of histone deacetylases, agrees with experimental reports of its ability to reduce DNMT1 activity in liver cancer cell lines. Molecular docking of the active compounds with DNMT1, and re-scoring with the recently developed extended connectivity interaction features approach, led to an excellent agreement between the experimental IC50 values and docking scores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Article
Atorvastatin Increases the Expression of Long Non-Coding RNAs ARSR and CHROME in Hypercholesterolemic Patients: A Pilot Study
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(11), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110382 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Atorvastatin is extensively used to treat hypercholesterolemia. However, the wide interindividual variability observed in response to this drug still needs further elucidation. Nowadays, the biology of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is better understood, and some of these molecules have been related to cholesterol [...] Read more.
Atorvastatin is extensively used to treat hypercholesterolemia. However, the wide interindividual variability observed in response to this drug still needs further elucidation. Nowadays, the biology of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is better understood, and some of these molecules have been related to cholesterol metabolism. Therefore, they could provide additional information on variability in response to statins. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on three lncRNAs (lncRNA ARSR: Activated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with sunitinib resistance, ENST00000424980; lncRNA LASER: lipid associated single nucleotide polymorphism locus, ENSG00000237937; and lncRNA CHROME: cholesterol homeostasis regulator of miRNA expression, ENSG00000223960) associated with genes involved in cholesterol metabolism as predictors of lipid-lowering therapy performance. Twenty hypercholesterolemic patients were treated for four weeks with atorvastatin (20 mg/day). The lipid profile was determined before and after drug administration using conventional assays. The expression of lncRNAs was assessed in peripheral blood samples by RT-qPCR. As expected, atorvastatin improved the lipid profile, decreasing total cholesterol, LDL-C, and the TC/HDL-C ratio (p < 0.0001) while increasing the expression of lncRNAs ARSR and CHROME (p < 0.0001) upon completion of treatment. LASER did not show significant differences among the groups (p = 0.50). Our results indicate that atorvastatin modulates the expression of cholesterol-related lncRNAs differentially, suggesting that these molecules play a role in the variability of response to this drug; however, additional studies are needed to disclose the implication of this differential regulation on statin response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Review

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Review
SAMe, Choline, and Valproic Acid as Possible Epigenetic Drugs: Their Effects in Pregnancy with a Special Emphasis on Animal Studies
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15020192 - 03 Feb 2022
Viewed by 663
Abstract
In this review, we discuss the functions and main effects on pregnancy outcomes of three agents that have the ability to induce epigenetic modifications: valproic acid (VPA), a well-known teratogen that is a histone deacetylase inhibitor; S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the most effective methyl donor; [...] Read more.
In this review, we discuss the functions and main effects on pregnancy outcomes of three agents that have the ability to induce epigenetic modifications: valproic acid (VPA), a well-known teratogen that is a histone deacetylase inhibitor; S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the most effective methyl donor; and choline, an important micronutrient involved in the one methyl group cycle and in the synthesis of SAMe. Our aim was to describe the possible effects of these compounds when administered during pregnancy on the developing embryo and fetus or, if administered postnatally, their effects on the developing child. These substances are able to modify gene expression and possibly alleviate neurobehavioral changes in disturbances that have epigenetic origins, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), depression, Rett syndrome, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Valproic acid and SAMe are antagonistic epigenetic modulators whether administered in utero or postnatally. However, VPA is a major human teratogen and, whenever possible, should not be used by pregnant women. Most currently relevant data come from experimental animal studies that aimed to explore the possibility of using these substances as epigenetic modifiers and possible therapeutic agents. In experimental animals, each of these substances was able to alleviate the severity of several well-known diseases by inducing changes in the expression of affected genes or by other yet unknown mechanisms. We believe that additional studies are needed to further explore the possibility of using these substances, and similar compounds, for the treatment of ”epigenetic human diseases”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Review
Therapies Targeting Epigenetic Alterations in Acute Kidney Injury-to-Chronic Kidney Disease Transition
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15020123 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI) was previously thought to be a merely transient event; however, recent epidemiological evidence supports the existence of a causal relationship between AKI episodes and subsequent progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the pathophysiology of this AKI-to-CKD transition is [...] Read more.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) was previously thought to be a merely transient event; however, recent epidemiological evidence supports the existence of a causal relationship between AKI episodes and subsequent progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the pathophysiology of this AKI-to-CKD transition is not fully understood, it is mediated by the interplay among multiple components of the kidney including tubular epithelial cells, endothelial cells, pericytes, inflammatory cells, and myofibroblasts. Epigenetic alterations including histone modification, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and chromatin conformational changes, are also expected to be largely involved in the pathophysiology as a “memory” of the initial injury that can persist and predispose to chronic progression of fibrosis. Each epigenetic modification has a great potential as a therapeutic target of AKI-to-CKD transition; timely and target-specific epigenetic interventions to the various temporal stages of AKI-to-CKD transition will be the key to future therapeutic applications in clinical practice. This review elaborates on the latest knowledge of each mechanism and the currently available therapeutic agents that target epigenetic modification in the context of AKI-to-CKD transition. Further studies will elucidate more detailed mechanisms and novel therapeutic targets of AKI-to-CKD transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Review
Chromatin Alterations in Neurological Disorders and Strategies of (Epi)Genome Rescue
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(8), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080765 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Neurological disorders (NDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of conditions that affect the function of the nervous system. Often incurable, NDs have profound and detrimental consequences on the affected individuals’ lives. NDs have complex etiologies but commonly feature altered gene expression and dysfunctions of [...] Read more.
Neurological disorders (NDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of conditions that affect the function of the nervous system. Often incurable, NDs have profound and detrimental consequences on the affected individuals’ lives. NDs have complex etiologies but commonly feature altered gene expression and dysfunctions of the essential chromatin-modifying factors. Hence, compounds that target DNA and histone modification pathways, the so-called epidrugs, constitute promising tools to treat NDs. Yet, targeting the entire epigenome might reveal insufficient to modify a chosen gene expression or even unnecessary and detrimental to the patients’ health. New technologies hold a promise to expand the clinical toolkit in the fight against NDs. (Epi)genome engineering using designer nucleases, including CRISPR-Cas9 and TALENs, can potentially help restore the correct gene expression patterns by targeting a defined gene or pathway, both genetically and epigenetically, with minimal off-target activity. Here, we review the implication of epigenetic machinery in NDs. We outline syndromes caused by mutations in chromatin-modifying enzymes and discuss the functional consequences of mutations in regulatory DNA in NDs. We review the approaches that allow modifying the (epi)genome, including tools based on TALENs and CRISPR-Cas9 technologies, and we highlight how these new strategies could potentially change clinical practices in the treatment of NDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Review
Hypomethylating Chemotherapeutic Agents as Therapy for Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Prevention of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(7), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14070641 - 04 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDSs) affect the elderly and can progress to Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Epigenetic alterations including DNA methylation and chromatin modification may contribute to the initiation and progression of these malignancies. DNA hypomethylating agents such as decitabine and azacitidine are used as [...] Read more.
Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDSs) affect the elderly and can progress to Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Epigenetic alterations including DNA methylation and chromatin modification may contribute to the initiation and progression of these malignancies. DNA hypomethylating agents such as decitabine and azacitidine are used as therapeutic treatments and have shown to promote expression of genes involved in tumor suppression, apoptosis, and immune response. Another anti-cancer drug, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, is used as a chemotherapeutic treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). Phase III clinical trials of decitabine and azacitidine used alone and in combination with other chemotherapeutics demonstrated their capacity to treat hematological malignancies and prolong the survival of MDS and AML patients. Although phase III clinical trials examining bortezomib’s role in MDS and AML patients are limited, its underlying mechanisms in MM highlight its potential as a chemotherapeutic for such malignancies. Further research is needed to better understand how the epigenetic mechanisms mediated by these chemotherapeutic agents and their targeted gene networks are associated with the development and progression of MDS into AML. This review discusses the mechanisms by which decitabine, azacitidine, and bortezomib alter epigenetic programs and their results from phase III clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Review
Epigenetic Mechanisms Involved in Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Update
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(6), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060491 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Cisplatin is an antineoplastic drug used for the treatment of many solid tumors. Among its various side effects, nephrotoxicity is the most detrimental. In recent years, epigenetic regulation has emerged as a modulatory mechanism of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, involving non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and [...] Read more.
Cisplatin is an antineoplastic drug used for the treatment of many solid tumors. Among its various side effects, nephrotoxicity is the most detrimental. In recent years, epigenetic regulation has emerged as a modulatory mechanism of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, involving non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and histone modifications. These epigenetic marks alter different signaling pathways leading to damage and cell death. In this review, we describe how different epigenetic modifications alter different pathways leading to cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, among others. The study of epigenetic regulation is still under development, and much research remains to fully determine the epigenetic mechanisms underlying cell death, which will allow leading new strategies for the diagnosis and therapy of this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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Review
m6A RNA Methylation in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases—A New Target for Epigenetic-Based Therapy?
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14030218 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
The general background of autoimmune diseases is a combination of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors, that lead to defective immune reactions. This erroneous immune cell activation results in an excessive production of autoantibodies and prolonged inflammation. During recent years epigenetic mechanisms have been [...] Read more.
The general background of autoimmune diseases is a combination of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors, that lead to defective immune reactions. This erroneous immune cell activation results in an excessive production of autoantibodies and prolonged inflammation. During recent years epigenetic mechanisms have been extensively studied as potential culprits of autoreactivity. Alike DNA and proteins, also RNA molecules are subjected to an extensive repertoire of chemical modifications. N6-methyladenosine is the most prevalent form of internal mRNA modification in eukaryotic cells and attracts increasing attention due to its contribution to human health and disease. Even though m6A is confirmed as an essential player in immune response, little is known about its role in autoimmunity. Only few data have been published up to date in the field of RNA methylome. Moreover, only selected autoimmune diseases have been studied in respect of m6A role in their pathogenesis. In this review, I attempt to present all available research data regarding m6A alterations in autoimmune disorders and appraise its role as a potential target for epigenetic-based therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Drugs)
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