The glycaemic index (GI) is a useful tool to compare the glycaemic responses of foods. Numerous studies report the favorable effects of low GI diets on long term metabolic health compared with high GI diets. However, it has not been possible to link these effects to the GI itself because of other components such as macronutrients and dietary fibre, which are known to affect GI. This study aimed to create and evaluate isocaloric diets differing in GI independent of macronutrient and fibre content. The GIs of eight diets differing in carbohydrate source were evaluated in mice; cooked cornstarch (CC), raw cornstarch (RC), chow, maltodextrin, glucose, sucrose, isomaltulose, and fructose. A glucose control was also tested. The GIs of all eight diets were different from the GI of the glucose control (GI: 100; p
< 0.0001). The GIs of the glucose (mean ± SEM: 52 ± 3), maltodextrin (52 ± 6), CC (50 ± 4), RC (50 ± 6), and chow (44 ± 4) diets were similar, while the GIs of the sucrose (31 ± 4), isomaltulose (24 ± 5), and fructose (18 ± 2) diets were lower than all other diets (p
< 0.05). This is the first trial to report GI testing in vivo in mice, resulting in three main findings: chow is relatively high GI, the glucose availability of raw and cooked cornstarch is similar, and the GI of different sugar diets occur in the same rank order as in humans.
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