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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Effects of Substitution, and Adding of Carbohydrate and Fat to Whey-Protein on Energy Intake, Appetite, Gastric Emptying, Glucose, Insulin, Ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 in Healthy Older Men—A Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Discipline of Medicine and National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) Centre of Research Excellence in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, Adelaide Medical School, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
2
Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020113
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180–210 min), gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography), plasma gut hormone concentrations (0–180 min) and appetite (visual analogue scales), in healthy older men. In a randomized, double-blind order, 13 older men (75 ± 2 years) ingested drinks (~450 mL) containing: (i) 70 g whey protein (280 kcal; ‘P280’); (ii) 14 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (280 kcal; ‘M280’); (iii) 70 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (504 kcal; ‘M504’); or (iv) control (~2 kcal). The caloric drinks, compared to a control, did not suppress appetite or energy intake; there was an increase in total energy intake (drink + meal, p < 0.05), which was increased most by the M504-drink. P280- and M504-drink ingestion were associated with slower a gastric-emptying time (n = 9), lower ghrelin, and higher cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) than M280 (p < 0.05). Glucose and insulin were increased most by the mixed-macronutrient drinks (p < 0.05). In conclusion, energy intake was not suppressed, compared to a control, and particularly whey protein, affected gastric emptying and gut hormone responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: whey protein; energy intake; gastric emptying; gut hormones; aging whey protein; energy intake; gastric emptying; gut hormones; aging
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Giezenaar, C.; Van der Burgh, Y.; Lange, K.; Hatzinikolas, S.; Hausken, T.; Jones, K.L.; Horowitz, M.; Chapman, I.; Soenen, S. Effects of Substitution, and Adding of Carbohydrate and Fat to Whey-Protein on Energy Intake, Appetite, Gastric Emptying, Glucose, Insulin, Ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 in Healthy Older Men—A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 113.

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