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Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 460;

Association between Urinary Aflatoxin (AFM1) and Dietary Intake among Adults in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Solutions for a Changing World)
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Aflatoxin is a food contaminant and its exposure through the diet is frequent and ubiquitous. A long-term dietary aflatoxin exposure has been linked to the development of liver cancer in populations with high prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the association between urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a biomarker of aflatoxin exposure, with the dietary intake among adults in Hulu Langat district, Selangor, Malaysia. Certain food products have higher potential for aflatoxin contamination and these were listed in a Food Frequency Questionnaire, which was given to all study participants. This allowed us to record consumption rates for each food product listed. Concomitantly, urine samples were collected, from adults in selected areas in Hulu Langat district, for the measurement of AFM1 levels using an ELISA kit. Of the 444 urine samples collected and tested, 199 were positive for AFM1, with 37 of them exceeding the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.64 ng/mL. Cereal products showed the highest consumption level among all food groups, with an average intake of 512.54 g per day. Chi-square analysis showed that consumption of eggs (X2 = 4.77, p = 0.03) and dairy products (X2 = 19.36, p < 0.01) had significant associations with urinary AFM1 but both food groups were having a phi and Cramer’s V value that less than 0.3, which indicated that the association between these food groups’ consumption and AFM1 level in urine was weak. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin; aflatoxin M1; urinary AFM1; dietary intake; Hulu Langat; Malaysia aflatoxin; aflatoxin M1; urinary AFM1; dietary intake; Hulu Langat; Malaysia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Sulaiman, S.H.; Jamaluddin, R.; Sabran, M.R. Association between Urinary Aflatoxin (AFM1) and Dietary Intake among Adults in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia. Nutrients 2018, 10, 460.

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