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Metabolic Syndrome: Is It Time to Add the Central Nervous System?

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Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Zulia, Maracaibo 4004, Venezuela
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Psychiatric Hospital of Maracaibo, Maracaibo 4004, Venezuela
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Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Barranquilla 08002, Colombia
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Escuela de Nutrición y Dietética, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Andrés Bello, Sede Concepción 4260000, Chile
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Departamento de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, 28007 Madrid, Spain
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Posgrado, Carrera de Medicina, Universidad Católica de Cuenca, Cantón de Cuenca 010101, Ecuador
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Facultad de Ciencias Para el Cuidado de la Salud, Universidad San Sebastián, Los Leones 8420524, Chile
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Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Barranquilla 080002, Colombia
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Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Cúcuta 540006, Colombia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Omorogieva Ojo and Amanda Adegboye
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072254
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 5 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Chronic Conditions)
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a set of cardio-metabolic risk factors that includes central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemias. The syndrome affects 25% of adults worldwide. The definition of MS has evolved over the last 80 years, with various classification systems and criteria, whose limitations and benefits are currently the subject of some controversy. Likewise, hypotheses regarding the etiology of MS add more confusion from clinical and epidemiological points of view. The leading suggestion for the pathophysiology of MS is insulin resistance (IR). IR can affect multiple tissues and organs, from the classic “triumvirate” (myocyte, adipocyte, and hepatocyte) to possible effects on organs considered more recently, such as the central nervous system (CNS). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may be clinical expressions of CNS involvement. However, the association between MCI and MS is not understood. The bidirectional relationship that seems to exist between these factors raises the questions of which phenomenon occurs first and whether MCI can be a precursor of MS. This review explores shared pathophysiological mechanisms between MCI and MS and establishes a hypothesis of a possible MCI role in the development of IR and the appearance of MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance; diabetes mellitus type 2; mild cognitive impairment; Alzheimer’s disease metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance; diabetes mellitus type 2; mild cognitive impairment; Alzheimer’s disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rojas, M.; Chávez-Castillo, M.; Pirela, D.; Parra, H.; Nava, M.; Chacín, M.; Angarita, L.; Añez, R.; Salazar, J.; Ortiz, R.; Durán Agüero, S.; Gravini-Donado, M.; Bermúdez, V.; Díaz-Camargo, E. Metabolic Syndrome: Is It Time to Add the Central Nervous System? Nutrients 2021, 13, 2254. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072254

AMA Style

Rojas M, Chávez-Castillo M, Pirela D, Parra H, Nava M, Chacín M, Angarita L, Añez R, Salazar J, Ortiz R, Durán Agüero S, Gravini-Donado M, Bermúdez V, Díaz-Camargo E. Metabolic Syndrome: Is It Time to Add the Central Nervous System? Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2254. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072254

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rojas, Milagros, Mervin Chávez-Castillo, Daniela Pirela, Heliana Parra, Manuel Nava, Maricarmen Chacín, Lissé Angarita, Roberto Añez, Juan Salazar, Rina Ortiz, Samuel Durán Agüero, Marbel Gravini-Donado, Valmore Bermúdez, and Edgar Díaz-Camargo. 2021. "Metabolic Syndrome: Is It Time to Add the Central Nervous System?" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2254. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072254

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