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Nutrition, Energy Expenditure and Body Composition in Association with Physical Activity or Physical Performance

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2021) | Viewed by 36220

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
Interests: exercise physiology; physical fitness and sports medicine; gerontology; sport nutrition; frailty; skeletal muscle; sarcopenia; energy metabolism; body composition
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The interaction between physical activity and nutrition has attracted increasing attention in the clinical setting, such as preventing obesity, sarcopenia, and other diseases, and all-cause mortality and sport nutrition. Physical performance is a major determinant of health as well. This Special Issue calls for high-quality research articles and reviews which address nutrition, energy expenditure, and body composition studies in association with physical activity or physical performance. Any studies that address the interaction between nutrition and physical activity or performance are welcomed in this issue. Potential topics include but are not limited to:

  • Interaction between nutrition and physical activity or physical performance on human health;
  • Healthy habits of nutrition and physical activity in specific age groups, sex, genetic background, cultural background, medical biography, and current medical status;
  • Adequate nutrition or energy expenditure of people who have limited physical activity due to diseases, disability, frailty, or sarcopenia;
  • Dietary recommendations for people who engage in high-intensity or -volume physical activities due to their sport activities, occupation, or cultural environment.

Dr. Yosuke Yamada
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • energy metabolism
  • protein
  • fat
  • carbohydrate
  • water intake
  • vitamins
  • minerals
  • noncommunicable diseases
  • athletes
  • body composition
  • physical activity
  • exercise

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

11 pages, 1705 KiB  
Article
Exercise Performance Upregulatory Effect of R-α-Lipoic Acid with γ-Cyclodextrin
by Yuki Hashimoto, Katsuhiko Yoshizawa, Yuka Kaido, Akiko Takenouchi, Keiji Terao, Hiroyuki Yasui and Yutaka Yoshikawa
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010021 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3108
Abstract
α-Lipoic acid (ALA) is a vitamin-like substance that is an indispensable supporting factor for a large number of enzymes. Due to its optical activity, ALA has optical isomers RALA and SALA. The major role of RALA is in energy metabolism. However, RALA cannot [...] Read more.
α-Lipoic acid (ALA) is a vitamin-like substance that is an indispensable supporting factor for a large number of enzymes. Due to its optical activity, ALA has optical isomers RALA and SALA. The major role of RALA is in energy metabolism. However, RALA cannot be used as a pharmaceutical or nutraceutical because it is sensitive to heat and acid conditions. Previous studies have shown that RALA complexed with γ-cyclodextrin (CD) has a higher antioxidant capacity than that of free RALA. The antioxidant enzyme system protects against intense exercise-induced oxidative damage and is related to the physical status of athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of CD/RALA complex supplementation on antioxidant activity and performance during high-intensity exercise. Twenty-four male C3H/HeSlc mice were divided into four groups (n = 6): swimming+distilled water administration (C), swimming+CD/RALA supplementation (CD/RALA), swimming+RALA suplementation (RALA), and swimming+CD supplementation (CD). Blood ammonia elevation due to exercise stress was repressed by CD/RALA supplementation. The oxidative stress in the kidney increased after exercise and was reduced by CD/RALA supplementation. Our findings suggest that CD/RALA supplementation may be useful for improving the exercise performance in athletes. Full article
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17 pages, 1051 KiB  
Article
Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Lockdown on Anthropometric Parameters in Children 11/12 Years Old
by Oliver Ramos-Álvarez, Víctor Arufe-Giráldez, David Cantarero-Prieto and Alba Ibáñez-García
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4174; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114174 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2803
Abstract
Background: During the great lockdown in Spain due to SARS-CoV-2, in between the months of March and June 2020, dietary and physical activity habits were modified in children. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the lockdown on anthropometric [...] Read more.
Background: During the great lockdown in Spain due to SARS-CoV-2, in between the months of March and June 2020, dietary and physical activity habits were modified in children. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the lockdown on anthropometric parameters in children aged 11/12 years. Methods: Fifty Spanish children aged 11/12 years (M = 11.40; SD = 0.50) participated: 33 (66%) boys and 17 (34%) girls. For data collection, we used an anthropometry kit; the Alpha-Fitness Battery, a validated instrument to assess dietary intake, habits and practices; and an ad hoc survey to collect sociodemographic and other data under investigation. Results: There were significant differences in the anthropometric parameters measured and in the results obtained for Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage pre- and post-lockdown in both boys and girls (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in waist-circumference measurements (p > 0.05). Conclusions: There is evidence of a significant impact of the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown on anthropometric parameters in boys and girls aged 11/12 years. Full article
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9 pages, 834 KiB  
Article
Association between Water and Energy Requirements with Physical Activity and Fat-Free Mass in Preschool Children in Japan
by Yosuke Yamada, Hiroyuki Sagayama, Jun Yasukata, Akiko Uchizawa, Aya Itoi, Tsukasa Yoshida, Daiki Watanabe, Yukako Hashii-Arishima, Hisashi Mitsuishi, Makoto Nishimura, Misaka Kimura and Yoshiko Aoki
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4169; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114169 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2329
Abstract
Water and energy are essential for the human body. The doubly labeled water (DLW) method measures water turnover (WT) and total energy expenditure (TEE), which serves as a benchmark for the adequate intake (AI) of water and estimated energy requirements (EER). The objective [...] Read more.
Water and energy are essential for the human body. The doubly labeled water (DLW) method measures water turnover (WT) and total energy expenditure (TEE), which serves as a benchmark for the adequate intake (AI) of water and estimated energy requirements (EER). The objective of the current study was to examine the association of WT and TEE with physical activity and body composition in Japanese preschool children. We included 41 preschool children (22 girls, 19 boys) aged 3–6 in this study. WT, TEE, and fat-free mass (FFM) were obtained using DLW. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer and categorized as light (LPA; 1.5–2.9 Metabolic equivalents, METs) and of moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA; ≥3.0 METs). Exercise duration (Ex) was defined as ≥4.0 METs of physical activity. WT and TEE moderately positively correlated with Ex, but not with LPA. WT moderately positively correlated with BW and FFM while TEE strongly. We established predictive equations for WT and TEE using body weight (BW), FFM, step count, and Ex to guide the AI of water and EER in Japanese preschool children. We found that FFM and step count are the determinants of TEE, and that BW and Ex are the determinants of WT in preschool children. Full article
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10 pages, 2371 KiB  
Article
The Association between Habitual Green Tea Consumption and Comprehensive Frailty as Assessed by Kihon Checklist Indexes among an Older Japanese Population
by Hinako Nanri, Tsukasa Yoshida, Yuya Watanabe, Hiroyuki Fujita, Misaka Kimura, Yosuke Yamada and on behalf of the Kameoka Study Group
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114149 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3313
Abstract
Background: It is unclear whether habitual green tea consumption is related to comprehensive frailty. Objectives: We conducted this study to investigate this relationship among an elderly Japanese population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of baseline data from 2012. The study included 5668 [...] Read more.
Background: It is unclear whether habitual green tea consumption is related to comprehensive frailty. Objectives: We conducted this study to investigate this relationship among an elderly Japanese population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of baseline data from 2012. The study included 5668 Japanese participants (2766 men and 2902 women aged 65 years or older). The subjects completed a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire that included questions on their green tea consumption. We evaluated comprehensive frailty using a 25-item Kihon Checklist (KCL), which comprised seven domains (instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), physical function, malnutrition, oral or eating function, socialization and housebound, cognitive function, and depression). Frailty was defined as a KCL score greater than or equal to seven. Results: We found that a higher consumption of green tea was associated with a lower prevalence of comprehensive frailty in both sexes. Further age-stratified analysis showed that a higher consumption of green tea among women was associated with a lower prevalence of comprehensive frailty, regardless of age. In men, however, this association was found only in the older age groups. An analysis of the association between green tea consumption and the frailty subdomains showed that green tea consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of oral dysfunction and cognitive problems in both sexes. In addition, only in women was higher green tea consumption found to be associated with a lower prevalence of IADL and mobility-related disability problems. Conclusions: Green tea consumption is inversely associated with the prevalence of comprehensive frailty in Japanese men and women. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm this association. Full article
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14 pages, 1695 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training Frequency on Arterial Stiffness in a Hyperglycemic State in Middle-Aged and Elderly Females
by Ryota Kobayashi, Kenji Asaki, Takeo Hashiguchi and Hideyuki Negoro
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103498 - 3 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2548
Abstract
The frequency of aerobic exercise training in reducing the increase in arterial stiffness during acute hyperglycemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the aerobic exercise training frequency on arterial stiffness in a hyperglycemic [...] Read more.
The frequency of aerobic exercise training in reducing the increase in arterial stiffness during acute hyperglycemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the aerobic exercise training frequency on arterial stiffness in a hyperglycemic state in middle-aged and elderly females. Twenty healthy elderly people were randomly assigned to a two-times-a-week (T2, n = 10) and four-times-a-week (T4, n = 10) exercise group. All participants exercised for 35 min per session, which consisted of jogging exercises with a heart rate intensity of 65%. Brachial-ankle (ba), and heart-brachial (hb) pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured before, 4 and 8 weeks after intervention; before the oral ingestion of 75-g of glucose; and 30, 60, and 90 min after ingestion. The baPWV before and 4 weeks after the intervention increased in both groups (p < 0.05), but only increased 8 weeks after intervention in the T2 group. hbPWV was unchanged before, 4 and 8 weeks after intervention in both groups. These findings show that frequent aerobic exercise suppresses the increase in arterial stiffness following glucose intake. The results of this study can be used to support the implementation of exercise programs for middle-aged and elderly patients. Full article
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14 pages, 2580 KiB  
Article
The Effects of a Macronutrient-Based Diet and Time-Restricted Feeding (16:8) on Body Composition in Physically Active Individuals—A 14-Week Randomised Controlled Trial
by Eduard Isenmann, Joshua Dissemond and Stephan Geisler
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093122 - 6 Sep 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 8669
Abstract
The number of people suffering from being overweight or obese has risen steadily in recent years. Consequently, new forms of nutrition and diets were developed as potential solutions. In the last years, the time-restricted feeding and continuous energy restriction via macronutrient-based diets were [...] Read more.
The number of people suffering from being overweight or obese has risen steadily in recent years. Consequently, new forms of nutrition and diets were developed as potential solutions. In the last years, the time-restricted feeding and continuous energy restriction via macronutrient-based diets were increasingly popular. Both diets were exclusively studied separately. A comparison of the two diets for people with a high body mass index despite regular physical activity has not yet been studied in detail. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of these two diets on body composition and adherence. For this study, a total of 42 subjects (m = 21, f = 21) with a BMI above 25 were recruited from a local fitness gym. After a two-week familiarisation period, one of the two diets was followed over 14 weeks. Dietary behaviour was monitored throughout the period with a food diary. The primary measurement parameters were body weight, lean body mass, fat mass, body mass index, and waist and hip circumference. In addition, adherence was assessed and calculated by food diary and questionnaire. In total, the data of 35 participants (m = 14, f = 21) were analysed. Significant reductions in body weight, fat mass, body mass index, and waist and hip circumference were observed in both groups (p < 0.05). No significant change could be observed in lean body mass in either category. No group and gender differences were detected in any of the primary parameters. For the secondary parameters, a significantly higher adherence was observed in the time-restricted feeding group (p < 0.05). In addition, it can be assumed that an adherence of 60–70% cannot lead to positive changes in body composition. In conclusion, there were no differences between the two diets on the primary parameters. However, it seemed that time-restricted feeding can be better implemented in everyday life, and an adherence of more than 70% is required for both diets to prove effective. Full article
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11 pages, 845 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cannabidiol Supplementation on Skeletal Muscle Regeneration after Intensive Resistance Training
by Eduard Isenmann, Sebastian Veit, Lynn Starke, Ulrich Flenker and Patrick Diel
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3028; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093028 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 8308
Abstract
Cannabidiol supplements (CBD) are increasingly consumed by athletes to improve regeneration. However, the evidence for the pro-regenerative effects of CBD in sports is quite limited. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of a single CBD supplementation in a six-arm placebo-controlled crossover [...] Read more.
Cannabidiol supplements (CBD) are increasingly consumed by athletes to improve regeneration. However, the evidence for the pro-regenerative effects of CBD in sports is quite limited. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of a single CBD supplementation in a six-arm placebo-controlled crossover study after resistance training on performance and muscle damage. Before and after the resistance training, one-repetition maximum in the back squat (1RM BS), countermovement jump (CMJ), and blood serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Myo) were measured in healthy, well-trained participants. 16 out of 21 participants completed the study and were included in the analysis. In 1RM BS, a significant decrease was observed after 24 h (p < 0.01) but not after 48 and 72 h. A significant group difference was detected after 72 h (p < 0.05; ES = 0.371). In CMJ, no significant changes were observed. The CK and Myo concentrations increased significantly after 24 h (CK: p < 0.001; Myo: p < 0.01), 48 h (CK: p < 0.001; Myo: p < 0.01) and 72 h (CK: p < 0.001; Myo: p < 0.001). After 72 h, significant group differences were observed for both muscle damage biomarkers (CK: p < 0.05 ES = 0.24; Myo: p < 0.05; ES = 0.21). The results show small but significant effects on muscle damage and recovery of squat performance after 72 h. However, more data are required for clearer statements concerning potential pro-regenerative effects of CBD supplementation after resistance training. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 2648 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Football Practice on Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Antonio Hernandez-Martin, Jorge Garcia-Unanue, Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez, Samuel Manzano-Carrasco, Jose Luis Felipe, Maria Jose Carvalho, Leonor Gallardo and Javier Sanchez-Sanchez
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2562; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082562 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3978
Abstract
Dietary patterns, exercise, sport, and physical activity have been shown to improve body composition in children. This systematic review with meta-analysis analyzed the effects of practicing football on body composition (fat mass, lean body mass, and bone mineral content) in children. An initial [...] Read more.
Dietary patterns, exercise, sport, and physical activity have been shown to improve body composition in children. This systematic review with meta-analysis analyzed the effects of practicing football on body composition (fat mass, lean body mass, and bone mineral content) in children. An initial search in PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus was carried out in April 2021 to identify relevant articles. Inclusion criteria required children up to 12 years of age with a minimum football intervention duration of 10 weeks. Methodological quality of the articles was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Between the 1803 articles originally founded, only 14 articles were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 1643 subjects between the 14 studies were identified. The review and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and used Review Manager and Full Meta-Analysis software. The results between the control and experimental groups showed significantly better lean body mass and fat mass values in the experimental group (p < 0.05). Football practice was positively associated with increases in lean body mass (mean difference of 1.55; 95% CI, 0.96, 2.15), decreases in fat mass (mean difference of −0.81; 95% CI, −1.49, −0.13), and increases in whole body bone mineral content (mean difference of 117.68; 95% CI, 83.69, 151.67). In conclusion, the results of this systematic review with meta-analysis suggest that football positively affects body composition in children. However, further research is needed to confirm the results for bone mineral content. Full article
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