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Article

The Effects of a Macronutrient-Based Diet and Time-Restricted Feeding (16:8) on Body Composition in Physically Active Individuals—A 14-Week Randomised Controlled Trial

1
Department of Fitness and Health, IST-University of Applied Sciences, 40233 Dusseldorf, Germany
2
Department of Molecular and Cellular Sports Medicine, Institute for Cardiovascular Research and Sports Medicine, German Sports University, 50933 Cologne, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yosuke Yamada
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093122
Received: 12 August 2021 / Revised: 2 September 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 6 September 2021
The number of people suffering from being overweight or obese has risen steadily in recent years. Consequently, new forms of nutrition and diets were developed as potential solutions. In the last years, the time-restricted feeding and continuous energy restriction via macronutrient-based diets were increasingly popular. Both diets were exclusively studied separately. A comparison of the two diets for people with a high body mass index despite regular physical activity has not yet been studied in detail. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of these two diets on body composition and adherence. For this study, a total of 42 subjects (m = 21, f = 21) with a BMI above 25 were recruited from a local fitness gym. After a two-week familiarisation period, one of the two diets was followed over 14 weeks. Dietary behaviour was monitored throughout the period with a food diary. The primary measurement parameters were body weight, lean body mass, fat mass, body mass index, and waist and hip circumference. In addition, adherence was assessed and calculated by food diary and questionnaire. In total, the data of 35 participants (m = 14, f = 21) were analysed. Significant reductions in body weight, fat mass, body mass index, and waist and hip circumference were observed in both groups (p < 0.05). No significant change could be observed in lean body mass in either category. No group and gender differences were detected in any of the primary parameters. For the secondary parameters, a significantly higher adherence was observed in the time-restricted feeding group (p < 0.05). In addition, it can be assumed that an adherence of 60–70% cannot lead to positive changes in body composition. In conclusion, there were no differences between the two diets on the primary parameters. However, it seemed that time-restricted feeding can be better implemented in everyday life, and an adherence of more than 70% is required for both diets to prove effective. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-restricted feeding; continuous energy restriction; macronutrient-based diet; intermitted fasting; body composition; lean body mass; fat mass time-restricted feeding; continuous energy restriction; macronutrient-based diet; intermitted fasting; body composition; lean body mass; fat mass
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MDPI and ACS Style

Isenmann, E.; Dissemond, J.; Geisler, S. The Effects of a Macronutrient-Based Diet and Time-Restricted Feeding (16:8) on Body Composition in Physically Active Individuals—A 14-Week Randomised Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3122. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093122

AMA Style

Isenmann E, Dissemond J, Geisler S. The Effects of a Macronutrient-Based Diet and Time-Restricted Feeding (16:8) on Body Composition in Physically Active Individuals—A 14-Week Randomised Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2021; 13(9):3122. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093122

Chicago/Turabian Style

Isenmann, Eduard, Joshua Dissemond, and Stephan Geisler. 2021. "The Effects of a Macronutrient-Based Diet and Time-Restricted Feeding (16:8) on Body Composition in Physically Active Individuals—A 14-Week Randomised Controlled Trial" Nutrients 13, no. 9: 3122. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093122

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