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Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121948

Intakes of Zinc, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Relationship with Glycemic Control

1
Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, Department of Medicine, Federal University of Sergipe, Rua Cláudio Batista, S/N, Cidade Nova, Aracaju, 49060-108 Sergipe, Brazil
2
Nutrition Sciences Postgraduate Program, Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Sergipe, Avenida Marechal Rondon, S/N, Jardim Rosa Elze, São Cristovão, 49100-000 Sergipe, Brazil
3
Undergraduate Nutrition Program, Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Sergipe, Avenida Marechal Rondon, S/N, Jardim Rosa Elze, São Cristovão, 49100-000 Sergipe, Brazil
4
Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Sergipe, Avenida Governador Marcelo Déda, 13, Centro, Lagarto, 49400-000 Sergipe, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Abstract

The role of the concomitant intake of zinc, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the glycemic control of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has not been extensively discussed. We evaluated the relationship between the dietary intake of these micronutrients and glycemic markers in 95 individuals with T2DM (mean age 48.6 ± 8.4 years). Hierarchical grouping analysis was used to divide the individuals into two clusters according to their micronutrient intake, and differences between clusters were statistically assessed. Effects of individual and combination intake of micronutrients on glycated hemoglobin percentage (%HbA1c) were assessed using multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression analysis. We observed a high likelihood of inadequate intake of the four micronutrients. The group with lower micronutrient intake (cluster 1) displayed higher %HbA1c (p = 0.006) and triglyceride (p = 0.010) levels. High %HbA1c showed an association with cluster 1 (odds ratio (OR) = 3.041, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.131; 8.175) and time of T2DM diagnosis (OR = 1.155, 95% CI = 1.043; 1.278). Potassium (β = −0.001, p = 0.017) and magnesium (β = −0.007, p = 0.015) intakes were inversely associated with %HbA1c. Reduced concomitant intake of the four micronutrients studied proved to be associated with risk of increased %HbA1c in individuals with T2DM, which was particularly predicted by magnesium and potassium intakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: micronutrients; trace elements; food; glycated hemoglobin A; hyperglycemia micronutrients; trace elements; food; glycated hemoglobin A; hyperglycemia
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Brandão-Lima, P.N.; Carvalho, G.B.; Santos, R.K.F.; Santos, B.C.; Dias-Vasconcelos, N.L.; Rocha, V.S.; Barbosa, K.B.F.; Pires, L.V. Intakes of Zinc, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Relationship with Glycemic Control. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1948.

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