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Comment published on 11 September 2019, see Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2182.
Open AccessReview

Extra-Skeletal Effects of Vitamin D

Pediatric Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
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Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071460
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
The vitamin D receptor is expressed in multiple cells of the body (other than osteoblasts), including beta cells and cells involved in immune modulation (such as mononuclear cells, and activated T and B lymphocytes), and most organs in the body including the brain, heart, skin, gonads, prostate, breast, and gut. Consequently, the extra-skeletal impact of vitamin D deficiency has been an active area of research. While epidemiological and case-control studies have often suggested a link between vitamin D deficiency and conditions such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, connective tissue disorders, inflammatory bowel disorders, chronic hepatitis, food allergies, asthma and respiratory infections, and cancer, interventional studies for the most part have failed to confirm a causative link. This review examines available evidence to date for the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D deficiency, with a focus on randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes; metabolic syndrome; autoimmune; children; cancer vitamin D; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes; metabolic syndrome; autoimmune; children; cancer
MDPI and ACS Style

Marino, R.; Misra, M. Extra-Skeletal Effects of Vitamin D. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1460.

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