Next Article in Journal
Six Weeks of Calorie Restriction Improves Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese and Overweight Former Athletes
Next Article in Special Issue
The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on its Metabolism and the Vitamin D Metabolite Ratio
Previous Article in Journal
Amino Acids and Hypertension in Adults
Previous Article in Special Issue
Association between Dietary Calcium Intake and Adiposity in Male Adolescents
Comment published on 11 September 2019, see Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2182.
Open AccessReview

Extra-Skeletal Effects of Vitamin D

Pediatric Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1460;
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
The vitamin D receptor is expressed in multiple cells of the body (other than osteoblasts), including beta cells and cells involved in immune modulation (such as mononuclear cells, and activated T and B lymphocytes), and most organs in the body including the brain, heart, skin, gonads, prostate, breast, and gut. Consequently, the extra-skeletal impact of vitamin D deficiency has been an active area of research. While epidemiological and case-control studies have often suggested a link between vitamin D deficiency and conditions such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, connective tissue disorders, inflammatory bowel disorders, chronic hepatitis, food allergies, asthma and respiratory infections, and cancer, interventional studies for the most part have failed to confirm a causative link. This review examines available evidence to date for the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D deficiency, with a focus on randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes; metabolic syndrome; autoimmune; children; cancer vitamin D; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes; metabolic syndrome; autoimmune; children; cancer
MDPI and ACS Style

Marino, R.; Misra, M. Extra-Skeletal Effects of Vitamin D. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1460.

AMA Style

Marino R, Misra M. Extra-Skeletal Effects of Vitamin D. Nutrients. 2019; 11(7):1460.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marino, Rose; Misra, Madhusmita. 2019. "Extra-Skeletal Effects of Vitamin D" Nutrients 11, no. 7: 1460.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop