Vitamin D and the Risk of Depression: A Causal Relationship? Findings from a Mendelian Randomization Study
AbstractWhile observational studies show an association between 25(OH)vitamin D concentrations and depressive symptoms, intervention studies, which examine the preventive effects of vitamin D supplementation on the development of depression, are lacking. To estimate the role of lowered 25(OH)vitamin D concentrations in the etiology of depressive disorders, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study on depression, i.e., “depressive symptoms” (DS, n = 161,460) and “broad depression” (BD, n = 113,769 cases and 208,811 controls). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were genome-wide significantly associated with 25(OH)vitamin D concentrations in 79,366 subjects from the SUNLIGHT genome-wide association study (GWAS), were used as an instrumental variable. None of the six SNPs was associated with DS or BD (all p > 0.05). MR analysis revealed no causal effects of 25(OH)vitamin D concentration, either on DS (inverse variance weighted (IVW); b = 0.025, SE = 0.038, p = 0.52) or on BD (IVW; b = 0.020, SE = 0.012, p = 0.10). Sensitivity analyses confirmed that 25(OH)vitamin D concentrations were not significantly associated with DS or BD. The findings from this MR study indicate no causal relationship between vitamin D concentrations and depressive symptoms, or broad depression. Conflicting findings from observational studies might have resulted from residual confounding or reverse causation. View Full-Text
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Libuda, L.; Laabs, B.-H.; Ludwig, C.; Bühlmeier, J.; Antel, J.; Hinney, A.; Naaresh, R.; Föcker, M.; Hebebrand, J.; König, I.R.; Peters, T. Vitamin D and the Risk of Depression: A Causal Relationship? Findings from a Mendelian Randomization Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1085.
Libuda L, Laabs B-H, Ludwig C, Bühlmeier J, Antel J, Hinney A, Naaresh R, Föcker M, Hebebrand J, König IR, Peters T. Vitamin D and the Risk of Depression: A Causal Relationship? Findings from a Mendelian Randomization Study. Nutrients. 2019; 11(5):1085.Chicago/Turabian Style
Libuda, Lars; Laabs, Björn-Hergen; Ludwig, Christine; Bühlmeier, Judith; Antel, Jochen; Hinney, Anke; Naaresh, Roaa; Föcker, Manuel; Hebebrand, Johannes; König, Inke R.; Peters, Triinu. 2019. "Vitamin D and the Risk of Depression: A Causal Relationship? Findings from a Mendelian Randomization Study." Nutrients 11, no. 5: 1085.
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