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Article

Muscular Fitness Mediates the Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Areal Bone Mineral Density in Children with Overweight/Obesity

1
PROFITH “PROmoting FITness and Health through Physical Activity” Research Group, Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development Research Group, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
3
Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Health and Social Research Center, 16002 Cuenca, Spain
4
Department of Pediatrics, San Cecilio Hospital, 18012 Granada, Spain
5
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
6
The Institute of Biomedicine Research (Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (IBS), 18014 Granada, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2760; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112760
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 November 2019 / Published: 14 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium, Vitamin D and Health)
The association between vitamin D [25(OH)D] and bone health has been widely studied in children. Given that 25(OH)D and bone health are associated with muscular fitness, this could be the cornerstone to understand this relationship. Hence, the purpose of this work was to examine if the relation between 25(OH)D and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was mediated by muscular fitness in children with overweight/obesity. Eighty-one children (8-11 years, 53 boys) with overweight/obesity were included. Body composition was measured with dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), 25(OH)D was measured in plasma samples and muscular fitness was assessed by handgrip and standing long jump tests (averaged z-scores were used to represent overall muscular fitness). Simple mediation analyses controlling for sex, years from peak height velocity, lean mass and season were carried out. Our results showed that muscular fitness z-score, handgrip strength and standing long jump acted as mediators in the relationship between 25(OH)D and aBMD outcomes (percentages of mediation ranged from 49.6% to 68.3%). In conclusion, muscular fitness mediates the association of 25(OH)D with aBMD in children with overweight/obesity. Therefore, 25(OH)D benefits to bone health could be dependent on muscular fitness in young ages. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitamin D; strength; bone health; mediation; childhood; obesity Vitamin D; strength; bone health; mediation; childhood; obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gil-Cosano, J.J.; Gracia-Marco, L.; Ubago-Guisado, E.; Migueles, J.H.; Mora-Gonzalez, J.; Escolano-Margarit, M.V.; Gómez-Vida, J.; Maldonado, J.; Ortega, F.B. Muscular Fitness Mediates the Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Areal Bone Mineral Density in Children with Overweight/Obesity. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2760. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112760

AMA Style

Gil-Cosano JJ, Gracia-Marco L, Ubago-Guisado E, Migueles JH, Mora-Gonzalez J, Escolano-Margarit MV, Gómez-Vida J, Maldonado J, Ortega FB. Muscular Fitness Mediates the Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Areal Bone Mineral Density in Children with Overweight/Obesity. Nutrients. 2019; 11(11):2760. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112760

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gil-Cosano, Jose J., Luis Gracia-Marco, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Jairo H. Migueles, Jose Mora-Gonzalez, María V. Escolano-Margarit, José Gómez-Vida, José Maldonado, and Francisco B. Ortega 2019. "Muscular Fitness Mediates the Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Areal Bone Mineral Density in Children with Overweight/Obesity" Nutrients 11, no. 11: 2760. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112760

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