Special Issue "Dietary Plant Origin Bio-Active Compounds, Intestinal Functionality and Microbiome"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Elad Tako
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Stocking Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7201, USA
Interests: dietary micronutrients; Fe and Zn deficiencies; anemia; Zn status biomarkers; bioactive compounds; prebiotics; microbiome; nutrigenomics; intestinal functionality and development; polyphenols; in vivo models of human nutrition
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant-based diets contain a plethora of metabolites that may impact on health and disease prevention. Most are focused on the potential bioactivity and nutritional relevance of several classes of phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, phyto-oestrogens, and frucrooligo-saccharides. These compounds are found in fruit, vegetables, and herbs. Daily intakes of some of these compounds may exceed 100 mg. Moreover, intestinal bacterial activity may transform complex compounds such as anthocyanins, procyanidins, and isoflavones into simple phenolic metabolites. The colon is thus a rich source of potentially active phenolic acids that may impact both locally and systemically on gut health. Further, nondigestible fiber (prebiotics) are dietary substrates that selectively promote proliferation and/or activity of health-promoting bacterial populations in the colon. Prebiotics, such as inulin, raffinose, and stachyose, have a proven ability to promote the abundance of intestinal bacterial populations, which may provide additional health benefits to the host. Further, various pulse seed soluble (fiber) extracts are responsible for improving gastrointestinal motility, intestinal functionality and morphology, and mineral absorption. Studies indicated that the consumption of seed origin soluble extracts can upregulate the expression of BBM proteins that contribute for digestion and absorption of nutrients. The soluble extracts can positively affect intestinal health by increasing the mucus production, goblet cells number/diameter, villus surface area, and crypt depth. These functional and morphological effects appears to occur due to the increased motility of the digestive tract, leading to hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy of muscle cells. Plant origin soluble extracts may act, directly or indirectly, as a factor that increases mineral solubility and, therefore, dietary bioavailability. This occurs due to fiber fermentation and bacterial production of SCFA that reduces intestinal pH, inhibits the growth of potentially pathogenic bacterial population and increases the solubility and, therefore, absorption of minerals. The SCFA can increase the proliferation of epithelial cells, which, in return, increase the absorptive surface area, which contributes to the absorption of nutrients. Several phenolic acids and other phytochemicals affect the expression and activity of enzymes involved in the production of inflammatory mediators of pathways thought to be important in the development of gut disorders including colon cancer. However, it is still unclear as to which of these compounds are beneficial to gut health. Hence, the aim of the current Special Issue is to further explore the interactions between dietary plant origin bioactive compounds, their potential effects on the intestinal bacterial populations, and overall intestinal functionality and gut health.

Dr. Elad Tako
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Bioactive compounds
  • Fiber
  • Prebiotic
  • Polyphenols
  • Phytochemicals
  • Probiotic
  • Brush border membrane functionality
  • Intestinal microbiome

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial
Dietary Plant-Origin Bio-Active Compounds, Intestinal Functionality, and Microbiome
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113223 - 22 Oct 2020
Abstract
In recent years, plant-origin bio-active compounds in foods (staple crops, fruit, vegetables, and others) have been gaining interest, and processes to consider them for public health recommendations are being presented and discussed in the literature. However, at times, it may be challenging to [...] Read more.
In recent years, plant-origin bio-active compounds in foods (staple crops, fruit, vegetables, and others) have been gaining interest, and processes to consider them for public health recommendations are being presented and discussed in the literature. However, at times, it may be challenging to demonstrate causality, and there often is not a single compound–single effect relationship. Furthermore, it was suggested that health benefits may be due to metabolites produced by the host or gut microbiome rather than the food constituent per se. Over the years, compounds that were investigated were shown to increase gut microbial diversity, improve endothelial function, improve cognitive function, reduce bone loss, and many others. More recently, an additional and significant body of evidence further demonstrated the nutritional role and potential effects that plant-origin bio-active compounds might have on intestinal functionality (specifically the duodenal brush border membrane, morphology, and the abundance of health-promoting bacterial populations). Hence, the special issue “Dietary Plant-Origin Bio-Active Compounds, Intestinal Functionality, and Microbiome” comprises 11 peer-reviewed papers on the most recent evidence regarding the potential dietary intake and effects of plant-origin bio-active compounds on intestinal functionality, primarily in the context of brush border functional proteins (enzymes and transporters), mineral (and other nutrients) dietary bioavailability, and the intestinal microbiome. Original contributions and literature reviews further demonstrated the potential dietary relevance that plant bio-active compounds hold in human health and development. This editorial provides a brief and concise overview that addresses and summarizes the content of the Dietary Plant-Origin Bio-Active Compounds, Intestinal Functionality, and Microbiome special issue. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Fructose Consumption by Adult Rats Exposed to Dexamethasone In Utero Changes the Phenotype of Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Exacerbates Intestinal Gluconeogenesis
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3062; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103062 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fructose consumption by rodents modulates both hepatic and intestinal lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that in utero exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) interacts with fructose consumption during adult life to exacerbate hepatic steatosis in rats. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Fructose consumption by rodents modulates both hepatic and intestinal lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that in utero exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) interacts with fructose consumption during adult life to exacerbate hepatic steatosis in rats. The aim of this study was to clarify if adult rats born to DEX-treated mothers would display differences in intestinal gluconeogenesis after excessive fructose intake. To address this issue, female Wistar rats were treated with DEX during pregnancy and control (CTL) mothers were kept untreated. Adult offspring born to CTL and DEX-treated mothers were assigned to receive either tap water (Control-Standard Chow (CTL-SC) and Dexamethasone-Standard Chow (DEX-SC)) or 10% fructose in the drinking water (CTL-fructose and DEX-fructose). Fructose consumption lasted for 80 days. All rats were subjected to a 40 h fasting before sample collection. We found that DEX-fructose rats have increased glucose and reduced lactate in the portal blood. Jejunum samples of DEX-fructose rats have enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression and activity, higher facilitated glucose transporter member 2 (GLUT2) and facilitated glucose transporter member 5 (GLUT5) content, and increased villous height, crypt depth, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining. The current data reveal that rats born to DEX-treated mothers that consume fructose during adult life have increased intestinal gluconeogenesis while recapitulating metabolic and morphological features of the neonatal jejunum phenotype. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alterations in the Intestinal Morphology, Gut Microbiota, and Trace Mineral Status Following Intra-Amniotic Administration (Gallus gallus) of Teff (Eragrostis tef) Seed Extracts
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3020; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103020 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The consumption of teff (Eragrostis tef), a gluten-free cereal grain, has increased due to its dense nutrient composition including complex carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids, trace minerals (especially Fe), and phytochemicals. This study utilized the clinically-validated Gallus gallus intra amniotic feeding model [...] Read more.
The consumption of teff (Eragrostis tef), a gluten-free cereal grain, has increased due to its dense nutrient composition including complex carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids, trace minerals (especially Fe), and phytochemicals. This study utilized the clinically-validated Gallus gallus intra amniotic feeding model to assess the effects of intra-amniotic administration of teff extracts versus controls using seven groups: (1) non-injected; (2) 18Ω H2O injected; (3) 5% inulin; (4) teff extract 1%; (5) teff extract 2.5%; (6) teff extract 5%; and (7) teff extract 7.5%. The treatment groups were compared to each other and to controls. Our data demonstrated a significant improvement in hepatic iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) concentration and LA:DGLA ratio without concomitant serum concentration changes, up-regulation of various Fe and Zn brush border membrane proteins, and beneficial morphological changes to duodenal villi and goblet cells. No significant taxonomic alterations were observed using 16S rRNA sequencing of the cecal microbiota. Several important bacterial metabolic pathways were differentially enriched in the teff group, likely due to teff’s high relative fiber concentration, demonstrating an important bacterial-host interaction that contributed to improvements in the physiological status of Fe and Zn. Therefore, teff appeared to represent a promising staple food crop and should be further evaluated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diet, Perceived Intestinal Well-Being and Compositions of Fecal Microbiota and Short Chain Fatty Acids in Oat-Using Subjects with Celiac Disease or Gluten Sensitivity
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092570 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A gluten-free diet may result in high fat and low fiber intake and thus lead to unbalanced microbiota. This study characterized fecal microbiota profiles by 16S MiSeq sequencing among oat-using healthy adult subjects (n = 14) or adult subjects with celiac disease [...] Read more.
A gluten-free diet may result in high fat and low fiber intake and thus lead to unbalanced microbiota. This study characterized fecal microbiota profiles by 16S MiSeq sequencing among oat-using healthy adult subjects (n = 14) or adult subjects with celiac disease (CeD) (n = 19) or non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) (n = 10). Selected microbial metabolites, self-reported 4d food diaries and perceived gut symptoms were compared. Subjects with NCGS experienced the highest amount of gut symptoms and received more energy from fat and less from carbohydrates than healthy and CeD subjects. Oat consumption resulted in reaching the lower limit of the recommended fiber intake. Frequent consumption of gluten-free pure oats did not result in microbiota dysbiosis in subjects with CeD or NCGS. Thus, the high number of gut symptoms in NCGS subjects was not linked to the microbiota. The proportion of fecal acetate was higher in healthy when compared to NCGS subjects, which may be linked to a higher abundance of Bifidobacterium in the control group compared to NCGS and CeD subjects. Propionate, butyrate and ammonia production and β-glucuronidase activity were comparable among the study groups. The results suggest that pure oats have great potential as the basis of a gluten-free diet and warrant further studies in minor microbiota disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low Phytate Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Improve Iron Status, Gut Microbiome, and Brush Border Membrane Functionality In Vivo (Gallus gallus)
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2563; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092563 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The inclusion of pulses in traditional wheat-based food products is increasing as the food industry and consumers are recognizing the nutritional benefits due to the high protein, antioxidant activity, and good source of dietary fiber of pulses. Iron deficiency is a significant global [...] Read more.
The inclusion of pulses in traditional wheat-based food products is increasing as the food industry and consumers are recognizing the nutritional benefits due to the high protein, antioxidant activity, and good source of dietary fiber of pulses. Iron deficiency is a significant global health challenge, affecting approximately 30% of the world’s population. Dietary iron deficiency is the foremost cause of anemia, a condition that harms cognitive development and increases maternal and infant mortality. This study intended to demonstrate the potential efficacy of low-phytate biofortified pea varieties on dietary iron (Fe) bioavailability, as well as on intestinal microbiome, energetic status, and brush border membrane (BBM) functionality in vivo (Gallus gallus). We hypothesized that the low-phytate biofortified peas would significantly improve Fe bioavailability, BBM functionality, and the prevalence of beneficial bacterial populations. A six-week efficacy feeding (n = 12) was conducted to compare four low-phytate biofortified pea diets with control pea diet (CDC Bronco), as well as a no-pea diet. During the feeding trial, hemoglobin (Hb), body-Hb Fe, feed intake, and body weight were monitored. Upon the completion of the study, hepatic Fe and ferritin, pectoral glycogen, duodenal gene expression, and cecum bacterial population analyses were conducted. The results indicated that certain low-phytate pea varieties provided greater Fe bioavailability and moderately improved Fe status, while they also had significant effects on gut microbiota and duodenal brush border membrane functionality. Our findings provide further evidence that the low-phytate pea varieties appear to improve Fe physiological status and gut microbiota in vivo, and they highlight the likelihood that this strategy can further improve the efficacy and safety of the crop biofortification and mineral bioavailability approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Non-Digestible, Carrot-Derived Polysaccharide (cRG-I) Selectively Modulates the Human Gut Microbiota while Promoting Gut Barrier Integrity: An Integrated In Vitro Approach
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071917 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Modulation of the gut microbiome as a means to improve human health has recently gained increasing interest. In this study, it was investigated whether cRG-I, a carrot-derived pectic polysaccharide, enriched in rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) classifies as a potential prebiotic ingredient using novel in vitro [...] Read more.
Modulation of the gut microbiome as a means to improve human health has recently gained increasing interest. In this study, it was investigated whether cRG-I, a carrot-derived pectic polysaccharide, enriched in rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) classifies as a potential prebiotic ingredient using novel in vitro models. First, digestion methods involving α-amylase/brush border enzymes demonstrated the non-digestibility of cRG-I by host-derived enzymes versus digestible (starch/maltose) and non-digestible controls (inulin). Then, a recently developed short-term (48 h) colonic incubation strategy was applied and revealed that cRG-I fermentation increased levels of health-promoting short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; mainly acetate and propionate) and lactate comparable but not identical to the reference prebiotic inulin. Upon upgrading this fermentation model by inclusion of a simulated mucosal environment while applying quantitative 16S-targeted Illumina sequencing, cRG-I was additionally shown to specifically stimulate operational taxonomic units (OTUs) related to health-associated species such as Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bacteroides dorei, Bacteroides ovatus, Roseburia hominis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Eubacterium hallii. Finally, in a novel model to assess host–microbe interactions (Caco-2/peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) co-culture) fermented cRG-I increased barrier integrity while decreasing markers for inflammation. In conclusion, by using novel in vitro models, cRG-I was identified as a promising prebiotic candidate to proceed to clinical studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Evaluation of Prebiotic Properties of a Commercial Artichoke Inflorescence Extract Revealed Bifidogenic Effects
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1552; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061552 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Prebiotics used as a dietary supplement, stimulate health-related gut microbiota (e.g., bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, etc.). This study evaluated potential prebiotic effects of an artichoke aqueous dry extract (AADE) using in vitro gut model based on the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME [...] Read more.
Background: Prebiotics used as a dietary supplement, stimulate health-related gut microbiota (e.g., bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, etc.). This study evaluated potential prebiotic effects of an artichoke aqueous dry extract (AADE) using in vitro gut model based on the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®). Methods: Short-term colonic fermentations (48 h) of AADE, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), and a blank were performed. Microbial metabolites were assessed at 0, 6, 24, and 48 h of colonic incubation via measuring pH, gas pressure, lactate, ammonium, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels. Community composition was assessed via targeted qPCRs. Results: After 24 and 48 h of incubation, bifidobacteria levels increased 25-fold with AADE (p < 0.05) and >100-fold with FOS (p < 0.05) compared to blank. Lactobacillus spp. levels only tended to increase with AADE, whereas they increased 10-fold with FOS. At 6 h, pH decreased with AADE and FOS and remained stable until 48 h; however, gas pressure increased significantly till the end of study. Acetate, propionate, and total SCFA production increased significantly with both at all time-points. Lactate levels initially increased but branched SCFA and ammonium levels remained low till 48 h. Conclusion: AADE displayed prebiotic potential by exerting bifidogenic effects that stimulated production of health-related microbial metabolites, which is potentially due to inulin in AADE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Possible Protective Effects of TA on the Cancerous Effect of Mesotrione
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051343 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The interaction of different food ingredients is now a very important and often emerging topic of research. Pesticides and their breakdown products, which may be carcinogenic, are one of the frequently occurring food contaminants. Compounds like traumatic acid (TA), which originates from plants, [...] Read more.
The interaction of different food ingredients is now a very important and often emerging topic of research. Pesticides and their breakdown products, which may be carcinogenic, are one of the frequently occurring food contaminants. Compounds like traumatic acid (TA), which originates from plants, are beneficial, antioxidant, and anticancer food ingredients. Previously obtained results from our research group indicated antioxidative in normal human fibroblasts and prooxidative in cancer cells activity of TA. Since the literature data show an undoubted connection between the presence of pesticides in food and the increased incidence of different types of cancers, we attempted to clarify whether TA can abolish the effect of mesotrione stimulating the growth of cancer cells. In order to study the influence of mesotrione on breast cancer cells, we decided to carry out cytotoxicity studies of environmentally significant herbicide concentrations. We also analyzed the cytotoxicity of TA and mixtures of these two compounds. After selecting the most effective concentrations of both components tested, we conducted analyses of oxidative stress parameters and apoptosis in ZR-75-1 cells. The obtained results allow us to conclude that traumatic acid by stimulating oxidative stress and apoptosis contributes to inhibiting the growth and development of cells of the ZR-75-1 line strengthened by mesotrione. This may mean that TA is a compound with pro-oxidative and proapoptotic effects in cancer cells whose development and proliferation are stimulated by the presence of mesotrione. The presented results may be helpful in answering the question of whether herbicides and their residues in edibles may constitute potential threat for people diagnosed with cancer and whether compounds with proven pro-oxidative effects on cancer cells can have potential cytoprotective functions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Is Acrylamide as Harmful as We Think? A New Look at the Impact of Acrylamide on the Viability of Beneficial Intestinal Bacteria of the Genus Lactobacillus
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041157 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The impact of acrylamide (AA) on microorganisms is still not clearly understood as AA has not induced mutations in bacteria, but its epoxide analog has been reported to be mutagenic in Salmonella strains. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether AA [...] Read more.
The impact of acrylamide (AA) on microorganisms is still not clearly understood as AA has not induced mutations in bacteria, but its epoxide analog has been reported to be mutagenic in Salmonella strains. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether AA could influence the growth and viability of beneficial intestinal bacteria. The impact of AA at concentrations of 0–100 µg/mL on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was examined. Bacterial growth was evaluated by the culture method, while the percentage of alive, injured, and dead bacteria was assessed by flow cytometry after 24 h and 48 h of incubation. We demonstrated that acrylamide could influence the viability of the LAB, but its impact depended on both the AA concentration and the bacterial species. The viability of probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 increased while that of Lactobacillus plantarum decreased; Lactobacillus brevis was less sensitive. Moreover, AA influenced the morphology of L. plantarum, probably by blocking cell separation during division. We concluded that acrylamide present in food could modulate the viability of LAB and, therefore, could influence their activity in food products or, after colonization, in the human intestine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biological Activity of New Cichoric Acid–Metal Complexes in Bacterial Strains, Yeast-Like Fungi, and Human Cell Cultures In Vitro
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010154 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Cichoric acid (CA) belongs to the group of polyphenols, which occurs in a variety of plant species and it is characterized by anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. Selected polyphenols have the ability to combine with metal ions to form chelate complexes that reveal [...] Read more.
Cichoric acid (CA) belongs to the group of polyphenols, which occurs in a variety of plant species and it is characterized by anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. Selected polyphenols have the ability to combine with metal ions to form chelate complexes that reveal greater biological activity than free compounds. In order to study possible antimicrobial and anticancer effect of CA and its complexes with copper(II)/zinc(II)/nickel(II)/cobalt(II) we decided to conduct cytotoxicity tests to estimate the most effective concentrations of tested compounds. The results of the presented study demonstrated, for the first time, that the treatment with newly synthesized CA-metal complexes has anticancer and antimicrobial effects, which were examined in seven different cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cell lines, A375 melanoma cell line, DLD-1 cell line, LN-229 cell line, FN cell line; five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, yeast Sacchcaromyces boulardii, and pathogenic yeast-like fungi Candida albicans. The presented study indicates that CA-metal complexes could be considered as a potential supplementary tool in anticancer therapy, however, because of their possible toxic activity on fibroblasts, they should be used with caution. Some of the tested complexes have also preservative properties and positive influence on normal non-pathogenic microorganisms, which was demonstrated in selected microbial strains, therefore they may serve as food preservatives of natural origin with cytoprotective properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Soluble Extracts from Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Affect Brush Border Membrane Functionality, Morphology and Intestinal Bacterial Populations In Vivo (Gallus gallus)
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102457 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
This study assessed and compared the effects of the intra-amniotic administration of various concentrations of soluble extracts from chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) on the Fe and Zn status, brush border membrane functionality, intestinal morphology, and intestinal bacterial populations, in vivo. The [...] Read more.
This study assessed and compared the effects of the intra-amniotic administration of various concentrations of soluble extracts from chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) on the Fe and Zn status, brush border membrane functionality, intestinal morphology, and intestinal bacterial populations, in vivo. The hypothesis was that chia seed soluble extracts will affect the intestinal morphology, functionality and intestinal bacterial populations. By using the Gallus gallus model and the intra-amniotic administration approach, seven treatment groups (non-injected, 18 Ω H2O, 40 mg/mL inulin, non-injected, 5 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, 25 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL of chia seed soluble extracts) were utilized. At hatch, the cecum, duodenum, liver, pectoral muscle and blood samples were collected for assessment of the relative abundance of the gut microflora, relative expression of Fe- and Zn-related genes and brush border membrane functionality and morphology, relative expression of lipids-related genes, glycogen, and hemoglobin levels, respectively. This study demonstrated that the intra-amniotic administration of chia seed soluble extracts increased (p < 0.05) the villus surface area, villus length, villus width and the number of goblet cells. Further, we observed an increase (p < 0.05) in zinc transporter 1 (ZnT1) and duodenal cytochrome b (Dcytb) proteins gene expression. Our results suggest that the dietary consumption of chia seeds may improve intestinal health and functionality and may indirectly improve iron and zinc intestinal absorption. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Non-Dairy Fermented Beverages as Potential Carriers to Ensure Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Bioactive Compounds Arrival to the Gut and Their Health Benefits
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061666 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
In alignment with Hippocrates’ aphorisms “Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food” and “All diseases begin in the gut”, recent studies have suggested that healthy diets should include fermented foods to temporally enhance live microorganisms in our gut. As a [...] Read more.
In alignment with Hippocrates’ aphorisms “Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food” and “All diseases begin in the gut”, recent studies have suggested that healthy diets should include fermented foods to temporally enhance live microorganisms in our gut. As a result, consumers are now demanding this type of food and fermented food has gained popularity. However, certain sectors of population, such as those allergic to milk proteins, lactose intolerant and strict vegetarians, cannot consume dairy products. Therefore, a need has arisen in order to offer consumers an alternative to fermented dairy products by exploring new non-dairy matrices as probiotics carriers. Accordingly, this review aims to explore the benefits of different fermented non-dairy beverages (legume, cereal, pseudocereal, fruit and vegetable), as potential carriers of bioactive compounds (generated during the fermentation process), prebiotics and different probiotic bacteria, providing protection to ensure that their viability is in the range of 106–107 CFU/mL at the consumption time, in order that they reach the intestine in high amounts and improve human health through modulation of the gut microbiome. Full article
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