Updates on the Dietary Bioavailability of Plant Bioactives: Its Potential Advantages, Application, and Overall Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 June 2024 | Viewed by 4265

Special Issue Editor

USDA-ARS, Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture and Health, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Interests: dietary micronutrients; Fe and Zn deficiencies; anemia; Zn status biomarkers; bioactive compounds; prebiotics; microbiome; nutrigenomics; intestinal functionality and development; polyphenols; in vivo models of human nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant-based diets contain a plethora of metabolites that can impact intestinal functionality, morphology, and the microbiome, which may also lead to an impact on overall health and disease prevention. Plant bioactive compounds, when consumed as part of our diet, influence human health. They include secondary metabolites such as (poly)phenols, carotenoids, glucosinolates, alkaloids, and terpenes. Although much knowledge has been gained, there is still a need for studies to unravel the effects of plant bioactives on intestinal functionality, morphology, the microbiome, and, in particular, the intestinal brush border membrane, the duodenal digestive, and the absorptive surface. Further, additional investigations are needed in regard to the link between dietary plant bioactives and cardiometabolic health at the individual level and the potential alleviation of other physiological conditions, including obesity, the double burden of malnutrition (with emphasis on Iron, Zinc, and Vitamins A deficiencies)  via dietary interventions and by using cutting-edge high-resolution and data-rich holistic approaches. ThisSpecial Issue aims to review the prospects of microbiomics, nutrigenomics, nutriepigenomics, and metabolomics to assess the response to plant bioactive consumption while considering interindividual variability. Insights for future research in the field of personalized nutrition are also discussed.

Dr. Elad Tako
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • plant bioactives
  • phytochemicals
  • fiber
  • intestinal functionality
  • microbiome
  • chronic disease
  • dietary deficiency

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 6697 KiB  
Article
Oleocanthal Protects C2C12 Myotubes against the Pro-Catabolic and Anti-Myogenic Action of Stimuli Able to Induce Muscle Wasting In Vivo
by Daniela De Stefanis, Andrea Balestrini and Paola Costelli
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091302 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Oleocanthal (OC) is a monophenol of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) endowed with antibiotic, cardioprotective and anticancer effects, among others, mainly in view of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OC has been largely investigated in terms of its anticancer activity, in Alzheimer disease and [...] Read more.
Oleocanthal (OC) is a monophenol of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) endowed with antibiotic, cardioprotective and anticancer effects, among others, mainly in view of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OC has been largely investigated in terms of its anticancer activity, in Alzheimer disease and in collagen-induced arthritis; however, the possibility that it can also affect muscle biology has been totally overlooked so far. This study is the first to describe that OC modulates alterations induced in C2C12 myotubes by stimuli known to induce muscle wasting in vivo, namely TNF-α, or in the medium conditioned by the C26 cachexia-inducing tumor (CM-C26). C2C12 myotubes were exposed to CM-C26 or TNF-α in the presence or absence of OC for 24 and 48 h and analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. In combination with TNF-α or CM-C26, OC was revealed to be able to restore both the myotube’s original size and morphology and normal levels of both atrogin-1 and MuRF1. OC seems unable to impinge on the autophagic–lysosomal proteolytic system or protein synthesis. Modulations towards normal levels of the expression of molecules involved in myogenesis, such as Pax7, myogenin and MyHC, were also observed in the myotube cultures exposed to OC and TNF-α or CM-C26. In conclusion, the data presented here show that OC exerts a protective action in C2C12 myotubes exposed to TNF-α or CM-C26, with mechanisms likely involving the downregulation of ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent proteolysis and the partial relief of myogenic differentiation impairment. Full article
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19 pages, 8923 KiB  
Article
Variation, during Shelf Life, of Functional Properties of Biscuits Enriched with Fibers Extracted from Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.)
by Francisco José San José, Montserrat Collado-Fernández and Pino P. Álvarez-Castellanos
Nutrients 2023, 15(15), 3329; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15153329 - 26 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
To boost revaluation of industrial by-products of artichoke, this research tries to determine the stability throughout storage of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in biscuits enriched with fiber-rich powders extracted from b y-products of artichokes (FRPA). To determine the most stable extraction [...] Read more.
To boost revaluation of industrial by-products of artichoke, this research tries to determine the stability throughout storage of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in biscuits enriched with fiber-rich powders extracted from b y-products of artichokes (FRPA). To determine the most stable extraction method, biscuits were formulated with FRPA extracted by two different environmentally friendly extraction solvents: water (W) and a solution of 1% CaCl2∙5H2O (CA) and compared with biscuits made with pea fiber (P) and control biscuits (B) without fiber added. Initially and during storage, the biscuits enriched with FRPA (W, CA) showed a higher content of bioavailable polyphenols and antioxidant activity compared to the control biscuits (B) and the reference fiber (P, pea fiber). In conclusion, FRPA are an excellent source of bioavailable fiber with antioxidant activity, but especially the FRPA extracted with 1% CaCl2∙5H2O (CA), and they could present a good alternative to the use of pea fiber. Full article
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16 pages, 1692 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Interactions between Zinc and Vitamin A on Intestinal Functionality, Morphology, and the Microbiome In Vivo (Gallus gallus)
by Cydney Jackson, Nikolai Kolba and Elad Tako
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2754; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122754 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
Dietary deficiencies in zinc (Zn) and vitamin A (VA) are among the leading micronutrient deficiencies globally and previous research has proposed a notable interaction between Zn and VA physiological status. This study aimed to assess the effects of zinc and vitamin A (isolated [...] Read more.
Dietary deficiencies in zinc (Zn) and vitamin A (VA) are among the leading micronutrient deficiencies globally and previous research has proposed a notable interaction between Zn and VA physiological status. This study aimed to assess the effects of zinc and vitamin A (isolated and combined) on intestinal functionality and morphology, and the gut microbiome (Gallus gallus). The study included nine treatment groups (n~11)—no-injection (NI); H2O; 0.5% oil; normal zinc (40 mg/kg ZnSO4) (ZN); low zinc (20 mg/kg) (ZL); normal retinoid (1500 IU/kg retinyl palmitate) (RN); low retinoid (100 IU/kg) (RL); normal zinc and retinoid (40 mg/kg; 1500 IU/kg) (ZNRN); low zinc and retinoid (ZLRL) (20 mg/kg; 100 IU/kg). Samples were injected into the amniotic fluid of the fertile broiler eggs. Tissue samples were collected upon hatch to target biomarkers. ZLRL reduced ZIP4 gene expression and upregulated ZnT1 gene expression (p < 0.05). Duodenal surface area increased the greatest in RL compared to RN (p < 0.01), and ZLRL compared to ZNRN (p < 0.05). All nutrient treatments yielded shorter crypt depths (p < 0.01). Compared to the oil control, ZLRL and ZNRN reduced (p < 0.05) the cecal abundance of Bifidobacterium and Clostridium genera (p < 0.05). These results suggest a potentially improved intestinal epithelium proceeding with Zn and VA intra-amniotic administration. Intestinal functionality and gut bacteria were modulated. Further research should characterize long-term responses and the microbiome profile. Full article
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