Special Issue "Dietary Trace Minerals"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Elad Tako
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
USDA-ARS, Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture and Health, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Interests: dietary micronutrients; Fe and Zn deficiencies; anemia; Zn status biomarkers; bioactive compounds; prebiotics; microbiome; nutrigenomics; intestinal functionality and development; polyphenols; in vivo models of human nutrition
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Minerals that are required in small amounts for human health are known as trace minerals or trace elements. These include chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc.

Minerals form only five percent of the typical human diet but are essential for normal health and function. Macrominerals are defined as minerals that are required by adults in amounts greater than 100 mg/day or make up less than one percent of total body weight. Trace elements (or trace minerals) are usually defined as minerals that are required in amounts between 1–100 mg/day by adults or make up less than 0.01 percent of total body weight. Ultra-trace minerals generally are defined as minerals that are required in amounts less than 1 microgram/day.

Recommended intakes for trace elements are expressed as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) or Adequate Intake. The Upper Limit is the quantity of the nutrient considered to cause no adverse effects in healthy individuals. These parameters have been estimated for each trace mineral. Previous research demonstrated that: (1) Copper deficiency can be caused by an x-linked mutation of the transport protein mediating copper uptake from the intestine (Menkes disease). It can also be caused by malabsorption after gastrointestinal surgery (including gastric bypass for weight loss and gastric resection for malignancy or peptic ulcer disease), or by ingestion of high doses of zinc. Clinical manifestations include anemia, ataxia, and myeloneuropathy. (2) Iodine deficiency is characterized by goiter and hypothyroidism, which in turn has effects on growth, development, and cognitive function. (3) Selenium deficiency is unusual, but has been reported in parts of China where the local diet is devoid of selenium; the deficiency also occurs in individuals maintained on total parenteral nutrition without trace minerals. Clinical features of selenium deficiency are cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle dysfunction. (4) Zinc deficiency causes growth retardation in children, hypogonadism, oligospermia, alopecia, dysgeusia (impaired taste), immune dysfunction, night blindness, impaired wound healing, and skin lesions. Infants with an inherited defect in zinc absorption develop a severe deficiency state known as acrodermatitis enteropathica.

The purpose of the current Special Issue is to further expand and add research knowledge on the vital role that dietary trace minerals hold in various physiological and metabolic pathways. In addition, to add more knowledge in regards to the relationship between dietary trace minerals bioavailability, the microbiome and bioactive compounds.

Prof. Dr. Elad Tako
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Dietary requirements of trace minerals
  • Dietary Fe
  • Dietary Zn
  • Dietary Vit A
  • Dietary Deficiency of trace minerals
  • Physiological and metabolic pathways are affected by trace mineral deficiencies
  • Trace minerals and dietary bioavailability
  • Trace minerals and polyphenols
  • Trace minerals bioavailability and prebiotics
  • Trace minerals and microbiome

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Antimicrobial Properties of Magnesium Open Opportunities to Develop Healthier Food
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102363 - 03 Oct 2019
Abstract
Magnesium is a vital mineral that takes part in hundreds of enzymatic reactions in the human body. In the past several years, new information emerged in regard to the antibacterial effect of magnesium. Here we elaborate on the recent knowledge of its antibacterial [...] Read more.
Magnesium is a vital mineral that takes part in hundreds of enzymatic reactions in the human body. In the past several years, new information emerged in regard to the antibacterial effect of magnesium. Here we elaborate on the recent knowledge of its antibacterial effect with emphasis on its ability to impair bacterial adherence and formation complex community of bacterial cells called biofilm. We further talk about its ability to impair biofilm formation in milk that provides opportunity for developing safer and qualitative dairy products. Finally, we describe the pronounced advantages of enrichment of food with magnesium ions, which result in healthier and more efficient food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Crosstalk of Nrf2 with the Trace Elements Selenium, Iron, Zinc, and Copper
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092112 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
Trace elements, like Cu, Zn, Fe, or Se, are important for the proper functioning of antioxidant enzymes. However, in excessive amounts, they can also act as pro-oxidants. Accordingly, trace elements influence redox-modulated signaling pathways, such as the Nrf2 pathway. Vice versa, Nrf2 target [...] Read more.
Trace elements, like Cu, Zn, Fe, or Se, are important for the proper functioning of antioxidant enzymes. However, in excessive amounts, they can also act as pro-oxidants. Accordingly, trace elements influence redox-modulated signaling pathways, such as the Nrf2 pathway. Vice versa, Nrf2 target genes belong to the group of transport and metal binding proteins. In order to investigate whether Nrf2 directly regulates the systemic trace element status, we used mice to study the effect of a constitutive, whole-body Nrf2 knockout on the systemic status of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Se. As the loss of selenoproteins under Se-deprived conditions has been described to further enhance Nrf2 activity, we additionally analyzed the combination of Nrf2 knockout with feeding diets that provide either suboptimal, adequate, or supplemented amounts of Se. Experiments revealed that the Nrf2 knockout partially affected the trace element concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, or Se in the intestine, liver, and/or plasma. However, aside from Fe, the other three trace elements were only marginally modulated in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Selenium deficiency mainly resulted in increased plasma Zn levels. One putative mediator could be the metal regulatory transcription factor 1, which was up-regulated with an increasing Se supply and downregulated in Se-supplemented Nrf2 knockout mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
An In Vivo (Gallus gallus) Feeding Trial Demonstrating the Enhanced Iron Bioavailability Properties of the Fast Cooking Manteca Yellow Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081768 - 01 Aug 2019
Abstract
The common dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a globally produced pulse crop and an important source of micronutrients for millions of people across Latin America and Africa. Many of the preferred black and red seed types in these regions have seed [...] Read more.
The common dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a globally produced pulse crop and an important source of micronutrients for millions of people across Latin America and Africa. Many of the preferred black and red seed types in these regions have seed coat polyphenols that inhibit the absorption of iron. Yellow beans are distinct from other market classes because they accumulate the antioxidant kaempferol 3-glucoside in their seed coats. Due to their fast cooking tendencies, yellow beans are often marketed at premium prices in the same geographical regions where dietary iron deficiency is a major health concern. Hence, this study compared the iron bioavailability of three faster cooking yellow beans with contrasting seed coat colors from Africa (Manteca, Amarillo, and Njano) to slower cooking white and red kidney commercial varieties. Iron status and iron bioavailability was assessed by the capacity of a bean based diet to generate and maintain total body hemoglobin iron (Hb-Fe) during a 6 week in vivo (Gallus gallus) feeding trial. Over the course of the experiment, animals fed yellow bean diets had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher Hb-Fe than animals fed the white or red kidney bean diet. This study shows that the Manteca yellow bean possess a rare combination of biochemical traits that result in faster cooking times and improved iron bioavailability. The Manteca yellow bean is worthy of germplasm enhancement to address iron deficiency in regions where beans are consumed as a dietary staple. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Nicotianamine and 2′ Deoxymugineic Acid as Enhancers of Iron Bioavailability in Caco-2 Cells
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071502 - 30 Jun 2019
Abstract
Nicotianamine (NA) is a low-molecular weight metal chelator in plants with high affinity for ferrous iron (Fe2+) and other divalent metal cations. In graminaceous plant species, NA serves as the biosynthetic precursor to 2′ deoxymugineic acid (DMA), a root-secreted mugineic acid [...] Read more.
Nicotianamine (NA) is a low-molecular weight metal chelator in plants with high affinity for ferrous iron (Fe2+) and other divalent metal cations. In graminaceous plant species, NA serves as the biosynthetic precursor to 2′ deoxymugineic acid (DMA), a root-secreted mugineic acid family phytosiderophore that chelates ferric iron (Fe3+) in the rhizosphere for subsequent uptake by the plant. Previous studies have flagged NA and/or DMA as enhancers of Fe bioavailability in cereal grain although the extent of this promotion has not been quantified. In this study, we utilized the Caco-2 cell system to compare NA and DMA to two known enhancers of Fe bioavailability—epicatechin (Epi) and ascorbic acid (AsA)—and found that both NA and DMA are stronger enhancers of Fe bioavailability than Epi, and NA is a stronger enhancer of Fe bioavailability than AsA. Furthermore, NA reversed Fe uptake inhibition by Myricetin (Myr) more than Epi, highlighting NA as an important target for biofortification strategies aimed at improving Fe bioavailability in staple plant foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis and Phase Angle on Different Oral Zinc Supplementation in Eutrophic Children: Randomized Triple-Blind Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061215 - 28 May 2019
Abstract
The parameters derived from bioelectrical impedance, phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) have been associated with cell membrane integrity and body cell mass. Zinc is a micronutrient that exerts important structural functions and acts in maintaining cellular functionality. To evaluate [...] Read more.
The parameters derived from bioelectrical impedance, phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) have been associated with cell membrane integrity and body cell mass. Zinc is a micronutrient that exerts important structural functions and acts in maintaining cellular functionality. To evaluate cell integrity and body cell mass, PA and BIVA were evaluated in children orally supplemented with zinc at different concentrations. Anthropometric, bioelectrical (resistance and reactance) and serum zinc variables were collected from two randomized, triple-blind, controlled clinical trials. Sampling was composed of 71 children consisting of three groups: a control group who received a placebo and two experimental groups who received oral supplementation of 5 or 10 mg-Zn/day for three months. The three groups presented increases (p < 0.001) in the linear height and weight. In the group supplemented with 10 mg-Zn/day, there was an increase in reactance values (p = 0.036) and PA (p = 0.002), in addition to vector displacement (p < 0.001) in relation to the confidence ellipses. An increase in serum zinc concentration was found (p < 0.001) in all three groups. Whit this, the supplementation with 10 mg-Zn/day promotes changes in the integrity of the cell membrane associated with the increase in the cellular mass of healthy children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Silicon and Its Impact on Plasma Silicon Levels in the Polish Population
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050980 - 29 Apr 2019
Abstract
Silicon in nutritional amounts provides benefits for bone health and cognitive function. The relationship between silicon intake from a common daily diet and silicon blood level has been scarcely elucidated, so far. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between [...] Read more.
Silicon in nutritional amounts provides benefits for bone health and cognitive function. The relationship between silicon intake from a common daily diet and silicon blood level has been scarcely elucidated, so far. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between plasma silicon levels and the total and bioavailable silicon intake—along with the contribution of silicon made by food groups—in a healthy adult Polish population. Si intake was evaluated in 185 healthy adults (94 females and 91 males, aged 20–70) using a 3-day dietary recall and a database on the silicon content in foods, which was based on both previously published data and our own research. Fasting plasma silicon levels were measured in 126 consenting subjects, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The silicon intake in the Polish population differed significantly according to sex, amounting to 24.0 mg/day in women and 27.7 mg/day in men. The median plasma silicon level was 152.3 µg/L having no gender dependency but with a negative correlation with age. Significant correlations were found between plasma silicon level and total and bioavailable silicon intake, as well as water intake in the diet (r = 0.18, p = 0.044; r = 0.23, p = 0.011; r = 0.28, p = 0.002, respectively). Silicon intakes from non-alcoholic beverages, cereal foods, and carotene-rich vegetables were also positively associated with plasma silicon levels. These results may help establish dietary silicon recommendations and formulate practical advice on dietary choices to ensure an appropriate supply of silicon. The outcome of this study, however, needs to be confirmed by large-scale epidemiological investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
Open AccessArticle
Biotin Is Required for the Zinc Homeostasis in the Skin
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040919 - 24 Apr 2019
Abstract
Patients with biotin deficiency present symptoms that are similar to those in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica (inherent zinc deficiency). However, the association between biotin and zinc deficiency remains unknown. We have previously shown that epidermal keratinocytes of mice fed zinc-deficient (ZD) diets secreted [...] Read more.
Patients with biotin deficiency present symptoms that are similar to those in patients with acrodermatitis enteropathica (inherent zinc deficiency). However, the association between biotin and zinc deficiency remains unknown. We have previously shown that epidermal keratinocytes of mice fed zinc-deficient (ZD) diets secreted more adenosine triphosphate (ATP) than those of mice fed zinc-adequate (ZA) diets and that epidermal Langerhans cells are absent in ZD mice. Langerhans cells highly express CD39, which potently hydrolyzes ATP into adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Thus, a lack of Langerhans cells in ZD mice leads to non-hydrolysis of ATP, thereby leading to the development of ATP-mediated irritant contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined if biotin-deficient (BD) mice showed the same underlying mechanisms as those in ZD mice. BD mice showed reduced serum zinc levels, disappearance of epidermal Langerhans cells, and enhanced ATP production in the skin. Consequently, irritant contact dermatitis was significantly enhanced and prolonged in BD mice. In conclusion, the findings of our study showed that biotin deficiency leads to zinc deficiency because of which patients with biotin deficiency show similar symptoms as those with acrodermatitis enteropathica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
The Germ Fraction Inhibits Iron Bioavailability of Maize: Identification of an Approach to Enhance Maize Nutritional Quality via Processing and Breeding
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040833 - 12 Apr 2019
Abstract
Improving the nutritional quality of Fe in maize (Zea mays) represents a biofortification strategy to alleviate iron deficiency anemia. Therefore, the present study measured iron content and bioavailability via an established bioassay to characterize Fe quality in parts of the maize [...] Read more.
Improving the nutritional quality of Fe in maize (Zea mays) represents a biofortification strategy to alleviate iron deficiency anemia. Therefore, the present study measured iron content and bioavailability via an established bioassay to characterize Fe quality in parts of the maize kernel. Comparisons of six different varieties of maize demonstrated that the germ fraction is a strong inhibitory component of Fe bioavailability. The germ fraction can contain 27–54% of the total kernel Fe, which is poorly available. In the absence of the germ, Fe in the non-germ components can be highly bioavailable. More specifically, increasing Fe concentration in the non-germ fraction resulted in more bioavailable Fe. Comparison of wet-milled fractions of a commercial maize variety and degerminated corn meal products also demonstrated the inhibitory effect of the germ fraction on Fe bioavailability. When compared to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) containing approximately five times the concentration of Fe, degerminated maize provided more absorbable Fe, indicating substantially higher fractional bioavailability. Overall, the results indicate that degerminated maize may be a better source of Fe than whole maize and some other crops. Increased non-germ Fe density with a weaker inhibitory effect of the germ fraction are desirable qualities to identify and breed for in maize. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
A Randomized Feeding Trial of Iron-Biofortified Beans in School Children in Mexico
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020381 - 12 Feb 2019
Abstract
Iron deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide, with the highest burden among children. The objective of this randomized efficacy feeding trial was to determine the effects of consuming iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) on the iron status in children, compared to control beans [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide, with the highest burden among children. The objective of this randomized efficacy feeding trial was to determine the effects of consuming iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) on the iron status in children, compared to control beans (Control-Beans). A cluster-randomized trial of biofortified beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), bred to enhance iron content, was conducted over 6 months. The participants were school-aged children (n = 574; 5–12 years), attending 20 rural public boarding schools in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. Double-blind randomization was conducted at the school level; 20 schools were randomized to receive either Fe-Beans (n = 10 schools, n = 304 students) or Control-Beans (n = 10 schools, n = 366 students). School administrators, children, and research and laboratory staff were blinded to the intervention group. Iron status (hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), total body iron (TBI), inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)), and anthropometric indices for individuals were evaluated at the enrollment and at the end of the trial. The hemoglobin concentrations were adjusted for altitude, and anemia was defined in accordance with age-specific World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (i.e., Hb <115 g/L for <12 years and Hb <120 g/L for ≥12 years). Serum ferritin concentrations were adjusted for inflammation using BRINDA methods, and iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin at less than 15.0 µg/L. Total body iron was calculated using Cook’s equation. Mixed models were used to examine the effects of Fe-Beans on hematological outcomes, compared to Control-Beans, adjusting for the baseline indicator, with school as a random effect. An analysis was conducted in 10 schools (n = 269 students) in the Fe-Beans group and in 10 schools (n = 305 students) in the Control-Beans group that completed the follow-up. At baseline, 17.8% of the children were anemic and 11.3% were iron deficient (15.9%, BRINDA-adjusted). A total of 6.3% of children had elevated CRP (>5.0 mg/L), and 11.6% had elevated AGP (>1.0 g/L) concentrations at baseline. During the 104 days when feeding was monitored, the total mean individual iron intake from the study beans (Fe-bean group) was 504 mg (IQR: 352, 616) over 68 mean feeding days, and 295 mg (IQR: 197, 341) over 67 mean feeding days in the control group (p < 0.01). During the cluster-randomized efficacy trial, indicators of iron status, including hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and total body iron concentrations improved from the baseline to endline (6 months) in both the intervention and control groups. However, Fe-Beans did not significantly improve the iron status indicators, compared to Control-Beans. Similarly, there were no significant effects of Fe-Beans on dichotomous outcomes, including anemia and iron deficiency, compared to Control-Beans. In this 6-month cluster-randomized efficacy trial of iron-biofortified beans in school children in Mexico, indicators of iron status improved in both the intervention and control groups. However, there were no significant effects of Fe-Beans on iron biomarkers, compared to Control-Beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03835377. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Iron Biofortified Carioca Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)—Based Brazilian Diet Delivers More Absorbable Iron and Affects the Gut Microbiota In Vivo (Gallus gallus)
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121970 - 13 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Biofortification aims to improve the micronutrient concentration and bioavailability in staple food crops. Unlike other strategies utilized to alleviate Fe deficiency, studies of the gut microbiota in the context of Fe biofortification are scarce. In this study, we performed a 6-week feeding trial [...] Read more.
Biofortification aims to improve the micronutrient concentration and bioavailability in staple food crops. Unlike other strategies utilized to alleviate Fe deficiency, studies of the gut microbiota in the context of Fe biofortification are scarce. In this study, we performed a 6-week feeding trial in Gallus gallus (n = 15), aimed to investigate the Fe status and the alterations in the gut microbiome following the administration of Fe-biofortified carioca bean based diet (BC) versus a Fe-standard carioca bean based diet (SC). The tested diets were designed based on the Brazilian food consumption survey. Two primary outcomes were observed: (1) a significant increase in total body Hb-Fe values in the group receiving the Fe-biofortified carioca bean based diet; and (2) changes in the gut microbiome composition and function were observed, specifically, significant changes in phylogenetic diversity between treatment groups, as there was increased abundance of bacteria linked to phenolic catabolism, and increased abundance of beneficial SCFA-producing bacteria in the BC group. The BC group also presented a higher intestinal villi height compared to the SC group. Our results demonstrate that the Fe-biofortified carioca bean variety was able to moderately improve Fe status and to positively affect the intestinal functionality and bacterial populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Supplementation Modestly Reduces Serum Iron Indices of Healthy Arab Adolescents
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121870 - 02 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to affect iron status via decreased calcitriol production, translating to decreased erythropoiesis. The present study aimed to determine for the first time whether vitamin D supplementation can affect iron levels among Arab adolescents. A total of 125 [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to affect iron status via decreased calcitriol production, translating to decreased erythropoiesis. The present study aimed to determine for the first time whether vitamin D supplementation can affect iron levels among Arab adolescents. A total of 125 out of the initial 200 Saudi adolescents with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) were selected from the Vitamin D-School Project of King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Cluster randomization was done in schools, and students received either vitamin D tablets (1000 IU/day) (N = 53, mean age 14.1 ± 1.0 years) or vitamin D-fortified milk (40IU/200mL) (N = 72, mean age 14.8 ± 1.4 years). Both groups received nutritional counseling. Anthropometrics, glucose, lipids, iron indices, and 25(OH)D were measured at baseline and after six months. Within group analysis showed that post-intervention, serum 25(OH)D significantly increased by as much as 50%, and a parallel decrease of −42% (p-values <0.001 and 0.002, respectively) was observed in serum iron in the tablet group. These changes were not observed in the control group. Between-group analysis showed a clinically significant increase in serum 25(OH)D (p = 0.001) and decrease in iron (p < 0.001) in the tablet group. The present findings suggest a possible inhibitory role of vitamin D supplementation in the iron indices of healthy adolescents whose 25(OH)D levels are sub-optimal but not severely deficient, implying that the causal relationship between both micronutrients may be dependent on the severity of deficiency, type of iron disorder, and other vascular conditions that are known to affect hematologic indices. Well-designed, randomized trials are needed to confirm the present findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Silver Ions as a Tool for Understanding Different Aspects of Copper Metabolism
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061364 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In humans, copper is an important micronutrient because it is a cofactor of ubiquitous and brain-specific cuproenzymes, as well as a secondary messenger. Failure of the mechanisms supporting copper balance leads to the development of neurodegenerative, oncological, and other severe disorders, whose treatment [...] Read more.
In humans, copper is an important micronutrient because it is a cofactor of ubiquitous and brain-specific cuproenzymes, as well as a secondary messenger. Failure of the mechanisms supporting copper balance leads to the development of neurodegenerative, oncological, and other severe disorders, whose treatment requires a detailed understanding of copper metabolism. In the body, bioavailable copper exists in two stable oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II), both of which are highly toxic. The toxicity of copper ions is usually overcome by coordinating them with a wide range of ligands. These include the active cuproenzyme centers, copper-binding protein motifs to ensure the safe delivery of copper to its physiological location, and participants in the Cu(I) ↔ Cu(II) redox cycle, in which cellular copper is stored. The use of modern experimental approaches has allowed the overall picture of copper turnover in the cells and the organism to be clarified. However, many aspects of this process remain poorly understood. Some of them can be found out using abiogenic silver ions (Ag(I)), which are isoelectronic to Cu(I). This review covers the physicochemical principles of the ability of Ag(I) to substitute for copper ions in transport proteins and cuproenzyme active sites, the effectiveness of using Ag(I) to study copper routes in the cells and the body, and the limitations associated with Ag(I) remaining stable in only one oxidation state. The use of Ag(I) to restrict copper transport to tumors and the consequences of large-scale use of silver nanoparticles for human health are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary and Sentinel Factors Leading to Hemochromatosis
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051047 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
Although hereditary hemochromatosis is associated with the mutation of genes involved in iron transport and metabolism, secondary hemochromatosis is due to external factors, such as intended or unintended iron overload, hemolysis-linked iron exposure or other stress-impaired iron metabolism. The present review addresses diet-linked [...] Read more.
Although hereditary hemochromatosis is associated with the mutation of genes involved in iron transport and metabolism, secondary hemochromatosis is due to external factors, such as intended or unintended iron overload, hemolysis-linked iron exposure or other stress-impaired iron metabolism. The present review addresses diet-linked etiologies of hemochromatosis and their pathogenesis in the network of genes and nutrients. Although the mechanistic association to diet-linked etiologies can be complicated, the stress sentinels are pivotally involved in the pathological processes of secondary hemochromatosis in response to iron excess and other external stresses. Moreover, the mutations in these sentineling pathway-linked genes increase susceptibility to secondary hemochromatosis. Thus, the crosstalk between nutrients and genes would verify the complex procedures in the clinical outcomes of secondary hemochromatosis and chronic complications, such as malignancy. All of this evidence provides crucial insights into comprehensive clinical or nutritional interventions for hemochromatosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Trace Minerals)
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