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Open AccessArticle

Diet, Perceived Intestinal Well-Being and Compositions of Fecal Microbiota and Short Chain Fatty Acids in Oat-Using Subjects with Celiac Disease or Gluten Sensitivity

1
Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
2
Department of Future Technologies, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
3
Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
4
Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku, 20500 Turku, Finland
5
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, 20521 Turku, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092570
Received: 12 August 2020 / Revised: 19 August 2020 / Accepted: 20 August 2020 / Published: 25 August 2020
A gluten-free diet may result in high fat and low fiber intake and thus lead to unbalanced microbiota. This study characterized fecal microbiota profiles by 16S MiSeq sequencing among oat-using healthy adult subjects (n = 14) or adult subjects with celiac disease (CeD) (n = 19) or non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) (n = 10). Selected microbial metabolites, self-reported 4d food diaries and perceived gut symptoms were compared. Subjects with NCGS experienced the highest amount of gut symptoms and received more energy from fat and less from carbohydrates than healthy and CeD subjects. Oat consumption resulted in reaching the lower limit of the recommended fiber intake. Frequent consumption of gluten-free pure oats did not result in microbiota dysbiosis in subjects with CeD or NCGS. Thus, the high number of gut symptoms in NCGS subjects was not linked to the microbiota. The proportion of fecal acetate was higher in healthy when compared to NCGS subjects, which may be linked to a higher abundance of Bifidobacterium in the control group compared to NCGS and CeD subjects. Propionate, butyrate and ammonia production and β-glucuronidase activity were comparable among the study groups. The results suggest that pure oats have great potential as the basis of a gluten-free diet and warrant further studies in minor microbiota disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: oats; celiac disease; non-celiac gluten sensitivity; intestinal microbiota; gluten-free; SCFAs oats; celiac disease; non-celiac gluten sensitivity; intestinal microbiota; gluten-free; SCFAs
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Nylund, L.; Hakkola, S.; Lahti, L.; Salminen, S.; Kalliomäki, M.; Yang, B.; Linderborg, K.M. Diet, Perceived Intestinal Well-Being and Compositions of Fecal Microbiota and Short Chain Fatty Acids in Oat-Using Subjects with Celiac Disease or Gluten Sensitivity. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2570.

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