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Article

Antimicrobial Effects of Inula viscosa Extract on the In Situ Initial Oral Biofilm

1
Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center, University of Freiburg, 79085 Freiburg, Germany
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Clinic of Conservative and Preventive Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
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Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 157 72 Athens, Greece
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Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79085 Freiburg, Germany
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Institute for Medical Biometry and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center, University of Freiburg, 79085 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: LaVerne L. Brown and Maria Luz Fernandez
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4029; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114029
Received: 8 September 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 November 2021 / Published: 11 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
Given the undesirable side effects of commercially used mouth rinses that include chemically synthesized antimicrobial compounds such as chlorhexidine, it is essential to discover novel antimicrobial substances based on plant extracts. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial effect of Inula viscosa extract on the initial microbial adhesion in the oral cavity. Individual test splints were manufactured for the participants, on which disinfected bovine enamel samples were attached. After the initial microbial adhesion, the biofilm-covered oral samples were removed and treated with different concentrations (10, 20, and 30 mg/mL) of an I. viscosa extract for 10 min. Positive and negative controls were also sampled. Regarding the microbiological parameters, the colony-forming units (CFU) and vitality testing (live/dead staining) were examined in combination with fluorescence microscopy. An I. viscosa extract with a concentration of 30 mg/mL killed the bacteria of the initial adhesion at a rate of 99.99% (log10 CFU value of 1.837 ± 1.54). Compared to the negative control, no killing effects were determined after treatment with I. viscosa extract at concentrations of 10 mg/mL (log10 CFU value 3.776 ± 0.831; median 3.776) and 20 mg/mL (log10 CFU value 3.725 ± 0.300; median 3.711). The live/dead staining revealed a significant reduction (p < 0.0001) of vital adherent bacteria after treatment with 10 mg/mL of I. viscosa extract. After treatment with an I. viscosa extract with a concentration of 30 mg/mL, no vital bacteria could be detected. For the first time, significant antimicrobial effects on the initial microbial adhesion in in situ oral biofilms were reported for an I. viscosa extract. View Full-Text
Keywords: Inula viscosa; initial adhesion; colony-forming units (CFU); live/dead staining; fluorescence microscopy Inula viscosa; initial adhesion; colony-forming units (CFU); live/dead staining; fluorescence microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kurz, H.; Karygianni, L.; Argyropoulou, A.; Hellwig, E.; Skaltsounis, A.L.; Wittmer, A.; Vach, K.; Al-Ahmad, A. Antimicrobial Effects of Inula viscosa Extract on the In Situ Initial Oral Biofilm. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4029. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114029

AMA Style

Kurz H, Karygianni L, Argyropoulou A, Hellwig E, Skaltsounis AL, Wittmer A, Vach K, Al-Ahmad A. Antimicrobial Effects of Inula viscosa Extract on the In Situ Initial Oral Biofilm. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):4029. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114029

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kurz, Hannah, Lamprini Karygianni, Aikaterini Argyropoulou, Elmar Hellwig, Alexios L. Skaltsounis, Annette Wittmer, Kirstin Vach, and Ali Al-Ahmad. 2021. "Antimicrobial Effects of Inula viscosa Extract on the In Situ Initial Oral Biofilm" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 4029. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114029

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